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This is a perfect partnership for the introduction of the SMI technology into the electronic assembly inspection market, bringing to bear our partner's world-class equipment design expertise, vast global sales and service organization and broad customer base,” Christenson added.

FTS-122-01-SM-DV_Datasheet PDF

This is a perfect partnership for the introduction of the SMI technology into the electronic assembly inspection market, bringing to bear our partner's world-class equipment design expertise, vast global sales and service organization and broad customer base,” Christenson added.

Narrowband systems, such as the FSK used in power-line communications, quickly run into multipath problems as the data rate increases. For example, a 10-Mbit/s BPSK symbol is only 100 ns wide. With 1 microseconds of delay spread typical on the power line, up to 10 previous symbols could be interfering with the symbol being received. If, on the other hand, the symbol that the receiver is demodulating is much longer than the delayed paths, the symbol is correctly received. OFDM employs that approach in combating multipath. An equivalent 10-Mbit/s OFDM symbol with 100 subcarriers is 10 microseconds wide, which, with an appropriate guard band and cyclic prefix, can easily overcome even above-average delay spread.

A second advantage of OFDM in the power-line environment is the ability to allocate tone (turn on and off subcarriers) so that data is transmitted only in the transfer-function spectrum that can sustain a bit error rate (BER) appropriate for the application. During link establishment all carriers are transmitted, so that the transmitter and receiver can agree to the tone-allocation map for the link. No data is modulated onto subcarriers for the tones that do not meet the SNR threshold. Tone is allocated to match the transmitted spectrum to the amplitude of the transfer function. That principle is equally useful for avoiding in-band continuous wave jammers.

FTS-122-01-SM-DV_Datasheet PDF

A real example of that kind of interference is the coupling of amateur radio signals to the power line. Those narrowband jammers can have substantially greater amplitude than the OFDM information signal. The subcarrier overlapped by the jammer is simply turned off to improve BER. Data rate can be optimally adapted to the communications channel because OFDM has a built-in spectrum analyzer in the way modulation is performed.

Meanwhile, tone allocation provides an important regulatory benefit. Frequencies can be masked off to meet current and future international regulations for power-line communication systems. That feature allows a common chip set to be used globally, where a software selection is made for country-specific compliance.

Demonstrated for the first time at the Embedded Systems Conference last week in San Jose, Calif., the PC-in-the-Loop environment from Mathworks Inc. (Natick, Mass.) allows control and DSP engineers to perform rapid prototyping and system-level testing of real-time embedded systems on a PC before target hardware is available.

FTS-122-01-SM-DV_Datasheet PDF

Mathworks developed the tool suite with designers in industries such as aerospace, automotive, communications and industrial automation in mind, said Nick Drohan, embedded-systems program manager. PC-in-the-Loop allows software engineering and testing to continue in parallel to hardware design, accelerating the design process and harnessing the powerful capabilities of hardware-in-the-loop simulation,” he said. Designers can automatically generate and download an application to a multitasking real-time PC target.”

The idea, said Drohan, is to create an environment where engineers can test iterations, fine-tune parameters and make changes on the fly, all while a system is running in real-time and as they wait for target hardware to be developed. The PC-in-the-Loop combines the design and analysis environment of the company's Matlab with the modeling and simulation capabilities of Simulink and the automatic code generation of Real-Time Workshop.

FTS-122-01-SM-DV_Datasheet PDF

With the tool suite's xPC Target option, engineers can dedicate a second, connected PC as a hardware-in-the-loop rapid-prototyping target, linking the development environment via a serial or Ethernet connection. Fully integrated with Real-Time Workshop, xPC Target's real-time multitasking kernel allows true, real-time execution of code on a PC, the company said.

Users can develop models and control the physical target system,” said Drohan. They also can trace signals on the host PC, target PC or both, and interactively modify parameters and tune designs on the fly in real-time with the familiar Simulink user interface.” The xPC Target interfaces with many industry-standard I/O boards, including those from Computer Boards, Keithley and National Instruments.

Those customers that Altera had that we didn't represent a customer base we can now engage with, first in this product area, then later, present opportunities in terms of their next-generation of PLDs,” McCranie said.

For Altera, the MAX 5000 divestiture represented a smooth transition out of an older product family. Cypress is already an alternative source for this PLD family, and will continue to supply these devices to our longstanding valued MAX 5000 customers,” said Don Faria, vice president of customer marketing for Altera (San Jose).

Cypress and Altera have shared the MAX 5000 product line — which Cypress markets under the name MAX340 — since 1988. Since then, Cypress' share of the $35 million market has grown to roughly two-thirds, McCranie said.

The low-cost devices, which range in density from 32 to 192 macrocells with from 28 to 100 pins, were originally designed as a transitional family from simple PLDs to complex PLDs. However, many of the devices are used in industrial and military applications, which typically have long life cycles, according to Cypress.

Since all the MAX 5000 devices are currently manufactured at Cypress' Fab II, the companies anticipate no snags in shifting Altera customers to Cypress. However, distribution customers used to buying parts from Wyle Electronics will now be directed to one of Cypress' distributors, which include Arrow Electronics, Bell Microproducts, Future Electronics, Marshall Industries and Unique Technologies.

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