Tkool Electronics

This post describes 2N3904 transistor information about pinout.

SL44-E3/57T-VISHAY

This post describes 2N3904 transistor information about pinout.

DS1307isalow-powerFullBinary(BCD)RealTimeClock(RTC)ICwith56bytesofSVRAMthatcommunicatesviaI2CProtocol.ThisblogprovidesyouadetailedintroductiontoDS1307RTC,includingitspinout,application,howdoesitworkinacircuit,whatsitsdifferencebetweenDS3231andmore,hopethisbloghelpsandthankyouforreading!ThisisatutorialvideoteachingpeoplehowtoconnectDS1307withArduino.CatalogDS1307DescriptionDS1307PinoutDS1307FeaturesDS1307ParameterWhatisI2CProtocolDS1307WorkingPrincipleHowtoUseDS1307DS1307vsDS3231DS1307ApplicationDS1307ManufacturerDS1307PackageComponentDatasheetFAQDS1307DescriptionTheDS1307serialreal-timeclock(RTC)isalow-power,fullbinarycodeddecimal(BCD)clock/calendarplus56bytesofNVSRAM.AddressanddataaretransferredseriallythroughanI2C,bidirectionalbus.Theclock/calendarprovidesseconds,minutes,hours,day,date,month,andyearinformation.Theendofthemonthdateisautomaticallyadjustedformonthswithfewerthan31days,includingcorrectionsforleapyear.Theclockoperatesineitherthe24-houror12-hourformatwithAM/PMindicator.TheDS1307hasabuilt-inpower-sensecircuitthatdetectspowerfailuresandautomaticallyswitchestothebackupsupply.Timekeepingoperationcontinueswhilethepartoperatesfromthebackupsupply.TheDS1307canoperateinthefollowingtwomodes:SlaveReceiverMode(WriteMode):SerialdataandclockarereceivedthroughSDAandSCL.SlaveTransmitterMode(ReadMode):Thefirstbyteisreceivedandhandledasintheslavereceivermode.However,inthismode,thedirectionbitwillindicatethatthetransferdirectionisreversed.DS1307PinoutDS1307RTCDS1307RTCPinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1,2X1,X2CrystalOscillatorshouldbeconnectedtothesepins3V-BatConnectedtoPositiveterminalofthebattery4GroundGroundpinoftheIC5,6SCLandSDAPinsforI2CcommunicationwithCPU7SQW/OutSquarewaveoutputdriverpintoobtainsquarewavefrequencies.8VccPowerstheICtypically5VDS1307FeaturesI2CInterfaceRTCICOperatingVoltage:5VLessthan500nAcurrentwhenoperatingwithbattery56bytesSVRAMOperatesinpowerorbatterymodeProgrammablesquarewaveoutputpinAvailableinPDIPandSOpackageDS1307ParameterType:Clock/CalendarFeatures:LeapYearNVSRAMSquareWaveOutputBaseProductNumber:DS1307Interface:IC2-WireSerialMemorySize:56BTimeFormat:HHDateFormat:YY-MM-DD-ddVoltage-SupplyBattery:2V~3.5VCurrent-Timekeeping(Max):200A@5VWhatisI2CProtocolI2Cisaserialprotocolthattransfersdatabitbybit.I2CcombinesthebestcharacteristicsofSPIandUART.Wecancontrolmanyslavedevicesbyusingitwithasinglemicrocontroller.DataistransferredintheformofmessagesinI2C,andthemessagesarethenconvertedintodata.Eachmessagecontainsanaddressframecontainingabinaryaddressofthedevicesundercontrol.TheI2CprotocolislessexpensivetoimplementthantheSPIprotocol.SPIcontrolsasingleslavedevice,whereasI2Ccontrolsmultipledevices.LetstakealookattheI2Cprotocoldiagramforabetterunderstanding.DS1307WorkingPrincipleLetslookatacircuitthatusestheDS1307togetabetterunderstandingofhowitworks.Inthissimplecircuit,weconnectthechipsfirsttwopins,X1andX2,toa32.768kHzcrystaloscillatorasthesource.Thethirdpinislinkedtoa3Vbattery.Weprovidea5vsupplyatVcc,whichcanbeprovidedbyamicrocontroller.IfVccisnotsupplied,thereadandwriteconditionsaredisabled.WhenusingtheI2cprotocol,adevicemusthavestartandstopconditionsinordertocommunicatewithotherdevices.Weprovideaspecificidentificationandaddressregistertoadeviceinordertoobtainthestartcondition.Forabetterunderstandingofstopandstartconditionletshavealookatclockfigure.HowtoUseDS1307TheDS1307isan8-pinICthatrunson5VandcommunicateswiththeCPUviatheI2Cprotocol.AtypicalapplicationcircuitfortheDS1307isshownbelow,takenfromtheDS1307datasheet.Asyoucansee,theIChasSCL(SerialClock)andSDA(SerialData)pinsthatitusestocommunicatewiththeCPU;bothofthesepinsmustbepulledhighusingaresistor.TheICcanbepoweredbyapplying5VtotheVccpin;ifthepowerfails,itwillautomaticallyswitchtobatterymode,obtainingpowerfromaLithiumcellconnectedtopinVbatandground.PinsX1andX2areusedtoconnectthecrystaloscillator,whichistypicallya32.7KHzQuartzcrystal.TheSQWpingeneratesaPWMsquarewavewithprogrammablefrequenciesof1Hz,4KHz,8KHz,or32KHz.Thispinalsonecessitatestheuseofapull-upresistor.OnlytheI2CprotocolisusedtoexchangedatabetweentheCPUandtheRTCIC.Thiscommunicationfacilitatesbothreadingandwriting.TheICcanprovideinformationsuchasaReal-TimeClockthatcountsseconds,minutes,hours,thedateofthemonth,themonth,thedayoftheweek,andtheyear,withLeap-YearCompensationValidUpto2100.DS1307vsDS3231DS3231TheDS3231isalsoalow-cost,extremelyaccurateI2Creal-timeclock(RTC).ButitisaRTCwithanintegratedtemperature-compensatedcrystaloscillator(TCXO)andcrystal.Thedeviceincorporatesabatteryinput,andmaintainsaccu-ratetimekeepingwhenmainpowertothedeviceisinter-rupted.ThemaindistinctionbetweentheDS3231andtheDS1370istheaccuracyoftime-keeping.TheDS1307includesanexternal32kHzcrystalfortimekeeping,thefrequencyofwhichiseasilyaffectedbyexternaltemperature.Asaresult,theclockisusuallyoffbyaboutfiveorsominutespermonth.TheDS3231,ontheotherhand,ismuchmoreaccuratebecauseitincludesaninternalTemperatureCompensatedCrystalOscillator(TCXO)thatisunaffectedbytemperature,allowingittobeaccuratetoafewminutesperyearatmost.DS1307isstillagreatvalueRTCthatwillserveyouwell,butDS3231isrecommendedforprojectsthatrequiremoreaccuratetime-keeping.DS1307ApplicationRoboticsGamingServersComputerPeripheralsGPSUtilitypowermetersDS1307ManufacturerMaximIntegrateddevelopsinnovativeanalogandmixed-signalproductsandtechnologiestomakesystemssmallerandsmarter,withenhancedsecurityandincreasedenergyefficiency.Weareempoweringdesigninnovationforourautomotive,industrial,healthcare,mobileconsumer,andclouddatacentercustomerstodeliverindustry-leadingsolutionsthathelpchangetheworld.DS1307PackageComponentDatasheetDS1307RTCDatasheetFAQWhatisDS1307?TheDS1307isalowpowerFullBinary(BCD)RealTimeClock(RTC)ICwith56bytesofSVRAMthatcommunicatesthroughI2CProtocol.TheICcanworkfromdirectlysupplyonVccandswitchtoBatteryautomaticallywhenrequired.HowdoIknowifDS1307isworking?IfyouhadaMasterI2C/SMBusEnginetoolbuiltup,youcouldconnectjustitandtheDS1307together(withpull-upsandotheressentialsofcourse)andquicklyseeifyoucancommunicatewiththeDS1307inafewminutes.Ifyoucan,thenyouknowthatyourDS1307isworkinganditcouldbeyourCcode.HowdoIresetmyRTCDS1307?Sotostart,removethebatteryfromtheholderwhiletheArduinoisnotpoweredorpluggedintoUSB.Wait3secondsandthenreplacethebattery.ThisresetstheRTCchip.WhyRTCisused?Areal-timeclock(RTC)isanelectronicdevice(mostoftenintheformofanintegratedcircuit)thatmeasuresthepassageoftime.Althoughthetermoftenreferstothedevicesinpersonalcomputers,serversandembeddedsystems,RTCsarepresentinalmostanyelectronicdevicewhichneedstokeepaccuratetime.LM35isatypeofcommonlyusedtemperaturesensor,thatcanbeusedtomeasuretemperaturewithanelectricaloutputcomparativetothetemperaturein(C).Itcanmeasuretemperatureinabetterwaythanthermistor.HowtointerfaceLM35TemperatureSensorwithArduinodemonstration.CatalogLM35OverviewLM35PinoutLM35FunctionalBlockDiagramLM35FeaturesLM35ParametersLM35EquivalentsLM35WorkingPrincipleHowtouseLM35TemperatureSensorLM35ApplicationsLM35PackageComponentDatasheetFAQLM35OverviewLM35isacommonlyusedtemperaturesensorthatshowsvaluesintheformofoutputvoltagesinsteadofdegreesCelsius,itshowshighvoltagevaluesthanthermocouplesandmaynotrequiretheoutputvoltagetobeamplified.TheoutputvoltageofLM35isproportionaltothetemperatureofCelsius.Thescalefactoris0.01V/C.OneofthemostimportantcharacteristicsofLM35isthatitdrawsonly60microampsfromitssupplyandhasalowself-heatingcapacity.LM35temperaturesensoravailableinavarietyofpackages,suchasT0-46metaltransistor-likepackage,TO-92plastictransistor-likepackage,8-leadsurfacemountedSO-8smalloutlinepackage.LM35PinoutLM35TemperatureSensorLM35PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1VccInputvoltageis+5Vfortypicalapplications2AnalogOutTherewillbeincreasein10mVforraiseofevery1C.Canrangefrom-1V(-55C)to6V(150C)3GroundConnectedtogroundofcircuitLM35FunctionalBlockDiagramLM35FunctionalBlockDiagramLM35FeaturesMinimumandMaximumInputVoltageis35Vand-2Vrespectively.Typically5V.Canmeasuretemperaturerangingfrom-55Cto150COutputvoltageisdirectlyproportional(Linear)totemperature(i.e.)therewillbeariseof10mV(0.01V)forevery1Criseintemperature.0.5CAccuracyDraincurrentislessthan60uALowcosttemperaturesensorSmallandhencesuitableforremoteapplicationsAvailableinTO-92,TO-220,TO-CANandSOICpackageLM35ParametersParameterConditionsValueUnitAccuracyLM35,LM35CTA=+25˚C0.4˚CAccuracy,LM35DTA=+25˚C0.6˚CNonlinearityTMINTATMAX0.3˚CSensorGainTMINTATMAX+10.0mV/˚CLoadRegulationTA=+25˚C0.4mV/mALineRegulationTA=+25˚C0.01mV/VQuiescentCurrentVS=+5V,+25˚C56AChangeofQuiescentCurrent4VVS30V0.2ATemperatureCoefficientofQuiescentCurrent-+0.39A/˚CLongTermStabilityTJ=TMAX,for1000hours0.080.08˚CLM35EquivalentsLM35TemperatureSensorEquivalent:LM34,DS18B20,DS1620,LM94022LM35WorkingPrincipleTounderstandtheoperationoftheLM35temperaturesensor,wemustfirstunderstandthelinearscalefactor.ItisstatedintheLM35specificationstobe+10millivoltsperdegreecentigrade.Itmeansthatforevery10millivoltincreaseinoutputfromthesensorvoutpin,thetemperaturevalueincreasesbyone.Forexample,ifthesensoroutputs100millivoltsatthevoutpin,thetemperatureindegreesCelsiuswillbe10degreesCelsius.Thenegativetemperaturereadingisthesame.Thetemperaturewillbe-10degreesCelsiusifthesensoroutputs-100millivolts.LM35scalefactorHowtouseLM35TemperatureSensorLM35isanIntegratedCircuitTemperatureSensorwhoseoutputvoltagevariesdependingonthetemperaturearoundit.ItisasmallandcheapICthatcanbeusedtomeasuretemperaturesanywherefrom-55Cto150C.ItcanbeeasilyinterfacedwithanyMicrocontrollerthathasADCfunctionoranydevelopmentplatformlikeArduino.PowertheICbyapplyingaregulatedvoltagelike+5V(VS)totheinputpinandconnectingthegroundpintothegroundofthecircuit.Now,youcanmeasurethetemperatureintheformofavoltageasshownbelow.LM35temperaturemeasurementinformofvoltageIfthetemperatureis0C,theoutputvoltagewillalsobe0V.Therewillbeanincreaseof0.01V(10mV)foreachdegreeoftemperatureincrease.Thevoltagecanbeconvertedtotemperatureusingtheformulasbelow.LM35ApplicationsMeasuringtemperatureofaparticularenvironmentProvidingthermalshutdownforacircuit/componentMonitoringBatteryTemperatureMeasuringTemperaturesforHVACapplications.LM35PackageConponentDatasheetLM35TemperatureSensorDatasheetFAQWhatisLM35?TheLM35seriesareprecisionintegrated-circuittemperaturedeviceswithanoutputvoltagelinearly-proportionaltotheCentigradetemperature....Thelow-outputimpedance,linearoutput,andpreciseinherentcalibrationoftheLM35devicemakesinterfacingtoreadoutorcontrolcircuitryespeciallyeasy.HowdoesLM35temperatruresensorwork?TheLM35isanintegratedcircuitsensorthatcanbeusedtomeasuretemperaturewithanelectricaloutputproportionaltothetemperature(inC).Itcanmeasuretemperaturemoreaccuratelythanausingathermistor....TheLM35hasanoutputvoltagethatisproportionaltotheCelsiustemperature.Whatistheoutputoflm35?LM35isatemperaturemeasuringdevicehavingananalogoutputvoltageproportionaltothetemperature.ItprovidesoutputvoltageinCentigrade(Celsius).Itdoesnotrequireanyexternalcalibrationcircuitry.ThesensitivityofLM35is10mV/degreeCelsius.Howaccurateislm35?LM35canmeasurefrom-55degreescentigradeto150-degreecentigrade.Theaccuracylevelisveryhighifoperatedatoptimaltemperatureandhumiditylevels.Theconversionoftheoutputvoltagetocentigradeisalsoeasyandstraightforward.​TheinputvoltagetoLM35canbefrom+4voltsto30volts.Canlm35measurebodytemperature?LM35isusedforthesensebodytemperature....Thisdevicewillallowonetomeasuretheirmeanarterialpressure(MAP)inaboutoneminuteandtheaccuratebodytemperaturewillbedisplayedontheAndroid.HowdoIcalibratemylm35temperaturesensor?MakesuretheinstrumentisconnectedinPSTrace.ClicktheCalibratebuttonintheSettingswindow.TheLM35givesavoltageof10mVpermeasuredcentigrade.Calibrationcanbedonebysettingtwopointstodeterminebothoffsetandslopeofthelinearrelationorbyjustadjustingtheoffset.HowdoIconnectmylm35?ConnectLM35toArduinounoasshownincircuitdiagram.The+5vforLM35canbetakenfromthe+5voutpinofarduinouno.AlsothegroundpinofLM35canbeconnectedtoGNDpinofarduinouno.ConnectVout(theanalogoutofLM35)toanyoftheanaloginputpinofarduinouno.

SL44-E3/57T-VISHAY

TheMOC3021isaZero-CrossingTRIACdrivenOptocouplerorOptoisolator.Asweknow,thetermOptocoupler/Optoisolatormeansthesamethingthatweuselighttoindirectlycouplecircuitsets.ThespecialityofMOC3021isthatithasaZero-CrossingabilityandisdrivenbyaTriac.ThisvideotellshowtomakeanArduinobased110/220vacBulbdimmingControlsystemusingMOC3021CatalogMOC3021DescriptionMOC3021PinoutMOC3021FeaturesMOC3021EquivalentWheretouseMOC3021PhototransistorOptocouplerHowtoUseMOC3021PhototransistorOptocouplerMOC3021ApplicationsMOC3021PackageComponentDatasheetFAQMOC3021DescriptionMOC3021belongstotheMOC301XMandMOC302XMseriesfromONSemiconductor,theyareopticallyisolatedtriacdriverdevices.ThesedevicescontainaGaAsinfraredemittingdiodeandalightactivatedsiliconbilateralswitch,whichfunctionslikeatriac.Theyaredesignedforinterfacingbetweenelectroniccontrolsandpowertriacstocontrolresistiveandinductiveloadsfor115VACoperations.TheMOC3021comesinaninternallight-emittingdiodeandaTRIACbasedlightactivatingbasedtransistor.ThisoptocouplerprovidesprotectionfromHIGHresistiveandinductiveloads.Ithastheabilitytoflowthecurrentupto1A.MOC3021OptocouplerworkontheIRbasedanditkeepsanykindofcurrenttoflowtowardsthecircuit.Theoptocouplercomesonlyinonepackagebutthesinglepackagecouldbeusedwithanycircuit.InHIGHloadtheoperatingtemperaturealwaysaffectsthecircuitperformance,butMOC3021hastheabilitytooperateinHIGHtemperatureanditalsoincreasestheoptocouplerlife.MOC3021PinoutMOC3021MOC3021PinoutPinNameDescriptionAnode(A)AnodepinoftheIRLED.ConnectedtologicinputCathode(C)CathodepinoftheIRLEDNCNoConnection-CannotbeusedTriacMainTerminal1OneendoftheTriacwhichispresentinsidetheICNCNoConnectionCannotbeusedTriacMainTerminal2OtherendoftheTriacwhichispresentinsidetheICMOC3021FeaturesOpto-isolatorwithZero-CrossingTriacDriverInputLEDDiodeForwardVoltage:1.15VLEDForwardLatchCurrent:15mATRIACoutputterminalvoltage:400V(max)TRIACpeakoutputcurrent:1AAvailableas6-pinPDIPwithandwithoutM-suffixMOC3021EquivalentMOC3043AlternativesOpto-couplers:MCT2E(non-Zerotransistor),MOC3041(Non-ZeroCrossTRIAC),FOD3180(High-SpeedMOSFET),WheretouseMOC3021PhototransistorOptocouplerSincetheoutputisdrivenbytheTRIAC,wecandriveloadsupto400Vandthetriaccanoperateinbothdirections,socontrollingtheACloadswillnotbeaproblem.Also,sinceithasazero-crossingcapability,whentheACloadisswitchedonforthefirsttime,theTRIACwillstartconductiononlyaftertheACwavereaches0V,sowecanavoiddirectpeakvoltagestotheLoadandthuspreventitfrombeingdamaged.Italsohasadecentriseandfalltimeandcanthereforebeusedtocontroltheoutputvoltage.ThisfeatureoftheMOC3021makesittheidealchoiceforcontrollinghighvoltageACloadsthroughdigitalcontrollerssuchasMPU/MCU.Sincetheoutputiscontrolled,theintensityofthelightorthespeedoftheACmotorcanbecontrolled.Soifyourelookingforanopto-isolatortocontrolanACapplicationthroughDC,thisICmightbetherightchoiceforyou.HowtoUseMOC3021PhototransistorOptocouplerTheMOC3021isnormallyusedtocontroltheACappliance,suchasthebrightnessofthebulb,thespeedofthemotor,etc.Eitherway,duetoitslimitedcurrentrating,anopto-couplerwillnotbeallowedtodriveloadsdirectly.Inourcase,theyarenormallyconnectedtoanotherpowerswitchliketheTriac,thisTRIACwillbeabletoprovideenoughcurrenttodrivetheloadsandwillbecontrolledusinganopto-coupler.AsimplecircuitdiagraminwhichtheACbulbiscontrolledbyamicrocontrollerisshownbelow.MOC3021MicrocontrollerInterfacingDiagramTheMOC3021canbeusedtoswitchloadsbysimplyswitchingtheLEDonoroff,orwecanalsousePWMsignalstoswitchtheLEDandthustheTRIAC.WhentheTRIACisswitchedbyusingPWMsignals,theoutputvoltageacrosstheloadcanbecontrolledbycontrollingthespeed/brightnessoftheload.Itisimportanttounderstandtheswitchingspeedoftheopto-couplerwhentryingtoswitchACloads.ThisswitchingspeeddependsonthevoltageamplitudecontrolledbytheTRIACandtheoperatingambienttemperature.Thegraphbelowwillgiveyouagoodunderstandingofhowlongittakes.MOC3021SwitchingSpeedGraphicForexample,at30degreesCelsiusofambienttemperature,therateofvoltagechangewithrespecttotimewillbe9Vperunittime,wheretheunittimeisuS.Sowecanchange9Vinonemicrosecond.MOC3021ApplicationsACLightdimmersStrodelightsACmotorspeedcontrolNoisecouplingcircuitsControllingACloadsusingMCU/MPUAc/DCPowercontrolMOC3021PackageComponentDatasheetMOC3021DatasheetFAQWhatisMOC3021?MOC3021isazerocrossingbasedoptoisolatorconsistsofgalliumarsenideinfraredemittingdiodes,opticallycoupledtoasilicon-basedtriac....ItishavinginternalTRIACinstalledwhichgivesitacapabilitytocontrolanyexternalswitchingdeviceslikeHIGHPOWERTRIAC,MOSFETS,andSolidStatesRelay.Whatisanoptocouplerusedfor?Whenusedcorrectly,anOptocouplercaneffectively:Removeelectricalnoisefromsignals.Isolatelow-voltagedevicesfromhigh-voltagecircuits.AllowyoutousesmalldigitalsignalstocontrollargerACvoltages.Howareoptocouplersmeasured?Usingthediagramintherightidentifythepins;firsttheanodeandcathodeoftheLED(inthiscasepins1and2),andthenusinganohmmetersetontheX1Ohmdomain,measurebetweenpins1and2,andyoushouldgetonereadingmeasuringonewayandnoreadingtheoppositeway(justlikeyoucheckadiode).LM337isanadjustablenegativevoltageregulatorIC.ThisblogdescribesLM337pinout,circuit,equivalent,features,whereandhowtousethisicandotherimportantdetails.CatalogLM337DescriptionLM337PinoutLM337FeaturesLM337ParameterLM337EquivalentLM337CircuitWhereHowtouseLM337HowtosafelylongrunLM337inacircuitLM337ApplicationLM337PackageComponentDatasheetLM337DescriptionLM337isanadjustable3-terminalnegative-voltageregulatorcapableofsupplyinginexcessof1.5Aoveranoutputvoltagerangeof1.2Vto37V.Itrequiresonlytwoexternalresistorstosettheoutputvoltageandoneoutputcapacitorforfrequencycompensation.AsanegativevoltageregulatorIC,LM337iscomplementarytoLM317positivevoltageregulator.LM337havemanybuiltinfeatureslikeoverheatshutdown,overcurrentshutdown,shortcircuitprotectionetc.whichmakestheICdamageproofinmanysituations.TheICwilldissipateheatduringoperationbecauseallthevoltagedifferencewillconverttoheatandasuitableheatsinkismusttousewiththeIC.LM337PinoutLM337voltageregulatorLM337voltageregulatorpinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1AdjustThispinsadjuststheoutputvoltage2InputVoltage(Vin)Theinputvoltagewhichhastoberegulatedisgiventothispin3OutputVoltage(Vout)TheregulatedoutputvoltagesetbytheadjustpincanbeobtainedfromthispinLM337FeaturesAdjustable3-terminalNegativevoltageregulatorOutputvoltagecanbesettorangefrom-1.25Vto-37VMaximumOutputcurrentis-1.5ADifferentialInputandOutputVoltageis40V(max),recommended15VMaximumoutputcurrentwhenvoltagedifferenceis15Vis-2.2AOperatingjunctiontemperatureis125CAvailableinTo-220,SOT223,TO263PackageLM337ParameterManufacturer:TexasInstrumentsSeries:-Packaging:TubePartStatus:ActiveOutputConfiguration:NegativeOutputType:AdjustableNumberofRegulators:1Voltage-Input(Max):-40VVoltage-Output(Min/Fixed):-1.2VVoltage-Output(Max):-37VVoltageDropout(Max):-Current-Output:1.5APSRR:77dB(120Hz)ControlFeatures:-ProtectionFeatures:OverTemperatureShortCircuitOperatingTemperature:0C~125CMountingType:ThroughHolePackage/Case:TO-220-3SupplierDevicePackage:TO-220-3BasePartNumber:LM337LM337EquivalentLT137,PB137,LM317(PositiveVariableVoltageregulator),L7915CVLM337CircuitTheschematicbelowshowsanadjustablenegative-voltageregulatorcircuitbasedontheLM337ic.Thecircuitsinputvoltagerangesfrom-3Vto40VDC,andtheoutputvoltagerangesfrom-1.25Vto-37V.LM337adjustablenegativevoltageregulatorcircuitWhereHowtouseLM337Dependingontheusersneeds,theLM337canbeusedasanadjustableorfixedregulator.TheoutputcanbeadjustedusingaresistordividernetworkconnectedtotheICsadjustmentpin.Intheresistordividernetwork,avariableresistorcanalsobeusedtoeasilyadjusttheoutputvoltagetothedesiredlevel.ThisICcanalsobeusedasafixedoutputnegativevoltageregulator;simplyreplacethevariableresistorwithafixedvalueresistorbasedontheoutputvoltage.Therearealotofonlinecalculatorsthatcanbeusedtocalculatetheresistorvalueofthedesiredoutputvoltage.Theiccanbeusedinavarietyofpowersupplyandbatterychargerapplications.Theinputvoltagemustbe2Vto3VhigherthantheoutputvoltageforthisICtoproduceastableoutputvoltage.HowtosafelylongrunLM337inacircuitToachievelong-termstableperformancewiththeLM337,donotapplyaloadgreaterthan1.5Aoravoltagehigherthan37V.Inputvoltageshouldnotexceed40V.UseasuitableheatsinkwiththeICandoperateitattemperaturesabove-40degreesCelsiusandbelow+125degreesCelsiusatalltimes.Thestoragetemperatureshouldbehigherthan-60degreesCelsiusandlowerthan+150degreesCelsius.LM337ApplicationUsedforPositivevoltageregulationsVariablepowersupplyCurrentlimitingcircuitsReversepolaritycircuitsCommonlyusedinDesktopPC,DVDandotherconsumerproductsUsedinmotorcontrolcircuitsLM337PackageComponentDatasheetLM337DatasheetFAQWhatisLM337?TheLM337isanegativeadjustablevoltageregulatorwhichcanoutputarangeofvoltagesfrom-1.5Vto-38VbasedontheresistorsR1andR2....TheresistorR2thenisthechiefresistorwhichallowsfortheswingsindifferentvoltageoutputs.WhatistherangeofthevoltageleveloftheLM337adjustedvoltageregulator?TheLM337seriesareadjustable3-terminalnegativevoltageregulatorscapableofsupplyinginexcess-1.5Aovera-1.2to-37Voutputvoltagerange.WhatisIC337?TheLM237andLM337areadjustable3-terminalnegative-voltageregulatorscapableofsupplyinginexcessof1.5Aoveranoutputvoltagerangeof1.2Vto37V.Theyrequireonlytwoexternalresistorstosettheoutputvoltageandoneoutputcapacitorforfrequencycompensation.LM1117isalowdropoutvoltageregulatorwithadropoutof1.2Vat800mAofloadcurrent.Itisavailableinanadjustableversion,whichcansettheoutputvoltagefrom1.25to13.8Vwithonlytwoexternalresistors.Inaddition,itisavailableinfivefixedvoltages,1.8V,2.5V,3.3V,and5V.UsingLM1117DIYaVariableVoltageRegulator(ATimelapse)CatalogLM1117PinoutLM1117FeaturesLM1117ParameterLM1117AlternativesWheretoUseLM1117HowtoUseLM1117LM1117ApplicationsLM1117PackageComponentDatasheetFAQLM1117PinoutPinNameDescriptionAdjust/GroundThispinsadjuststheoutputvoltage,ifitisafixedvoltageregulatoritactsasgroundOutputVoltage(Vout)TheregulatedoutputvoltagesetbytheadjustpincanbeobtainedfromthispinInputVoltage(Vin)TheinputvoltagewhichhastoberegulatedisgiventothispinLM1117FeaturesFixed/Adjustable3-terminalLinearvoltageregulatorFixedVoltagetype:1.8V,2.5V,3.3Vand5VVariableVoltagerange:1.25Vto13.8VOutputcurrentis800mAIn-builtCurrentLimitingandthermalprotection.Operatingjunctiontemperatureis125CAvailableinTo-220,SOT223,TO263PackageLM1117ParameterManufacturer:TexasInstrumentsSeries:-Packaging:TapeReel(TR)PartStatus:ActiveOutputConfiguration:PositiveOutputType:AdjustableNumberofRegulators:1Voltage-Input(Max):15VVoltage-Output(Min/Fixed):1.25VVoltage-Output(Max):13.8VVoltageDropout(Max):1.2V@800mACurrent-Output:800mACurrent-Quiescent(Iq):5mACurrent-Supply(Max):10mAPSRR:75dB(120Hz)ControlFeatures:-ProtectionFeatures:OverCurrentOverTemperatureOperatingTemperature:0C~125CMountingType:SurfaceMountPackage/Case:TO-261-4TO-261AASupplierDevicePackage:SOT-223BasePartNumber:LM1117LM1117AlternativesAlterbativeVoltageRegulators:LM7805,LM7806,LM7809,LM7812,LM7905,LM7912,LM117V33,XC6206P332MR.LM1117Equivalent:LM317WheretoUseLM1117Likethefamous7805andLM317series,theLM1117isanotherlinearvoltageregulator.ItisknownforitssmallformfactorasitisavailableasaDCYpackage(SMDComponent).TherearemanytypesofLM1117,thefixedtypesprovideafixedoutputvoltageof1.8V,2.5V,3.3Vor5V,andthevariablevoltageregulatorcanhaveavariablevoltageofbetween1.25Vand13.8V.SoifyourelookingforanSMDcomponentvoltageregulator,thisICmightbetherightchoiceforyou.HowtoUseLM1117UsingtheLM1117isprettystraightforward.Ifitisafixedvoltageregulator,theICcanbepoweredbytheVinpin,andtheregulatedoutputcanbeobtainedbytheVoutpin.Inthiscase,theAdj/Groundpinactsonlyasagroundpinandisgrounded.Acapacitorcanalsobeaddedtotheoutputsidetofilteroutthenoise.Thecircuitdiagramforafixedoutputregulatorisshownbelow.LM1117FixedOutputRegulatorCircuitFortheAdjustabletypevoltageregulator,weneedtwoexternalresistorstodeterminetheoutputvoltageoftheregulator.Areferencecircuitdiagramisshownbelow,wheretheR1andR2resistorsdeterminetheoutputvoltageoftheregulator.TheCAdjcapacitorisanoptionalcomponentthatcanbeaddedtoimproveripplerejectionifrequired.Theothertwocapacitorsareusedtofilterinputandoutputnoise,respectively.LM1117AdjustableOutputRegulatorCircuitTheformulasforcalculatingtheoutputvoltageoftheregulatoraregivenbelow.SelecttheR1andR2valuesbasedontheoutputvoltagerequiredforyourproject.KeepinmindthattheR1valueshouldbelessthan1k.YoucanusetheR2variableresistorifyouwanttochangethevoltageinrealtime.VOUT=1.251+(R2/R1))Withtheabilitytobeusedasafixedvoltageorvariablevoltageregulator,theLM1117oftenfindsitsapplicationinbatterychargingcircuitandcanalsobedesignedtoprovidenegativevoltageifrequired.PleaserefertothedatasheetattheendofthispagetofindmoreapplicationcircuitsforthisIC.LM1117ApplicationsUsedforPositivevoltageregulationsVariablepowersupplyCurrentlimitingcircuitsReversepolaritycircuitsCommonlyusedinDesktopPC,DVDandotherconsumerproductsUsedinmotorcontrolcircuitsLM1117PackageComponentDatasheetLM1117VoltageRegulatorDatasheetFAQWhatisLM1117?TheLM1117isaseriesoflowdropoutvoltageregulatorswithadropoutof1.2Vat800mAofloadcurrent.Ithasthesamepin-outasNationalSemiconductorsindustrystandardLM317.TheLM1117isavailableinanadjustableversion,whichcansettheoutputvoltagefrom1.25Vto13.8Vwithonlytwoexternalresistors.WhatistherelationshipbetweenthevoltageoftheoutputandadjustpinsoftheLM1117wheninnormaloperation?TheLM1117regulatesthevoltagethatappearsbetweenitsoutputandgroundpins,orbetweenitsoutputandadjustpins.Insomecases,lineresistancescanintroduceerrorstothevoltageacrosstheload.Howdoestheregulatorwork?Avoltageregulatorgeneratesafixedoutputvoltageofapresetmagnitudethatremainsconstantregardlessofchangestoitsinputvoltageorloadconditions....AswitchingregulatorconvertsthedcinputvoltagetoaswitchedvoltageappliedtoapowerMOSFETorBJTswitch.

SL44-E3/57T-VISHAY

74LS32isaDualInputORGatewithQuadpackage.Itcontainsfourindependentgates,eachperformingthelogicORfunction.Eachgatehastwoinputs,whichiswhyitiscalledQuad2-InputORGate.Logiclevelgateslike74LS32andflip-flopsplayavitalroleindigitalelectronics.Thisblogisabriefintroductionto74LS32aboutitspinout,features,equivalents,andhowtousethisdeviceandsoon.Thisisavideointroducing74LS32struthtable.Catalog74LS32Pinout74LS32Features74LS32Parameter74LS32EquivalentsHowtoUse74LS32ORGateIC?74LS32Applications74LS32PackageComponentDatasheetFAQ74LS32PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1,4,9,12ORGateInputpin(A)FirstInputpinfortheORgate2,5,10,13ORGateInputpin(B)SecondInputpinfortheORgate3,6,8,11ORGateOutputpin(Y)OutputpinfortheORgate7GroundConnecttothegroundofthecircuit.14Vcc(Vdd)UsedtopowertheIC.Typically+5Visused74LS32FeaturesDualInputORGateQuadPackageSupplyVoltage:5to7VInputVoltage:5to7VOperatingtemperaturerange=-55Cto125CAvailablein14-pinSOICpackage74LS32ParameterManufacturer:TexasInstrumentsSeries:74LSPackaging:TubePartStatus:ActiveLogicType:ORGateNumberofCircuits:4NumberofInputs:2Features:-Voltage-Supply:4.75V~5.25VCurrent-OutputHighLow:400A8mALogicLevel-Low:0.8VLogicLevel-High:2VMaxPropagationDelay@VMaxCL:22ns@5V15pFOperatingTemperature:0C~70CMountingType:ThroughHoleSupplierDevicePackage:14-PDIPPackage/Case:14-DIP(0.3007.62mm)BasePartNumber:SN74LS3274LS32EquivalentsEquivalentfor74LS32:CD4071OtherLogicGates:74LS00,74LS08,74LS02,74LS04,74HCT04HowtoUse74LS32ORGateIC?74LS32or74LS32Nhas12inputoutputpinsforatotaloffourORgates.Tousethe74LS32LogicgateIC,justpoweritwiththeVccandgroundpins.ThetypicaloperatingvoltageoftheICis+5V,butitcanalsobeoperatedin+7V.TheoutputvoltageoftheIConthepinYisequaltotheoperatingvoltageoftheIC.AspertheORgatetruthtable,ifeitheroneorbothofthegateinputsarehigh,theoutputwillbehigh.ThetruthtableofORgateisgivenbelow:ABY000101011111ORGateTruthTableAccordingtothetruthtable,whenboththeinputsarelow,outputwillbezero.WheneitheroneorboththeinputoftheGateishigh,theoutputwillbehigh.74LS32InternalDiagram74LS32ApplicationsBasicLogicCircuitsEncodersandDecodersMultiplexersandDe-multiplexersOscillatorcircuitsNetworkingandDigitalSystems74LS32PackageComponentDatasheet74LS32DatasheetFAQWhatis74ls32?The74LS32isaDualInputORGatewithQuadpackage.ItcontainsfourindependentgateseachofwhichperformsthelogicORfunction.EachgatehastwoinputsthatswhyitisnamedQuad2-InputORGate.Logiclevelgateslike74LS32andflip-flopsplayavitalroleindigitalelectronics.Whatisthedifferencebetween74ls32and74ls32n?74LS32Nand74LS32havethesameperformanceandfunction,bothare2-inputfour-ORgates.74LS32omitsthedescriptionofthepackageformofthedevice.Thepackageformof74LS32Nisplasticdualin-line.Whatisthedifferencebetween74hc32and74ls32?74HC32isaCOMSdevice74LS32isaTTLdeviceTheyhavedifferentcurrentlevels,differentspeeds,anddifferentstabilityperformance.Whatistheoutputcurrentof74ls32?Highleveloutputcurrent,IOH=-0.4ma.Low-leveloutputcurrentIOL=8ma.WhatdoestheORGatedo?TheORgateisadigitallogicgatethatimplementslogicaldisjunctionitbehavesaccordingtothetruthtabletotheright.AHIGHoutput(1)resultsifoneorboththeinputstothegateareHIGH(1).Ifneitherinputishigh,aLOWoutput(0)results.CD40106isahexinverterSchmitttrigger,meaningithas6invertedSchmitttriggersinsideit.ThisisavideointroducingCD40106inmoredetails.CatalogCD40106DescriptionCD40106PinoutCD40106FeaturesCD40106EquivalentsWheretoUseCD40106ICHowtoUseCD40106ICCD40106ApplicationsCD40106PackageComponentDatasheetCD40106DescriptionCD40106ICconsistsofsixSchmitt-Triggerinputs.EachcircuitfunctionsasaninverterwithSchmitt-Triggerinput.Thetriggerswitchesatdifferentpointsforpositive-andnegative-goingsignals.Thedifferencebetweenpositive-goingvoltage(VP)andnegative-goingvoltage(VN)isdefinedashysteresisvoltage(VH).CD40106Bdeviceissuppliedinceramicpackaging(J)aswellasstandardpackaging(D,N,NS,PW).AllCD40106Bdevicesareratedfor55Cto+125Cambienttemperatureoperation.CD40106PinoutCD40106CD40106PinoutCD40106PinDescriptions:PinNumberPinNameDescription1,3,5,11,13,15SchmittInputPinsInputpinsoftheSchmitttrigger2,4,6,10,12,14SchmittInvertedOutputPinsOutputpinsoftheSchmitttrigger7GroundConnectedtothegroundofthesystem14Vcc(+5V)Resetsalloutputsaslow.MustbeheldhighfornormaloperationCD40106FeaturesSchmittTriggerHexInverterOperatingVoltage:5VLow-LevelHysteresisvoltage:0.3VHigh-LevelHysteresisvoltage:3.5VOutputcurrentHigh:-1mAOutputcurrentLow:1mAQuiescentCurrent:40nAPropagationDelayTime:280nsOperatingTemperatureRange:-55Cto+125CAvailablein14-pinPDIP,GDIP,PDSOpackagesCD40106EquivalentsEquivalentforCD40106:MM74C14AlternativesSchmittTriggers:SN74LS14,TC4584,MC14584WheretoUseCD40106ICTheCD40106BdeviceconsistsofsixSchmitt-Triggerinputs,whichmeansithas6invertedSchmitttriggersinsideit.TheSchmitttriggerisusedtopreventtheproblemofhysteresis.Itcanalsobeusedtosmoothanoisesignalintoasharpone.Schmitttriggergatecanconvertthesinusoidalortriangularwaveintoasquarewave.Itcanalsobeusedasalogicinverter,ifnecessary.TheSchmitttriggerisalsousefulforsettingupapushbuttonorothernoisyinputdevices.SoifyourelookingforanICthatcanhelpyougetaswitchingnoiseorcreatesharpsquarewavesignalsbasedonaninputsignal,thisICcouldbetherightchoiceforyou.HowtoUseCD40106ICAsmentionedabove,theCD40106hassixINVERTINGSCHMITTTRIGGERGATESwhichcanbeusedassixindividualgates.TheinternalstructureofCD40106isgivenbelow:CD40106FunctionalDiagramEachofthese6gatescanbeusedindividuallyonthebasisofourapplication.Sincethegatesareinverting,wecanalsocombinetwogatesintoanon-invertinggate.Theinputsignalcanbeanoisesquarewaveoranysignalwavethatoscillatesbetweenthelowandhighhysteresisvoltages.CD40106ApplicationsWaveandPulseShapersHigh-Noise-EnvironmentSystemsMonostableMultivibratorsAstableMultivibratorsCD40106PackageComponentDatasheetCD40106HexInverterDatasheet

SL44-E3/57T-VISHAY

Hithere!Inthisblog,wewillintroduceyouasimpleandstableone-buttonswitchcircuitbasedonLP2951.Indailylife,productssuchasregularelectronicequipmentandsmartinstrumentsareusuallypoweredbybatteries,andsingle-buttonswitchcircuitsarecommonlyusedformsofpowersupply,withvariousimplementationmethods.Generallyspeaking,wecanuseprogrammabledevicessuchasflip-flops,555integratedcircuitsandsingle-chipmicrocomputers.However,inactualoperation,theseimplementationswillincreasethecomplexityoftheentirecircuit,makingitdifficulttoachieveconciseandpracticaleffects.Thesimpleandstableone-buttonswitchcircuitbasedonLP2951canachievetheeffectofintroductionanduse.So,letsgetstartedwithabasicIntroductiontoLP2951.Catalog1IntroductiontoLP29512Designofpowersupplycircuit3Workingprinciple3.1Workingprincipleofbooting3.2Workingprincipleofshutdown4ConclusionComponentDatasheet1IntroductiontoLP2951LP2950/LP2951arelow-powerregulatorswiththefollowingcharacteristics:Itsquiescentcurrentissmall,andtheinputandoutputvoltagedifferenceislow,soitissuitableforbattery-poweredsystems.Inaddition,whenthebatteryvoltagedropsforalongtime,thequiescentcurrentincreasesverylittle.LP2950isa3-pinTO-92package.Figure1belowshowstheLP2951pinoutandFigure2showstheinternalstructureoftheLP2951.Figure1.LP2951pinoutFigure2.LP2951internalstructureAmongthem,LP2951hasthefollowingcharacteristicsrelatedtopowersupply:Logiccontrolstheelectronicswitch,thelowleveliseffective,andthepowerchipisturnedoffwhenthehighlevelisconnected.Theoutputvoltageisadjustablewithin1.24~30V.Whenthereisnoregulatingcircuit,thedefaultoutputvoltageis5V.Themaximumoutputcurrentis100mA.Ithasashutdownfunctionwhenthebatteryvoltageistoolow.Innormalworkingstate,Pin5ERRORterminaloutputshighlevel,whentheexternalpowersupplyvoltageislowerthantheworkingvoltage,ERRORterminaloutputslowlevel.2DesignofpowersupplycircuitSincesmartinstrumentshavemultiplefunctions,theyareoftenimplementedbymultiplekeys.Nowwesettwobuttonsasthepower-onbutton;setonebuttonasthepower-offbutton.ThedesignpowercircuitisshownasinFig.3.Figure3.HardwarecircuitdiagramofthepowersupplycircuitInFigure3:ButtonS1istheshutdownbutton;S2andS3arethepower-onbuttons;VDDistheDCregulatedoutputvoltageofthepowerchipLP2950,+5V;VFHisthebatteryvoltage;U2isalow-voltageshutdownpowersupplycircuitwithanoutputvoltageofVCC;U3anditsperipheralcircuitarecomposedofapowersupplycircuitwithadjustableoutputvoltage,andtheoutputvoltageisVCC1.Amongthem,VREFistheinternalreferencevoltageofLP29511.235V;IFBisthefeedbackterminalcurrent-20nA.3Workingprinciple3.1WorkingprincipleofbootingPressthefunctionkeyS2orS3arbitrarilytomakethepowerchipwork.Bothworkonthesameprinciple,andthespecificworkingprocessisasfollows.Intheshutdownstate,theU1-1AandU2-1AinputterminalsoftheNANDgateCD74HC132arehighlevel,andthecorrespondingoutputterminalislowlevel.WhenS2orS3ispressed,accordingtothecapacitancecharacteristics,alowlevelisformedattheinputendofU1-1A,andtheoutputendofU1-2B,U1-3C,thatis,Pin8isahighlevel.AhighlevelappearsattheU2-2BinputterminalthroughC4,R7anddiodeCR1,sothatthe6pinofU2islow.Inthisway,makethepowerchipLP2951work,andmakeitsERROEoutputhighlevel.Afterpoweringon,pressS2orS3severaltimestorealizethefunction.BecauseERROEoutputsahighlevel,theU2-2Binputendmaintainsahighlevel,sothattheSHUTDOWNendisguaranteedtobelowlevelandthepowerchipiskeptworking.3.2WorkingprincipleofshutdownInthepower-onstate,presstheshutdownkeyS1tomakethe3terminalsofU2andthe8terminalsofU1become0andthe6terminalsofU2to1.Thatis,SHUTDOWNofLP2951ishigh,turnoffthepowerchip,sothattheERRORterminaloutputslowlevel;Whenthebuttonislifted,the3terminalofU2andthe8terminalofU1become1,buttheERRORterminalis0,soitisalwaysintheshutdownstate.Whentheexternalbatteryvoltageistoolow,theERRORterminalofLP2951outputsalowlevel,thusshuttingdown.4ConclusionThepowersupplycircuitwasonceusedinthesignalsourceofcabledetectionequipment,andtheworkingeffectwasgood.ThesignalsourceofthecabledetectionequipmentisshowninFigure4.Itcanbeseenfromthecircuitstructureandprinciplethatthecircuithasasimplestructure,easytouse,reliable,andversatile.Figure4.TheactualsignalsourceofthecabledetectionequipmentComponentDatasheetLP2951Datasheet

ATtiny13isalow-powerCMOS8-bitmicrocontrollerbasedontheAVRenhancedRISCarchitecture.ThisisanintroductionarticleaboutATtiny13the8-bitmicrocontroller,afterreadingthis,youwilllearnaboutATtiny13spinout,features,itsalternatives,itsdifferencebetweenATtiny13a,andhowtoprogramit,etc.Staytunedfellas!ThistutorialvideoshowsindetailedhowtoprogramATtiny13withArduino.CatalogATtiny13DescriptionATtiny13PinoutATtiny13FeaturesATtiny13ParameterATtiny13BlockDiagramATtiny13AlternativeATtiny13vsATtiny13aATtiny13ProgrammingATtiny13PackageATtiny13ManufacturerComponentDatasheetATtiny13DescriptionTheATtiny13isalow-powerCMOS8-bitmicrocontrollerbasedontheAVRenhancedRISCarchitecture.Ithas8pins,6ofwhichcanbeusedasI/Opins.Byexecutingpowerfulinstructionsinasingleclockcycle,theATtiny13achievesthroughputsapproaching1MIPSperMHzallowingthesystemdesignertooptimizepowerconsumptionversusprocessingspeed.ATtiny13alsoincludesdebugWIREOn-Chipdebugging,anIn-SystemProgrammableSPIPort,andLow-PowerIdle,Power-down,andStandbyModes.Aprogrammablebrownoutdetectioncircuitisalsoused.Itoperatesatawiderangeofvoltages,from1.8Vto5.5V.Asaresult,itcanbeusedinlogicleveloperationsat1.8V,3.3V,or5.0V.The1.8VinputvoltagefortheATtiny13V,ontheotherhand,supports0-4Mhzoperation.Forfrequenciesupto10Mhz,theminimumvoltageforATtiny13is2.7V,andforfrequenciesupto20Mhz,theminimumvoltageis4.5V-5.5V.ATtiny13PinoutATtiny13AVRMicrocontrollerATtiny13AVRMicrocontrollerPinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1(PCINT5/RESET/ADC0/dW)PB5PinofPortBBit5orADCInputChannel0ordebugWIREI/OorPinchangeInterrupt0,source3orResetpinmainlyusedforprogramming2(PCINT3/CLKI/ADC3)PB3BidirectionalI/OPinofPortBBit3orADCInputChannel3orExternalClockInputorPinchangeInterrupt0,source33(PCINT4/ADC2)PB4BidirectionalI/OPinofPortBBit4orADCInputChannel2orPinchangeInterrupt0,source44GNDGroundPinofMCU5PB0(MOȘI/AIN0/OC0A/PCINT0)BidirectionalI/OPinofPortBBit0orSPIMOSIusedforprogrammingorAnalogcomparator+orPinchangeinterrupt0,source0orTimer/Counter0compareMatchAOut6PB1(MISO/AIN1/OC0B/INT0/PCINT1)BidirectionalI/OPinofPortBBit1orAnalogcomparatorinput-orExternalinput0inputorTimer/Counter1CompareMatchBOutorPinchangeInterrupt0,source1orSPIMISOusedforprogramming7PB2(SCK/ADC1/T0/PCINT2)BidirectionalI/OPinofPortBBit2orADCInputChannel1orTimer/Counter0ClockSourceorSerialClockinputorPinchangeInterrupt0,source2orexternalclockinput,usedforprogramming8VCCPositivePinofMCU(+5V)ATtiny13FeaturesHighPerformance,LowPowerAVR8-BitMicrocontrollerAdvancedRISCArchitecture120PowerfulInstructionsMostSingleClockCycleExecution32x8GeneralPurposeWorkingRegistersFullyStaticOperationUpto20MIPSThrougputat20MHzHighEnduranceNon-volatileMemorysegments1KBytesofIn-SystemSelf-programmableFlashprogrammemory64BytesEEPROM64BytesInternalSRAMWrite/Erasecyles:10,000Flash/100,000EEPROMDataretention:20yearsat85C/100yearsat25C(seepage6)ProgrammingLockforSelf-ProgrammingFlashEEPROMDataSecurityPeripheralFeaturesOne8-bitTimer/CounterwithPrescalerandTwoPWMChannels4-channel,10-bitADCwithInternalVoltageReferenceProgrammableWatchdogTimerwithSeparateOn-chipOscillatorOn-chipAnalogComparatorSpecialMicrocontrollerFeaturesdebugWIREOn-chipDebugSystemIn-SystemProgrammableviaSPIPortExternalandInternalInterruptSourcesLowPowerIdle,ADCNoiseReduction,andPower-downModesEnhancedPower-onResetCircuitProgrammableBrown-outDetectionCircuitInternalCalibratedOscillatorI/OandPackages8-pinPDIP/SOIC:SixProgrammableI/OLines20-padMLF:SixProgrammableI/OLinesOperatingVoltage:1.8-5.5VforATtiny13V2.7-5.5VforATtiny13SpeedGradeATtiny13V:0-4MHz@1.8-5.5V,0-10MHz@2.7-5.5VATtiny13:0-10MHz@2.7-5.5V,0-20MHz@4.5-5.5VIndustrialTemperatureRangeLowPowerConsumptionActiveMode:1MHz,1.8V:240APower-downMode:0.1Aat1.8VATtiny13ParameterManufacturer:MicrochipTechnologySeries:AVRATtinyPackaging:TubePartStatus:ActiveCoreProcessor:AVRCoreSize:8-BitSpeed:10MHzConnectivity:-Peripherals:Brown-outDetect/ResetPORPWMWDTNumberofI/O:6ProgramMemorySize:1KB(512x16)ProgramMemoryType:FLASHEEPROMSize:64x8RAMSize:64x8Voltage-Supply(Vcc/Vdd):1.8V~5.5VDataConverters:A/D4x10bOscillatorType:InternalOperatingTemperature:-40C~85C(TA)MountingType:ThroughHolePackage/Case:8-DIP(0.3007.62mm)SupplierDevicePackage:8-PDIPBasePartNumber:ATTINY13ATtiny13BlockDiagramATtiny13AlternativeATtiny2313A(ExactAlternativewiththenewrelease)ATtiny417ATtiny28LATtiny48ATmega88PAATmega8AATmega8515ATmega8535ATmega645AATmega6490ATtiny13vsATtiny13aATtiny13aA-gradeAVRsareminorimprovementsoverthepreviousiteration;theseimprovementsvaryfromchiptochip,e.g.thedifferencebetweenATtiny2313andATtiny2313AisdifferentfromthedifferencebetweenATmega128andATmega128A.Tobemorespecific,theATtiny13istheoriginalversionandusesadifferentprocesstechnologythantheATtiny13A.TheA-suffixedpartsarefabricatedwithalowpowerprocessmarketedaspicoPower,andthemaindifferenceisthattheygenerallyconsumelesspoweratthesamevoltageandfrequency.Regardingdifferencesfromthepointofviewofcodecompatibility,IseenoreasonwhytheATtiny13AwouldnotbecodeandbinarycompatiblewithprogramswrittenfortheATtiny13.However,thereverseisnotstrictlythecase:Whiletheinstructionsetsandmostperipheralsareidentical,theATtiny13AhastheextraregistersPRR(PowerReductionRegister)andBODCR(Brown-OutDetectorControlRegister).ATtiny13ProgrammingAVRmicrocontrollerscanbeprogrammedusingvarioussoftwareoptionsavailableonthemarket.SomepeoplecontinuetoprogramAVRMCUsinAssemblylanguage.TheinformationprovidedbelowpertainstothemostadvancedandwidelyusedsoftwareandcompilerdevelopedbyAtmel(nowMicrochip).ToprogramtheAVRmicrocontroller,wellneedanIDE(IntegratedDevelopmentEnvironment),whichiswheretheprogramminghappens.AcompileriswhereourprogramisconvertedintoMCU-readableHEXfiles.IDE:AtmelStudio7Compiler:AVRandARMToolchainsMicrochiphasprovidedbothofthesepiecesofsoftwareforfree.Theycanbeobtaineddirectlyfromtheirofficialwebsite.Ivealsoincludedalinkforyourconvenience.Installthemonyourcomputeroncetheyvebeendownloaded.WellneedadevicecalledATAtmel-ICEtodumporuploadourcodeintoAVR.TheATAAtmel-ICEprogrammer/debuggerisastraightforwardin-circuitdebuggerthatiscontrolledbyaPCrunningAtmelStudioonaWindowsplatform.TheATAAtmel-ICEprogrammer/debuggerisanessentialtoolinthetoolboxofadevelopmentengineer.TheATtiny13ProgrammingCircuitisdepictedinthediagrambelow.UserscanalsousetheUSBASPAVRProgrammingDeviceinadditiontothisofficialprogrammerforlow-costprogrammingsolutions.Inaddition,wewillrequireotherhardwaresuchasaPerfboardorbreadboard,aSolderingstation,AVRICs,Crystaloscillators,capacitors,andsoon.ATtiny13PackageATtiny13ManufacturerMicrochipTechnologyInc.isaleadingproviderofmicrocontrollerandanalogsemiconductors,providinglow-riskproductdevelopment,lowertotalsystemcostandfastertimetomarketforthousandsofdiversecustomerapplicationsworldwide.HeadquarteredinChandler,Arizona,Microchipoffersoutstandingtechnicalsupportalongwithdependabledeliveryandquality.ComponentDatasheetATtiny13MicrocontrollerDatasheet5A and 60V though this transistor.

As mentioned above this transistor can also be used as an amplifier and it can provide the max output power of 12.The max collector current of the transistor is -1.

BD138 transistor can be used for any general purpose switching and amplification purposesBD138 transistor can be used for any general purpose switching and amplification purposes.

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