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In this still-young phase, biotech needs to be science-driven, focused on making and testing fresh theories rather than using computers to catalog data — the focus of many current bioinformatics companies, said Martin Gerstel, chairman of biotech firm Compugen Ltd. (Tel Aviv, Israel).

HMTSW-210-12-G-Q-100-LA_Datasheet PDF

In this still-young phase, biotech needs to be science-driven, focused on making and testing fresh theories rather than using computers to catalog data — the focus of many current bioinformatics companies, said Martin Gerstel, chairman of biotech firm Compugen Ltd. (Tel Aviv, Israel).

The sunspot cluster that generated the most recent flare is about 10 times larger than the Earth, according to the Center.

NOAA officials said the latest solar eruption may herald the beginning of increased solar flare activity, which it said is unusual since the Sun is three-and-a-half years past solar maximum.

HMTSW-210-12-G-Q-100-LA_Datasheet PDF

The latest solar flare is also prompting Congress to hold hearings on the future of space weather prediction. Some lawmakers are worried that the Space Environment Center will be eliminated due to budget cuts. The House Science Committee has scheduled a hearing for Oct. 30.

Integration of MEMS with ICs was from the very beginning one of the major attractions of the silicon micromachining technology. Practical implementation of this integration was not easy. While the first integrated pressure sensors reached market in 1960s, many first MEMS-IC integration efforts failed, yielding the first integrated pressure sensors in 1980s.

The 1990s brought multiple product launches of integrated MEMS-IC devices, such as acceleration sensors, ink jet print heads and display chips. In the current decade, integrated gyro sensors entered the market. All these efforts focused on integrating MEMS processes and IC processes on the same wafer. Due to incompatibilities, development cycles were long and expensive.

HMTSW-210-12-G-Q-100-LA_Datasheet PDF

During the optical bubble”, a period of very active optical networking technology funding by Venture Capital, major progress in MEMS-IC integration was made. A novel approach of vertical integration of MEMS and IC wafers was introduced, dramatically simplifying the integration of 3D mirror arrays with VLSI electronics for photonic switches. This approach allowed for independent processing of MEMS and IC wafers, integrating them at the end of the process.

Furthermore, the mirror position sensing technology has demonstrated that 16-bit performance with 10 kHz repetition rate could be achieved for small 2 pF sensing capacitors integrated with VLSI electronics in a chip size just a fraction of a square millimeter small.

HMTSW-210-12-G-Q-100-LA_Datasheet PDF

Both these technologies have direct applicability to a new generation of sensors. While so far only two product families, pressure and gyro sensors, are under development utilizing this optical bubble learning curve, it is expected that more advanced MEMS products will start benefiting from these technologies in the near future.

Early Integration Efforts

Symphony Digital Radio technology, usable anywhere in the radio spectrum, is being applied initially in radio receivers tuning analog AM and FM signals. Impressed by the superior audio quality in tests against high-end analog sound systems, several consumer electronics manufacturers plan to introduce radios based on Symphony Digital Radio in 2003.

Digital radio is a nascent and growing market. Today, there are an estimated 800 million analog radios in cars and alarm clocks, boom boxes and PCs throughout the United States. Two types of digital radio, satellite and land-based, have focused on transmitting digital formatted signals to radios equipped with digital receivers. Symphony Digital Radio allows listeners to listen to the stations broadcasting today, without changes at the transmitter. Overall, Allied Business Intelligence predicts that shipments of digital radio receivers in the United States will increase from 650,000 units in 2002 to more than 33 million units in 2007.

The Magic is DSP

The key to Symphony Digital Radio's performance leap is through frequency tuning: by software instead of the traditional analog means. Designed from the 24-bit DSP Symphony Digital Audio architecture, Symphony Digital Radio uses software algorithms to tune, filter and improve the signal using methods that are impossible to implement via traditional analog circuits. One can simply download new software to incorporate new radio features and improvements.

Benefits Include:

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