Tkool Electronics

IntroductionLM3886isahigh-performanceaudiopoweramplifier.ItexhibitsextremelylowTHD+Nvaluesof0.03%attheratedoutputintotheratedloadovertheaudiospectrum,andprovidesexcellentlinearitywithanIMD(SMPTE)typicalratingof0.004%.Itisverysuitablefortheenthusiastswhopursuebothbeautifulsoundqualityandstrongvolume.ThisarticleintroducesseveralpracticalapplicationsofLM3886inhometheatersystems.ThisisatechnicalexaminationvediooftheLM3886Amplifier.CatalogIntroductionCatalogIHighQualityDual-channelPowerAmplifierIIPowerfulBTLPowerAmplifierIIISubwooferSpeakerOrdering&QuantityIHighQualityDualChannelPowerAmplifierLM3886outputsnearly70Wpoweratratedvoltageandthepeakpoweris150W.Thedualchannelpoweramplifieradoptssimpleandtypicalcircuit,whichcanreplaceavarietyofHI-FIpoweramplifier,andissuitablefortheleftandrightmainchannelofpoweramplifierinhomecinema.ThewholecircuitisinstalledonthesamePCB.EachofthetwoLM3886sisequippedwithaspecialaluminumradiator(length140,thickness50,height75(mm)),whicharefixedonbothsidesofthePCBtofacilitateheatdissipation.Thepowertransformercanchoosedouble24~28V,3~5A.IIPowerfulBTLPowerAmplifierApureBTLbridgeamplifieriscomposedofanoperationalamplifierNE5532,anLM3886in-phaseamplifierandanLM3886invertingamplifier,whichcaneasilyoutputmorethan200Wundistortedpower.Itcanbeusedindancehalls,karaoke,theatersandotheroccasions.Thiscircuitcankeepthesoundqualitynaturalandsmoothwhenplayingatlowvolume.BTLPoweramplifiercircuitisshowninFigure1.Onecircuitboardforeachchannel,withindependentrectification.Thesizeoftworadiatorsis140mminlength,50mminthicknessand100mminheight.Figure1.BTLPowerAmplifierCircuitIIISubwooferSpeakerFigure2isthecircuitofahouseholdsubwooferspeaker.Figure2.circuitofsubwooferspeakerInthepicture,theLinkwitzactivecompensatoraccuratelycontrolsthecenterfrequencyf1ofthecompensationpeakanditsQvalue,sothattheclosedbox(seeFigure3)withanaturalcornerfrequencyabout50Hzandthefrequencyresponsecurve(seeFigure4)extendsdownflatly.Thelowend-3dBpointreaches25Hz.Figure3.ClosedboxFigure4.frequencyresponsecurveInFigure4,curveAisnaturalfrequencyresponse;Biscompensationcurve;andCissystemfrequencyresponse.Theturningfrequencyofthelow-passfilteriscontinuouslyadjustablefrom80Hzto200Hz,sothattheactivesubwoofercanmatchthereadersdualchannelspeakerwithdifferentfrequencylimits.TheloudspeakerusessilverfluteYD310-43.Thebasindiameteris310mm.Themagnetdiameteris158mm.Theresonancefrequencyis25Hz.Q=0.35.Thecontinuouspoweris50W,andthesensitivityisashighas95dB.ComparedwiththeHiviS8unitwithasensitivityof88dB,thesensitivitydifferencebetweenthetwois7dB.Fortheclosedbox,theoutputsoundpressureofYindiYD310-43whenitinput50WisequivalenttotheoutputofHiviS8unitwhenitinput200W.YindicanalsobereplacedbytheBlueWhaleYD310-8XA.Insteadofthebassreflexwithpoortransientperformanceandlowsensitivity,itisbettertousethesimplestclosedbox.Theboxshallbesolidandairtight,filledwithglassfibercottonoracryliccottonforwarmthabsorption,andthesmallcavityatthebottomoftheboxshallbeusedtoinstallthecircuitpart.Forthesakeofsimpleinstallation,allcircuitsareinstalledonthePCB.ThePCB,radiator,switchandI/Oconnectorarefixedonthemetalpanel,andthenfixedonthespeakerwith6screws.Then,itcanworkafterconnectingtohornandtransformer.Connectthesubwooferactivespeakerwiththehomestereospeakertoforma3Dplaybacksystem.

SMBJ40A-ON

IntroductionLM3886isahigh-performanceaudiopoweramplifier.ItexhibitsextremelylowTHD+Nvaluesof0.03%attheratedoutputintotheratedloadovertheaudiospectrum,andprovidesexcellentlinearitywithanIMD(SMPTE)typicalratingof0.004%.Itisverysuitablefortheenthusiastswhopursuebothbeautifulsoundqualityandstrongvolume.ThisarticleintroducesseveralpracticalapplicationsofLM3886inhometheatersystems.ThisisatechnicalexaminationvediooftheLM3886Amplifier.CatalogIntroductionCatalogIHighQualityDual-channelPowerAmplifierIIPowerfulBTLPowerAmplifierIIISubwooferSpeakerOrdering&QuantityIHighQualityDualChannelPowerAmplifierLM3886outputsnearly70Wpoweratratedvoltageandthepeakpoweris150W.Thedualchannelpoweramplifieradoptssimpleandtypicalcircuit,whichcanreplaceavarietyofHI-FIpoweramplifier,andissuitablefortheleftandrightmainchannelofpoweramplifierinhomecinema.ThewholecircuitisinstalledonthesamePCB.EachofthetwoLM3886sisequippedwithaspecialaluminumradiator(length140,thickness50,height75(mm)),whicharefixedonbothsidesofthePCBtofacilitateheatdissipation.Thepowertransformercanchoosedouble24~28V,3~5A.IIPowerfulBTLPowerAmplifierApureBTLbridgeamplifieriscomposedofanoperationalamplifierNE5532,anLM3886in-phaseamplifierandanLM3886invertingamplifier,whichcaneasilyoutputmorethan200Wundistortedpower.Itcanbeusedindancehalls,karaoke,theatersandotheroccasions.Thiscircuitcankeepthesoundqualitynaturalandsmoothwhenplayingatlowvolume.BTLPoweramplifiercircuitisshowninFigure1.Onecircuitboardforeachchannel,withindependentrectification.Thesizeoftworadiatorsis140mminlength,50mminthicknessand100mminheight.Figure1.BTLPowerAmplifierCircuitIIISubwooferSpeakerFigure2isthecircuitofahouseholdsubwooferspeaker.Figure2.circuitofsubwooferspeakerInthepicture,theLinkwitzactivecompensatoraccuratelycontrolsthecenterfrequencyf1ofthecompensationpeakanditsQvalue,sothattheclosedbox(seeFigure3)withanaturalcornerfrequencyabout50Hzandthefrequencyresponsecurve(seeFigure4)extendsdownflatly.Thelowend-3dBpointreaches25Hz.Figure3.ClosedboxFigure4.frequencyresponsecurveInFigure4,curveAisnaturalfrequencyresponse;Biscompensationcurve;andCissystemfrequencyresponse.Theturningfrequencyofthelow-passfilteriscontinuouslyadjustablefrom80Hzto200Hz,sothattheactivesubwoofercanmatchthereadersdualchannelspeakerwithdifferentfrequencylimits.TheloudspeakerusessilverfluteYD310-43.Thebasindiameteris310mm.Themagnetdiameteris158mm.Theresonancefrequencyis25Hz.Q=0.35.Thecontinuouspoweris50W,andthesensitivityisashighas95dB.ComparedwiththeHiviS8unitwithasensitivityof88dB,thesensitivitydifferencebetweenthetwois7dB.Fortheclosedbox,theoutputsoundpressureofYindiYD310-43whenitinput50WisequivalenttotheoutputofHiviS8unitwhenitinput200W.YindicanalsobereplacedbytheBlueWhaleYD310-8XA.Insteadofthebassreflexwithpoortransientperformanceandlowsensitivity,itisbettertousethesimplestclosedbox.Theboxshallbesolidandairtight,filledwithglassfibercottonoracryliccottonforwarmthabsorption,andthesmallcavityatthebottomoftheboxshallbeusedtoinstallthecircuitpart.Forthesakeofsimpleinstallation,allcircuitsareinstalledonthePCB.ThePCB,radiator,switchandI/Oconnectorarefixedonthemetalpanel,andthenfixedonthespeakerwith6screws.Then,itcanworkafterconnectingtohornandtransformer.Connectthesubwooferactivespeakerwiththehomestereospeakertoforma3Dplaybacksystem.

IDescriptionThisblogusesLM386integratedblockasthecoredevicetomakeasimplesoundamplifier.Itsproductioncostisrelativelylow.Thisblogissuitableforbeginnerstolearnaboutpowertubes,integratedoperationalamplifiers,speakers,languagechipsandothercomponents.Sowecanmastertheprinciples,characteristicsandusageofthebasicamplifiercircuitandpoweramplifiercircuit.Figure1.LM386CatalogIDescriptionIIIntroductiontoLM3862.1Features2.2InternalStructureIIIWorkingPrincipleofLM386SoundAmplifierIVLM386SoundAmplifierDebuggingVConclusionFAQOrdering&QuantityIIIntroductiontoLM3862.1FeaturesLM386isakindofaudiointegratedamplifier.Ithastheadvantagesoflowpowerconsumption,adjustableinternalchaingainadjustment,largepowersupplyvoltagerange,fewexternalcomponentsandlowtotalharmonicdistortion.Therefore,LM386iswidelyusedinrecordersandradios,mainlyinlow-voltageconsumerproducts.LM386featuresare:BatteryOperationMinimumExternalPartsWideSupplyVoltageRange:4V12Vor5V18VLowQuiescentCurrentDrain:4mAVoltageGainsfrom20to200Ground-ReferencedInputSelf-CenteringOutputQuiescentVoltageLowDistortion:0.2%(AV=20,VS=6V,RL=8,PO=125mW,f=1kHz)Availablein8-PinMSOPPackageBasedonthecharacteristicsshownabove,lm386componentsarewidelyusedincommunicationequipment,smallradios,andwalkie-talkiecircuits.Itisalsocalleduniversalpoweramplifiercircuitbythemajorityofelectronicenthusiasts.2.2InternalStructureLM386adopts8-pindualin-linepackage.SeeFigure2forthepinarrangementdiagram.Figure2.LM386PinArrangementPin6isconnectedtothepositivepoleofthepowersupply;Pin4aregrounded;Pin2invertinginputterminal;Pin3non-invertinginputterminal;Pin5istheoutputterminal;Pins1,7,and8areusedtoimprovetheperformanceofthecircuit.Theexternalcomponentends,andtheinternalcircuitisathree-stageamplifiercircuit:The1ststageconsistsofVT1~VT6toformadifferentialamplifiercircuit,The2ndstageiscomposedofVT7voltageamplifiercircuit,The3rdstageiscomposedofVT8~VT10toformacomplementarysymmetricalOTLoutputcircuitthatcaneliminatecrossoverdistortion.R5,R6,andR7formanegativefeedbacknetwork.IIIWorkingPrincipleofLM386SoundAmplifierThecoreoftheLM386soundamplifieristheLM386poweramplifierintegratedcircuit.AsshowninFigure3.TheelectretmicrophoneB1convertssoundsignalsintoelectricalsignals.Thissignalisveryweak,howtoamplifyit?WecanaddthecouplingcapacitorC1tothebaseofVT1,andVT1formsacommonemitteramplifiercircuittoamplifythesignal.Also,thesignalisoutputfromthecollectorofVT1,andaddedtotheinvertinginputterminalofLM386viacouplingcapacitorC2topin2andpin3isgrounded.AfterthesignalisamplifiedbytheinternalthreestagesofLM386,thesignalisoutputfrompin5,andthenpassesthroughthecouplingcapacitor.C3issenttothespeakers.Aftergoingthroughtheseprocesses,itcanmakeasound.Figure3.LM386SoundAmplifierFigure4.LM386AudioAmplifierCircuitThenhowtoadjustthesignalmagnificationofLM386?Here,wecanconnectanadjustableresistorR5andcapacitorC6topin1andpin8toformaseriesRCnetwork.WhenR5=0,thevoltagemagnificationis200.Pin7isconnectedtocapacitorC5topreventLM386fromgeneratingself-excitation.Inaddition,pin5isgroundedthroughR4andC4tomakethespeakersoundsofter.IVLM386SoundAmplifierDebuggingAfterthecircuitisassembled,weshouldcarefullycheckforerrorsorfalsesoldering.Ifthereisnoabnormalityaftertheinspection,turnonthe6Vpowersupplyfordebugging:Step1:Dontpickupthemicrophonefirst.Whenthereisnoinputsignal,testthequiescentcurrentofthewholemachine,whichisabout7mA.Step2:TestthestaticvoltagevalueofeachpinofLM386,asshowninFigure2.Step3:Afterthevoltageandcurrentarenormal,placetheRPvolumeregulatorinthemiddleandtouchthebaseofVT1withascrewdriver.Thespeakerwillemitaclickclicksound,indicatingthatthecircuitisnormal.Step4:ConnectthemicrophoneB1,andthenfine-tunetheRP.Ifnothinggoeswrong,speakintothemicrophone,thespeakershouldhaveamplifiedsound.Ifthereisnosound,checkwhetherthemicrophonecableisconnectedincorrectlyorthequalityofthemicrophoneisdefective.Step5:Whenusingasoundamplifier,donotplacethemicrophoneandspeakertooclosetogether.Iftheyareunfortunatelytooclose,thespeakerswillmakeaharshsound.Therefore,itisbesttouseshieldedwireforthemicrophonelead-out.Figure5.LM386VConclusionThroughthedesignofthisblog,wehaveanessentialunderstandingoftheworkingprincipleofLM386.Wehavemasteredthepinfunction,internalstructurecircuitandworkingprincipleofLM386.Inaddition,thesoundamplifiermadebyLM386hasthecharacteristicsofsimplecircuit,convenientdebugging,andcompletefunctions.Afterreadingthisblog,haveyoubetterunderstandLM386?FAQHowdoesanLM386work?TheLm386integratedchipisalowpoweraudiofrequencyamplifier,whichuseslowlevelpowersupplylikebatteriesinelectroniccircuits.Itisdesignedas8pinminiDIPpackage.Thisprovidesvoltageamplificationof20.Byusingexternalpartsvoltagegaincanberaisedupto200.Islm386anopamp?TheLM386isatypeofoperationalamplifier(Op-Amp)....Inanamplifiercircuit,theLM386takesanaudioinputsignalandincreasesitspotentialanywherefrom20to200times.Thatamplificationiswhatsknownasthevoltagegain.Whatislm386IC?TheLM386isanintegratedcircuitcontainingalowvoltageaudiopoweramplifier.Itissuitableforbattery-powereddevicessuchasradios,guitaramplifiers,andhobbyelectronicsprojects.Howdoyoucalculatelm386gain?VoltageGainAnalysis:Withoutanyexternalcomponents,ithasagainofGv=2x15K/(150+1350)=20(26dB).Withacapacitor(orshortcutting)betweenpins1and8,ithasagainofGv=2x15K/150=200(46dB).WhichICisusedinaudioamplifier?TheICLM386isalow-poweraudioamplifier,anditutilizeslowpowersupplylikebatteriesinelectricalandelectroniccircuits.ThisICisavailableinthepackageofmini8-pinDIP.WhataresomeprojectsthatusetheLM386audioamplifiercircuit?LM386isanintegratedclassABampandisgoodforbeginnerssmallaudioamplifierapplicationsforexampleinaRFreceiver,smallStereosystem,cheaplowvoltageamplifieretcdrawbacksisthatitcannothandlemuchpowerandhencecreatesdistortionwhenyoucrankupthevolumetoomuch..SootherICsareusedinpractical.HowtomakeanLM386audioamplifiercircuit?Introduction74LS04containssixindependentgateseachofwhichperformsthelogicINVERTfunction.Theoutputsignalsofthesixinvertersareoppositetotheinputsignals.CatalogIntroductionICircuitofRingOscillatorIISymmetricalSquare-waveOscillatorIIISimpleself-excitedMultivibratorIVCircuitofCrystalOscillatorandFrequencyDividerVFMWirelessMicrophoneFAQOrdering&QuantityICircuitofRingOscillatorFigure1.RingoscillatorTheexperimentalcircuitofanongateringself-excitedmultivibratorwithRCdelaycircuitisshowninthefigure.TheoscillationcircuitiscomposedofnongateIC1,IC2,IC3andtimingcircuitelementsRPandC.TherectangularwavesignalisoutputbyIC3.R1isaprotectiveresistortoavoiddamagetoIC3gatecircuitwhentimingcapacitorCisreversedischarged.NotgateIC4makestheoscillatoroutputrectangularwavewithbetterwaveform.Oscillationfrequencyestimationf1/2.3RCT2.3RCTheresistancevalueoftimingresistorisselectedintherangeof100-10002.ThetimingcapacitorChasalargevaluerange,fromseveralhundredpicofarads(pF)toseveralhundredmicrofarads,whichcanmaketheoscillationfrequencyrangefromseveralmegahertztoseveralhertz.Replacethetimingresistorwithapotentiometer(1.5k92),whichcancontinuouslyadjusttheoscillationfrequencyandhasalargercoverage.Thechipusedis74LS04.IISymmetricalSquare-waveOscillatorThefigureshowstheexperimentalcircuitofnon-gatesymmetricalsquare-waveself-excitedmultivibrator.Becausethecircuitissymmetrical,thedutycycleofoutputoscillationwaveformis1:1,whichissquarewave,soitiscalledsymmetricalsquarewaveoscillator.Intheoscillationcircuit,theoutputofnongateIC1iscoupledtotheinputofnongateIC2viaatimingcapacitorC2.Also,theIC2outputiscoupledtotheIC1inputviaC1.Twonongatesarecoupledwitheachotherthroughcapacitorstoformapositivefeedbackclosed-loopcircuit,whichcanproducesquare-waveoscillation.WhenR1=R4=R,C1=C2=C,theestimationformulaofoscillationfrequencyisasfollows:f1/RC.TheoscillationperiodTRC.Figure2.SymmetricalSquare-waveOscillatorIIISimpleself-excitedMultivibratorThefigureshowsasimplenongateself-excitedmultivibratorexperimentalcircuit.Itiscomposedofnon-gateoscillatorIC1,IC2,inverterIC3,redandgreenlight-emittingdiodesandpowersupplysystemGB.IC1andIC2aretheswitchinglinksoftheoscillator.R1andCtimingcircuitsproducedelaypositivefeedbacksignalstocontroltheswitchtoturnonandoffperiodically,sothatIC2outputsrectangularwave.TheinverterIC3makestheredandgreenLEDsandtheoscillatorflashalternately.Figure3.Simpleself-excitedmultivibratorIVCircuitofCrystalOscillatorandFrequencyDividerFigure4.CircuitofCrystaloscillatorandfrequencydividerVFMWirelessMicrophoneWirelessmicrophonesareavailableeverywhereonthemarket,buttheircircuitsareallmadeupofLCoscillatorsorquartzcrystaloscillatorcircuits.Asweallknow,theNANDgatehasthefunctionofmagnificationandphaseinversion.Therefore,aslongasthreeNANDgatesareconnected,aringoscillatorisformed.CoupledwiththeFMcircuit,itcanalsobemadeintoawirelessmicrophone.Figure5.FMwirelessmicrophone74LS04isaTTLintegratedcircuitwithsixsingle-inputNANDgates.Theauthorusesthreeofthemtomakeanoscillator.Whenthesupplyvoltageis5V,theoscillationfrequencyisabout90mhz.Whenthepowersupplyvoltagedecreases,thefrequencydecreases;whenthesupplyvoltageincreases,thefrequencyalsoincreases.Ofcourse,itsoscillationamplitudewillalsochange,buttheeffectisnotsignificant.Inthisway,theauthorusesthemethodofchangingthepowersupplyvoltagetochangethefrequency(thatis,toachievefrequencymodulation).ThespecificmethodistousetheoutputofBA328,anaudioamplifierintegratedcircuit,asitspowersupply.BA328isanamplifyingcircuitofrecordinghead.Whenitisusedfortapesignalcompensationandequalization,anRCseriesparallelnetworkshouldbeconnectedbetweenthefirstandthesecondpins,butitisusedforlinearamplification,soonlya100kw-130kwresistorisneeded.Thevoltageoftheoutputterminal(pin)ofBA328shouldbeequaltoone-halfofthevoltageofthepin(powersupply).Ifthepowersupplyvoltageis12V,thereshouldbea6Voutput.Ifitisnotcorrect,theresistanceshouldbeadjusted.Inaddition,the1kWresistorinthefigureisusedtoadjustthemagnification.Ifitisreduced,thegainwillbeincreased.Whenspeakingtoanelectretmicrophone,thevoltageattheoutput(PIN)canchangerapidlyfrom5.8vto6.2V.Thisvoltageissenttothefootof74LS04tomakeitgenerateFMsignal,whichisamplifiedandisolatedbythefourthNANDgateandsenttotheantenna.FAQWhatis74LS04?74LS04isamemberof74XXYYICseries.The74-seriesaredigitallogicintegratedcircuits.74LS04IChassixNOTgates.TheseNOTgatesperformInvertingfunction.HencenameHEXINVERTINGGATES.Whatisthefunctionofic74ls04?74LS04HexNOTGateIC.74LS04isa2inputquadruple8-bitNOTgateIC.InverterinlogicconvertersisanelectronicsdevicewhosebasicfunctionsaretoinverttheincominglogicweatheritisHIGHorLOW.TheyarealsoknownasNOTgates.Whatisahexinverter?Ahexinverterisatypeofanintegratedcircuitthatcontainssixinverters.Manysophisticateddigitaldevicesuseinverters,includingmultiplexers,decoders,andstatemachines.Aninvertercircuitsmainfunctionistooutputthevoltagerepresentingtheoppositeleveltoitsinput.WhyisNOTgatecalledaninverter?ANOTgate,oftencalledaninverter,isanicedigitallogicgatetostartwithbecauseithasonlyasingleinputwithsimplebehavior.ANOTgateperformslogicalnegationonitsinput.Inotherwords,iftheinputistrue,thentheoutputwillbefalse.

SMBJ40A-ON

Description74LS04containssixindependentgateseachofwhichperformsthelogicINVERTfunction.Theoutputsignalsofthesixinvertersareoppositetotheinputsignals.Theinvertercanreversethephaseoftheinputsignalby180degrees.Thiscircuitisusedinanalogcircuits,suchasaudioamplifier,clockoscillator,etc.Inverterisoftenusedinelectroniccircuitdesign.74LS04-HEXInverter-TruthTableExampleCatalogDescriptionCADModelsFeaturesApplicationPinoutCircuitDiagramPackageParametersElectricalCharacteristicsProductComplianceComponentDatasheetProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityCADModels74LS04FootprintFeaturesSupplyvoltagerange:+4.75Vto+5.25VMaximumsupplyvoltage:+7VMaximumcurrentallowedtodrawthrougheachgateoutput:8mATotallyleadfreeTTLoutputsMaximumRiseTime:15nsMaximumFallTime:15nsOperatingtemperature:0Cto70CApplication▪Indifferentlogiccircuit▪Indifferentservers▪Indifferentstoragemoduletostoredata▪Indifferentdigitalreluctancescircuitsandinstruments▪IndifferentnetworkingsystemsPinoutPinNumberDescriptionINPUTOFINVERTINGGATES11A-INPUTofGATE132A-INPUTofGATE253A-INPUTofGATE394A-INPUTofGATE4115A-INPUTofGATE5136A-INPUTofGATE6SHAREDTERMINALS7GND-Shouldbeconnectedtoground14VCC-ShouldbeconnectedtopositivevolatgeOUTPUTOFINVERTINGGATES21Y-OUTPUTofGATE142Y-OUTPUTofGATE263Y-OUTPUTofGATE384Y-OUTPUTofGATE4105Y-OUTPUTofGATE5126Y-OUTPUTofGATE6CircuitDiagramPackageParametersTechnologyFamilyLSVCC(Min)(V)4.75VCC(Max)(V)5.25Channels(#)6IOL(Max)(mA)8IOH(Max)(mA)-0.4ICC(Max)(uA)33InputtypeBipolarOutputtypePush-PullFeaturesHighspeed(tpd10-50ns),InputclampdiodeDatarate(Mbps)70ElectricalCharacteristicsProductComplianceECCNEAR99USHTS8542390001ComponentDatasheetDatasheet74LS04DatasheetProductManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.FAQWhatis74LS04?74LS04isamemberof74XXYYICseries.The74-seriesaredigitallogicintegratedcircuits.74LS04IChassixNOTgates.TheseNOTgatesperformInvertingfunction.HencenameHEXINVERTINGGATES.Whatisthefunctionofic74ls04?74LS04HexNOTGateIC.74LS04isa2inputquadruple8-bitNOTgateIC.InverterinlogicconvertersisanelectronicsdevicewhosebasicfunctionsaretoinverttheincominglogicweatheritisHIGHorLOW.TheyarealsoknownasNOTgates.Whatisahexinverter?Ahexinverterisatypeofanintegratedcircuitthatcontainssixinverters.Manysophisticateddigitaldevicesuseinverters,includingmultiplexers,decoders,andstatemachines.Aninvertercircuitsmainfunctionistooutputthevoltagerepresentingtheoppositeleveltoitsinput.WhyisNOTgatecalledaninverter?ANOTgate,oftencalledaninverter,isanicedigitallogicgatetostartwithbecauseithasonlyasingleinputwithsimplebehavior.ANOTgateperformslogicalnegationonitsinput.Inotherwords,iftheinputistrue,thentheoutputwillbefalse.Whatarethe7basiclogicgates?Therearesevenbasiclogicgates:AND,OR,XOR,NOT,NAND,NOR,andXNOR.TheANDgateissonamedbecause,if0iscalledfalseand1iscalledtrue,thegateactsinthesamewayasthelogicalandoperator.ThefollowingillustrationandtableshowthecircuitsymbolandlogiccombinationsforanANDgate.IntroductionAcircuitordevicethatchangesthephaseofasignalby180,asrequiredforfeedingapush-pullamplifierstagewithoutusingacouplingtransformer,orforchangingthepolarityofapulse;atriodeiscommonlyusedasaphaseinverter.Alsoknownasinverter.Thefollowingisanintroductionto74LS04andothersimilarICchips.CatalogIntroductionI74LS04VS.74LS141.1BriefIntroduction1.2Differencebetween74LS04and74LS14II74LS04VS.74LS08III74LS04VS.74HC04IV74LS04VS.54LS04FAQOrdering&QuantityI74LS04VS.74LS141.1BriefIntroductionBoth74LS04and74LS14arenotgatesofthe74series.74LS04isaHexInverter.74LS14isaHexSchmidttrigger.The74LS04gatecircuithasathresholdvoltage.Whentheinputvoltagerisesfromthelowleveltothethresholdvoltage,ordecreasesfromthehighleveltothethresholdvoltage,theconditionofthecircuitwillchange.74LS14isaSchmidttrigger.Itisaspecialgatecircuit,whichisnotcompatiblewiththesimplegatecircuit.Schmidttriggerhastwothresholdvoltages(positivethresholdvoltageandnegativethresholdvoltage).1.2Differencebetween74LS04and74LS14◾Output:Theoutputof74LS04and74LS14arethesame.Ifthesamemanufacturer,theoutputparametersarethesame.◾Input:Thedifferencebetweenthetwoisthattheinputisnotthesame.74LS04inputisTTLlevel,while74LS14inputisSchmidtinput(withhysteresischaracteristics).Becausetheinputisdifferent,theapplicationofthetwochipsisalsodifferent.74LS04ismostlyusedfornoncontrolofgeneraldataontheboard,while74LS14isgenerallyusedforsignalshapingorsignalbufferingofcriticalsignals.Inmostcases,74LS14canreplace74LS04.II74LS04VS.74LS08The74LS08devicecontains4independent2-inputANDgates.Thelogicfunctionexpressionof74LS08is:Y=ABorY=/(A+B),positivelogic.74LS08iscommonlyusedindigitalcircuitsystems.74LS0474LS08VCC(Min)(V)4.754.75VCC(Max)(V)5.255.25LogiclevelTTLTTLPin/Package14PDIP,14SO,14SOIC,14SSOPPDIP14,SOIC14,SOP14,SSOP14III74LS04VS.74HC0474HC04isahexinverterofCMOScircuit,andtheworkingvoltageis2V-6V.Both74LS04and74HC04areinverters,butLSstandsforlow-powerSchottkyandHCishigh-speedCOMS.LSisslightlyfasterthanHC.LSadoptsTTLlevel.HCisCMOSlevel.74HC04iseasytounderstand.Inputlowlevel,outputhighlevel.Inputhighlevel,outputlowlevel.74LS04containssixindependentgateseachofwhichperformsthelogicINVERTfunction.Theoutputsignalsofthesixinvertersareoppositetotheinputsignals.Theinvertercanreversethephaseoftheinputsignalby180degrees.Thiscircuitisusedinanalogcircuits,suchasaudioamplifier,clockoscillator,etc.IV74LS04VS.54LS0454LS04containssixindependentinverters.Itischaracterizedforoperationoverthefullmilitarytemperaturerangeof-55℃to125℃.74LS0454LS04TechnologyFamilyLSLSVCC(Min)(V)4.754.5VCC(Max)(V)5.255.5Bits(#)66Voltage(Nom)(V)55F@NomVoltage(Max)(Mhz)3535ICC@NomVoltage(Max)(mA)0.0330.033tpd@NomVoltage(Max)(ns)2222IOL(Max)(mA)88IOH(Max)(mA)-0.4-0.4SchmittTriggerNoNoRatingCatalogMilitaryOperatingTemperatureRange(C)0to70-55to125Pin/Package14PDIP,14SO,14SOIC,14SSOP14CDIP,14CFP,20LCCCFAQWhatis74LS04?74LS04isamemberof74XXYYICseries.The74-seriesaredigitallogicintegratedcircuits.74LS04IChassixNOTgates.TheseNOTgatesperformInvertingfunction.HencenameHEXINVERTINGGATES.Whatisthefunctionofic74ls04?74LS04HexNOTGateIC.74LS04isa2inputquadruple8-bitNOTgateIC.InverterinlogicconvertersisanelectronicsdevicewhosebasicfunctionsaretoinverttheincominglogicweatheritisHIGHorLOW.TheyarealsoknownasNOTgates.Whatisahexinverter?Ahexinverterisatypeofanintegratedcircuitthatcontainssixinverters.Manysophisticateddigitaldevicesuseinverters,includingmultiplexers,decoders,andstatemachines.Aninvertercircuitsmainfunctionistooutputthevoltagerepresentingtheoppositeleveltoitsinput.WhyisNOTgatecalledaninverter?ANOTgate,oftencalledaninverter,isanicedigitallogicgatetostartwithbecauseithasonlyasingleinputwithsimplebehavior.ANOTgateperformslogicalnegationonitsinput.Inotherwords,iftheinputistrue,thentheoutputwillbefalse.DescriptionTIP122isanNPNDarlingtontransistor.Darlingtontransistormeanstherearetwotransistorinonepackageconnectedtoincreasegainatoutput.TIP122transistorhasalotofgoodfeatureslike5Acollectorcurrent,maxemitter-basevoltageis5V,maxcollectordissipationis65watt,minimummaximumcurrentgainisequalto1000.Thistransistorisdesignedtouseasaswitchandforamplificationpurposes.CatalogDescriptionTIP122ComponentDatasheetTIP122PinoutTIP122FeaturesTIP122ApplicationsTIP122EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsTIP122ParametersWorkingofTIP122HowtoSafelyLongRuninaCircuitDarlingtonCircuitSchematicWheretouseTIP122HowtouseTIP122TIP122ReplacementandEquivalentComplementofTIP122TIP122AlternativeNPNTransistorsTIP122SameFamilyTransistorsAdditionalResourcesFAQOrdering&QuantityTIP122ComponentDatasheetResourceTypeLinkDatasheetsTIP120-22TIP120-22,TIP125-27TO220B03PkgDrawingPCNObsolescence/EOLMultipleDevices19/Jun/2009MultDeviceEOL19/May/2017PCNDesign/SpecificationHeatsinkDesingChanges24/Feb/2014Logo17/Aug/2017PCNPackagingTapeandBox/ReelBarcodeUpdate07/Aug/2014MultDevices24/Oct/2017HTMLDatasheetTO220B03PkgDrawingTIP122PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1BaseItgovernsthebiasingofthetransistorandworkstoturnONorOFFthetransistor.2CollectorCurrentflowsinthroughcollector,usuallyconnectedtoload3EmitterCurrentcomesoutbytheemitter,itisusuallylinkedtoground.TIP122FeaturesHighDCCurrentGainhFE=2500(Typ)@IC=4.0AdcCollectorEmitterSustainingVoltage@100mAdcVCEO(sus)=60Vdc(Min)TIP120,TIP125=80Vdc(Min)TIP121,TIP126=100Vdc(Min)TIP122,TIP127LowCollectorEmitterSaturationVoltageVCE(sat)=2.0Vdc(Max)@IC=3.0Adc=4.0Vdc(Max)@IC=5.0AdcMonolithicConstructionwithBuiltInBaseEmitterShuntResistorsPbFreePackagesareAvailable*TIP122ApplicationsAudioAmplifierAudioAmplifierStagesAudioPreamplifiersSwitchingLoadsUnder5ATIP122EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsAttributeDescriptionRoHSStatusRoHSnon-compliantMoistureSensitivityLevel(MSL)1(Unlimited)TIP122ParametersBaseProductNumberTIP122CategoryDiscreteSemiconductorProducts-Transistors-Bipolar(BJT)-SingleCollector-BaseVoltageVCBO100VConfigurationSingleCurrent-Collector(Ic)(Max)5ACurrent-CollectorCutoff(Max)500ADCCurrentGain(hFE)(Min)@Ic,Vce1000@3A,3VDescriptionTRANSNPNDARL100V5ATO220ABDetailedDescriptionBipolar(BJT)TransistorEmitter-BaseVoltageVEBO5VFactoryPackQuantity200Height9.4mmLength10.67mmManufacturerONSemiconductorManufacturerProductNumberTIP122MaximumCollectorCut-offCurrent200uAMaximumDCCollectorCurrent5AMaximumOperatingTemperature+150CMinimumOperatingTemperature-65CMountingStyleThroughHoleMountingTypeThroughHoleOperatingTemperature-65C~150C(TJ)PackagingBulkPartStatusObsoletePower-Max2WProductTypeDarlingtonTransistorsSeriesTIP122SubcategoryTransistorsTransistorTypeNPN-DarlingtonUnitWeight0.042329ozVceSaturation(Max)@Ib,Ic4V@20mA,5AVoltage-CollectorEmitterBreakdown(Max)100VWidth4.83mmWorkingofTIP122Thistransistorisrecognizedforitshighercurrentgainwhichis1000andhighercollectorcurrent5amperes,therefore,itisusuallyusedtoswitchThistransistorhaslessbaseandemitterVoltageofthemerely5VhenceforthcanbeeffortlesslyorganizedbyaLogicinstrumentsuchasamicrocontrollerThoughprecautionhastobeengagedtocheck,ifthelogicinstrumentscanfontupto120mA.ThoughTIP122hasextraordinarycurrentatcollectorandcurrentgain,itisimpartiallymodesttoswitchtheexpedientmeanwhileithasanEmitter-Basevoltage(VBE)oftheonly5VandIbofmerely120mA.HowtoSafelyLongRuninaCircuitTogetbetterperformancewiththisdarlingtiontransistorwesuggesttoalwaysstayingbelowitsmaximumratings.Donotoperateitincircuitsusingmorethan100V.Donotprovideloadmorethan5A.Alwaysuseasuitablebaseresistortoproviderequiredcurrentatitsbase.Useasuitableheatsinktosaveitfromoverheatinganddostoreoruseitintemperaturebelow-65centigradeandabove+150centigrade.DarlingtonCircuitSchematicWheretouseTIP122Thistransistorisknownforitshighcurrentgain(hfe=1000)andhighcollectorcurrent(IC=5A)henceitisnormallyusedtocontrolloadswithhighcurrentorinapplicationswherehighamplificationisrequired.ThistransistorhasalowBase-EmitterVoltageoftheonly5VhencecanbeeasilycontrolledbyaLogicdevicelikemicrocontrollers.Althoughcarehastobetakentocheckifthelogicdevicecansourceupto120mA.So,ifyoulookingforatransistorthatcouldbeeasilycontrolledbyaLogicdevicetoswitchhighpowerloadsortoamplifyhighcurrentthenthisTransistormightbeanidealchoiceforyourapplication.HowtouseTIP122AlthoughTIPhashighcollectorcurrentandcurrentgain,itisfairlysimpletocontrolthedevicesinceithasanEmitter-Basevoltage(VBE)ofonly5Vandbasecurrentofonly120mA.InthebelowcircuitIhaveusedtheTIP122tocontrola48Vmotorwhichhasacontinuouscurrentofabout3A.Thecontinuescollectorcurrentofthistransistoris5Aandourloadconsumesonly3Awhichisfine.Themaximumbasecurrentisabout120mA,butIhaveusedhighvalueof100ohmresistortolimititto42mA.Youcanuseevena1Kresistorifyourcollectorcurrentrequirementisless.Thepeak(pulse)currentofthistransistoris8Asomakesureyourmotordoesnotconsumemorethanthat.Thisisjustamodelcircuitdiagramthatshowstheworkingonthistransistoritcannotbeusedassuch.So,similarlyyoucancontrolyourloadinthesameway.TIP122ReplacementandEquivalentTIP132,TIP102,NTE261,NTE263,2N6045,2N6045G,2SD2495,BDT65B,2N6532,BDT63B,BDW43,TIP142T(PinconfigurationofsometransistorsmaydifferfromTIP122,checkpinconfigurationbeforereplacinginacircuit)TIP22isadarlingtionpairtransistormanufacturedinTO-220package,itsagoodtransistortouseasahighgainswitchoramplifier.ComplementofTIP122ThecomplementoftheTIP122transistorisTIP127.TIP122AlternativeNPNTransistorsBC547,BC548,BC549,BC636,BC639,2N2369,2N3055,2N3904,2N3906,2SC5200TIP122SameFamilyTransistorsNPNFamilytransistorsareTIP120,TIP121,TIP122,andPNPFamilyareTIP125,TIP126,TIP127(PNP)AdditionalResourcesAttributeDescriptionOtherNamesTIP122FSTIP122FS-NDTIP122FS-NDRTIP122OSFAQWhatisTIP122transistor?TIP122TransistorisanNPNDarlingtontransistor....TIP122Darlingtontransistorhasalotofgoodfeatures,like5Acollectorcurrent,maximumemitter-basevoltageis5V,maximumcollectordissipationis65watt,andsoon.Thistransistorismanufacturedtouseasaswitchandforamplificationpurposes.WhattypeofpackageisusedforTIP122transistor?TheTIP122isasiliconNPNDarlingtontransistorinaTO-220typepackagedesignedforgeneralpurposeamplifierandlow-speedswitchingapplications.HowdoyoutestatransistorTIP122?Harvino.Theproperwaytotestistosetyourdmmtodiodetest(usually2ksettingontheohmscale).Transistorshavethreelegs;anemitter,abase,andacollector.HowdoIknowifmytransistorisblown?Connectthebaseterminalofthetransistortotheterminalmarkedpositive(usuallycolouredred)onthemultimeter.Connecttheterminalmarkednegativeorcommon(usuallycolouredblack)tothecollectorandmeasuretheresistance.Itshouldreadopencircuit(thereshouldbeadeflectionforaPNPtransistor).Whatarethe3terminalsofatransistor?Abipolartransistorhasterminalslabeledbase,collector,andemitter.Asmallcurrentatthebaseterminal(thatis,flowingbetweenthebaseandtheemitter)cancontrolorswitchamuchlargercurrentbetweenthecollectorandemitterterminals.HowtomakeminiaudioamplifieruseTIP122/TIP127transistor?

SMBJ40A-ON

IntroductionLM339(Quaddifferentialcomparator)consistoffourindependentvoltagecomparators.Itisacommonintegratedcircuitandismainlyusedinhigh-voltagedigitallogicgatecircuits.UsingLM339caneasilyformvariousvoltagecomparatorcircuitsandoscillatorcircuits.CatalogIntroductionCatalogICircuitofSingleLimitComparatorIIOverheatDetectionandProtectionCircuitIIIHysteresisComparatorIVOver-voltageDetectionCircuitVDoubleLimitComparatorVIUsingLM339toformanOscillatorFAQOrdering&QuantityICircuitofSingleLimitComparatorFigure(a)showsabasicsinglelimitcomparator.AddtheinputsignalUIN(i.e.voltagetobecompared)tothein-phaseinputterminal,andconnectareferencevoltageUrattheanti-phaseinputterminal.WhentheinputvoltageUinUr,theoutputishighlevelUOH.Figure(b)showsitstransmissioncharacteristics.Figure1.CircuitofSingleLimitComparatorIIOverheatDetectionandProtectionCircuitItispoweredbyasinglepowersupply.Afixedreferencevoltageisaddedtotheanti-phaseinputterminalof1/4LM339,anditsvaluedependsonR1andR2.UR=R2/(R1+R2)*UCC.Thevoltageatthein-phaseterminalisequaltothevoltagedropofthethermistorRT.Whenthetemperatureinsidethemachineisbelowthesetvalue,the+terminalvoltageisgreaterthanthe-terminalvoltage,andUoisahighpotential.Whenthetemperaturerisesabovethesetvalue,the-terminalvoltageisgreaterthanthe+terminal,andtheUooutputisatzeropotential,whichcausestheprotectioncircuittooperate.AdjustingthevalueofR1canchangethethresholdvoltage,whichsetsthetemperaturevalue.Figure2.OverheatDetectionandProtectionCircuitIIIHysteresisComparatorThehysteresiscomparatorcanalsoberegardedasasinglelimitcomparatorwithpositivefeedback.Inthesinglelimitcomparatordescribedabove,iftheinputsignalUinhasslightinterferencenearthethreshold,theoutputvoltagewillproducecorrespondingundulation.Thisshortcomingcanbeovercomebyintroducingpositivefeedbackintothecircuit..Figure(a)showsahysteresiscomparator.ThefamiliarSchmidtcircuitisacomparatorwithhysteresis.Figure(b)showsthetransmissioncharacteristicsofthehysteresiscomparator.Figure3.HysteresisComparatorItisnotdifficulttoseethatoncetheoutputstateischanged,theoutputvoltagewillbestableaslongastheinterferencenearthejumpvoltagevaluedoesnotexceedthevalueofU.Accordingly,itcomestoareductioninresolution.Forthehysteresiscomparator,itcantdistinguishtwoinputvoltageswhosedifferenceislessthanU.Thehysteresiscomparatorwithpositivefeedbackcanacceleratetheresponsespeedofthecomparator,whichisoneofitsadvantages.Inaddition,sincethepositivefeedbackaddedbythehysteresiscomparatorisverystrongandmuchstrongerthantheparasiticcouplinginthecircuit,thehystericcomparatorcanalsoavoidtheself-oscillationcausedbytheparasiticcouplingofthecircuit.IVOver-voltageDetectionCircuitFigure4showsthepartofover-voltagedetectioncircuitinaninductioncookercircuit.Whenthegridvoltageisnormal,1/4lm339u42.8v,thecomparatorturnsover.Theoutputis0VandBG1iscutoff.ThevoltageofU5iscompletelydeterminedbythepartialvoltagevalueofR1andR2,whichis2.7V.ItmakesU4largerthanU5,whichmakesthestateafteroverturningextremelystableandavoidstheinstabilitycausedbythesmallfluctuationofgridvoltageneartheover-voltagepoint.Duetocertainhysteresis,afterovervoltageprotection,theinductioncookerstartstoworkagainwhenthegridvoltagedropsto242-5=237vandU4U3.Figure4.Over-voltageDetectionCircuitVDoubleLimitComparatorThecircuitinFigure5consistsoftwoLM339toformawindowcomparator.WhenthecomparedsignalvoltageUinisbetweenthethresholdvoltages(UR1UinUR2),theoutputishighpotential(UO=UOH).WhenUinisnotbetweenthethresholdpotentialrange,(UinUR2orUinUR1)theoutputislowpotential(UO=UOL),andthewindowvoltageU=UR2-UR1.Itcanbeusedtojudgewhethertheinputsignalpotentialisbetweenthespecifiedthresholdpotential.Figure5.DoubleLimitComparatorVIUsingLM339toformanOscillatorFigure6showsthecircuitofanaudiosquarewaveoscillatorcomposedof1/4LM339.ChangingC1canchangethefrequencyoftheoutputsquarewave.Inthiscircuit,whenC1=0.1uF,f=53Hz;whenC1=0.01uF,f=530Hz;whenC1=0.001uF,f=5300Hz.LM339canalsoformahigh-voltagedigitallogicgatecircuit,andcandirectlyinterfacewithTTLandCMOScircuits.Figure6.LM339OscillatorFAQWhatisLM339?LM339isavoltagecomparatorICfromLMx39xseriesandismanufacturedbymanyindustries.Thedevicesconsistoffourindependentvoltagecomparatorsthataredesignedtooperatefromasinglepowersupply.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM324andLM339?TheLM324hasacomplementaryoutputwhiletheLM339isopencollector.Inthecomplementaryoutput,currentcanflowineitherdirectionasrequired(eithersourceorsink)whiletheopencollectoroutputcanonlysinkcurrent.HowdoesLM339comparatorwork?TheLM339isaquadopampcomparator.Acomparatorworksbyasimpleconcept.Eachopampofacomparatorhas2inputs,ainvertinginputandanoninvertinginput.Iftheinvertinginputvoltageisgreaterthanthenoninvertinginput,thentheoutputisdrawntoground.Whatiscomparatoric?Acomparatorisanelectroniccircuit,whichcomparesthetwoinputsthatareappliedtoitandproducesanoutput.Theoutputvalueofthecomparatorindicateswhichoftheinputsisgreaterorlesser.Pleasenotethatcomparatorfallsundernon-linearapplicationsofICs.WhatisthereplacementforLM339?LM311,LM324,LM397,LM139,LM239,LM2901Whatisacomparatorcircuit?Acomparatorcircuitcomparestwovoltagesandoutputseithera1(thevoltageattheplusside;VDDintheillustration)ora0(thevoltageatthenegativeside)toindicatewhichislarger.Comparatorsareoftenused,forexample,tocheckwhetheraninputhasreachedsomepredeterminedvalue.WhatistheuseofLM339?LM339isusedinapplicationswhereacomparisonbetweentwovoltagesignalsisrequired.Inadditionwithfourofthosecomparatorsonboardthedevicecancomparefourpairsofvoltagesignalsatatimewhichcomesinhandyinsomeapplications.IIntroductionInthisblog,wecomparetheLM339andLM339NproducedbyTI.Thecontentofcomparisonincludescomponentparameters,packaging,applicationareas,andtheircircuitdiagrams,etc.HopethisblogishelpfultothoseinterestedinLM339orLM339N.LM339NCatalogIIntroductionIIComponentDatasheetIIIDifferenceBetweenLM339andLM339NIVParametersVFeaturesVIApplicationsVIIPinoutFAQOrdering&QuantityIIComponentDatasheetComponentDatasheet1LM339NDatasheetComponentDatasheet2LM339DatasheetIIIDifferenceBetweenLM339andLM339N◾LM339Nisaquadvoltagecomparator.Itadoptsdualin-line14-pinpackage.Themaximumoperatingvoltageis18Vandthepowerconsumptionis265mW.Itisusedininductioncookersandotherproducts.◾LM339(Quaddifferentialcomparator)consistoffourindependentvoltagecomparators.Itisacommonintegratedcircuitandismainlyusedinhigh-voltagedigitallogicgatecircuits.LM339commonmoderangeisverylarge,from0vtothepowersupplyvoltage-1.5v;widesupplyvoltagerange:singlepowersupplyis2-36V;dualpowersupplyvoltageis1V~18V.IVParametersParametersLM339NLM339Numberofchannels(#)44OutputtypeOpen-collector,Open-drainOpen-collectorPropagationdelaytime(s)0.70.3Vs(Max)(V)3630Vs(Min)(V)22Vos(offsetvoltage@25C)(Max)(mV)55Iqperchannel(Typ)(mA)0.20.2Inputbiascurrent(+/-)(Max)(nA)25050Rail-to-railOutOutRatingCatalogCatalogOperatingtemperaturerange(C)0to700to70FeaturesStandardcomparatorStandardcomparatorVICR(Max)(V)3428.5VICR(Min)(V)00Approx.price(US$)1ku|0.241ku|0.05VFeaturesLM339NLM339WideSupplyVoltageRangeLM139/139ASeries2to36VDCor1to18VDCLM2901-N:2to36VDCor1to18VDCLM3302-N:2to28VDCor1to14VDCVeryLowSupplyCurrentDrain(0.8mA)IndependentofSupplyVoltageLowInputBiasingCurrent:25nALowInputOffsetCurrent:5nAOffsetVoltage:3mVInputCommon-ModeVoltageRangeIncludesGNDDifferentialInputVoltageRangeEqualtothePowerSupplyVoltageLowOutputSaturationVoltage:250mVat4mAOutputVoltageCompatibleWithTTL,DTL,ECL,MOS,andCMOSLogicSystemsWideSupplyRangesSingleSupply:2Vto36V(Testedto30VforNon-VDevicesand32VforV-SuffixDevices)DualSupplies:1Vto18V(Testedto15VforNon-VDevicesand16VforV-SuffixDevices)LowSupply-CurrentDrainIndependentofSupplyVoltage:0.8mA(Typical)LowInputBiasCurrent:25nA(Typical)LowInputOffsetCurrent:3nA(Typical)(LM139)LowInputOffsetVoltage:2mV(Typical)Common-ModeInputVoltageRangeIncludesGroundDifferentialInputVoltageRangeEqualtoMaximum-RatedSupplyVoltage:36VLowOutputSaturationVoltageOutputCompatibleWithTTL,MOS,andCMOSOnProductsComplianttoMIL-PRF-38535,AllParametersAreTestedUnlessOtherwiseNoted.OnAllOtherProducts,ProductionProcessingDoesNotNecessarilyIncludeTestingofAllParameters.VIApplicationsLM339NLM339High-PrecisionComparatorsReducedVOSDriftOvertemperatureEliminatesNeedforDualSuppliesAllowsSensingNearGNDCompatibleWithAllFormsofLogicPowerDrainSuitableforBatteryOperationIndustrialAutomotiveInfotainmentandClustersBodyControlModulesPowerSupervisionOscillatorsPeakDetectorsLogicVoltageTranslationVIIPinoutLM339andLM339NsharethesamepinoutdiagramFAQWhatisLM339?LM339isavoltagecomparatorICfromLMx39xseriesandismanufacturedbymanyindustries.Thedevicesconsistoffourindependentvoltagecomparatorsthataredesignedtooperatefromasinglepowersupply.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM324andLM339?TheLM324hasacomplementaryoutputwhiletheLM339isopencollector.Inthecomplementaryoutput,currentcanflowineitherdirectionasrequired(eithersourceorsink)whiletheopencollectoroutputcanonlysinkcurrent.HowdoesLM339comparatorwork?TheLM339isaquadopampcomparator.Acomparatorworksbyasimpleconcept.Eachopampofacomparatorhas2inputs,ainvertinginputandanoninvertinginput.Iftheinvertinginputvoltageisgreaterthanthenoninvertinginput,thentheoutputisdrawntoground.Whatiscomparatoric?Acomparatorisanelectroniccircuit,whichcomparesthetwoinputsthatareappliedtoitandproducesanoutput.Theoutputvalueofthecomparatorindicateswhichoftheinputsisgreaterorlesser.Pleasenotethatcomparatorfallsundernon-linearapplicationsofICs.WhatisthereplacementforLM339?LM311,LM324,LM397,LM139,LM239,LM2901Whatisacomparatorcircuit?Acomparatorcircuitcomparestwovoltagesandoutputseithera1(thevoltageattheplusside;VDDintheillustration)ora0(thevoltageatthenegativeside)toindicatewhichislarger.Comparatorsareoftenused,forexample,tocheckwhetheraninputhasreachedsomepredeterminedvalue.WhatistheuseofLM339?LM339isusedinapplicationswhereacomparisonbetweentwovoltagesignalsisrequired.Inadditionwithfourofthosecomparatorsonboardthedevicecancomparefourpairsofvoltagesignalsatatimewhichcomesinhandyinsomeapplications.

SMBJ40A-ON

IDescriptionThisblogmainlydiscussesandsolvesthefollowingproblem:HowtouseLM339voltagecomparatortomakeareservoirwaterlevelgauge?Accordingtowaterlevel,thisdesignperformssignalprocessingandcontrolsthepotentialofmultiplevoltagecomparators,sotheoutputwillchangeaccordingly.Therefore,underitsdrive,LEDcannotonlyemitlight,butalsoachievetheeffectofindicatingthewaterlevel.Figure1.LM339CatalogIDescriptionIIIntroductionIIIWokingPrincipleIVDeviceselectionandComponentProduction4.1deviceselection4.2PartProductionVInstallationandDebugging5.1DetectionPart5.2DisplayPartVIConclusionFAQOrdering&QuantityIIIntroductionDuetoinsufficientwatersupplyinsomeresidentialareas,pumpworkersmustfirststorewaterinthereservoirandthensupplywaterinaregularmanner.Inthisway,thepumpworkermustknowthewaterlevelofthereservoiratanytimeinthepumproom.Inthepast,electrodessuchascopperrodsorstainlesssteelwereusedtodetectthewaterlevelofthepool.However,duetoelectriccorrosion,thefunctionoftheelectrodeislostsoonafteruse.Forthisreason,thisblogusesLM339voltagecomparatortomakewaterlevelgauge.Thisnotonlyeliminatesthepainofoftenchangingelectrodes,butalsosimpleandeasy.Howsimpleisit?Onlytwowiresneedtobeconnectedfromthereservoirtothepumproom.Aftermorethantwoyearsofoperation,itsperformancehasbeenstableandreliable,achievingtheexpectedresults.IIIWokingPrincipleThemaincircuitofthewaterlevelgaugeiscomposedof4LM339voltagecomparators.Thiskindofintegratedcircuithasthecharacteristicsofeasypurchase,lowprice,singlepowersupplyoperationandwidedifferentialrange.EachLM339has4independentvoltagecomparators(15inthisdesign).Aslongasthepotentialdifferencebetweenthepositiveandnegativeinputterminalsis10mV,theoutputterminalcanbereliablyswitchedfromonestatetoanother.Whenthepositiveinputterminalis10mVhigherthanthenegativeinputterminal,itsoutputterminalishigh;Whenthenegativeinputis10mVhigherthanthepositiveinput,itsoutputislow.Inaddition,LEDscanbedrivendirectly.ThenhowtomaketheoutputendofLM339havehighandlowlevelchanges?Inspecificuse,anappropriateresistanceisgenerallyaddedbetweentheoutputterminalandthepositivepowersupply.Thisresistoriscalledapull-upresistor.Thatis,whentheoutputterminalofLM339isinahighimpedancestate,thepotentialoftheoutputterminalispulledupbytheresistor.Figure2.BlockDiagramofWaterLevelGaugeTheprincipleblockdiagramofthedeviceisshowninFigure2.Thevoltagesignalmeasurementconsistsofareedswitchandavoltagedividerresistor.Theringmagnetssuspendedinthewaterareindifferentpositions.Duetotheprincipleofelectromagneticinduction,notonlythecorrespondingdryreedswitchnormallyopencontactsareclosed,butalsothecorrespondingvoltagedividerresistorisconnected.Therefore,thecircuitwillpickupdifferentvoltagesignals.Thepotentialofthenegativeinputterminalofthecomparatorisformedbyafixedvoltagedividerresistor.Themeasuredvoltagesignaliscomparedwiththesetpotential.TheresultofthisisthattheLEDdisplaysthewaterlevelwhendriven.Inaddition,analarmisissuedwhenthehighestwaterlevelisreachedtoremindthepumpertostopwaterinjectiontopreventwateroverflow.TheconcretecircuitisshownasinFig.3.Figure3.WaterLevelGaugeCircuitDiagramInFigure3,thepowersupplyis+12V,andthedepthofthepoolisdividedinto15segmentsfordisplay.Inthispicture:A1~A15arevoltagecomparatorscomposedofLM339;GK1~GK15aredryreedswitches,thenormallyopencontactisclosedwhentheringmagnetisclosetoacertaindryreedswitch;ThevoltagedividercircuitcomposedofresistorsR1toR15determinesthepotentialofthepositiveinputterminalofeachcomparator.ThevoltageofthepositiveinputterminalofLM339changesduetothedifferentpositionsofthemagneticsteel.ThevoltagedividercircuitcomposedofresistorsR01~R030determinesthepotentialofthenegativeinputterminalofeachcomparator.Thepotentialofeachnegativeinputterminalisfixedafterdetermination.Whenthemagneticsteelfloatingonthewatersurfaceisclosetoacertaindryreedswitch,duetothepartialpressureofR1,R2,,R15,thepositiveinputterminalsofthecomparatorsA1,A2,,A15havedifferentinputs.Afterthissignaliscomparedwiththepotentialsetatthenegativeinputofthecomparator,therewillbeacorrespondingoutput.FromFigure3,whenGK1pullsin,itisequivalenttoholdingthemagneticsteelfloatattheupperlimitwaterlevel.Thepositiveinputofeachcomparatorisequaltothegroundpotential,whichislowerthantheirnegativeinput.Therefore,theoutputterminalsarealllowlevel,sothatallLEDsarelit.Atthistime,theoutputofA1dropsfromhighleveltolowlevel,andNE555istriggeredthroughcapacitorC.NE555isconnectedasamonostablecircuit.Oncetriggered,its3pinwilloutputahighlevel,whichwilldrivethebuzzertoalarm.ItsdurationisdeterminedbytheRCcomponentsconnectedtothe6and7pins.WhenGK2isclosed,LED2~LED15shouldbeonandLED1shouldbeoff.Atthistime,thepotentialofthepositiveinputterminalofeachcomparatorishigherthanthepotentialofthenegativeinputterminalofA1andlowerthanthepotentialofthenegativeinputterminalofA2~A15,andsoon.IVDeviceselectionandComponentProduction4.1deviceselectiona.SetthenegativeinputpotentialofeachcomparatortoVsh.Thenegativeinputpotentialofeachcomparatorissetartificiallyaccordingtothenumberofsegmentsdividedintopowersupplyandwaterdepth.Becausethepooldepthhasbeendividedinto15segmentsfordisplay,startingfrom2.0V,thedifferencebetweeneachadjacentnegativeinputterminalis0.4V.AsshowninthefirstrowinTable1.b.Selecttheresistancebetweenthenegativeinputterminalofeachcomparatorandthepowersupply,thatis,thevoltagedividerresistanceR01=R03==R029=20k,settoR.c.CalculatethegroundresistanceR02,R04,...,R030,whichisRr.SupposetheresistanceofthenegativeinputterminaltogroundisRr,andthepotentialofeachnegativeinputterminalisVsh,accordingtocircuitdiagram3:(1)Fromthisformula:(2)Forexample,tomakethepotentialofthenegativeinputterminalofthevoltagecomparatorA1Vsh=2V,accordingtoequation(2),wecangetAsshowninthesecondrowandthefirstcolumninTable1.TheselectionoftheotherresistorsR04,R06,,R030canbecalculatedaccordingtotheaboveformula(theresultisatheoreticalvalue,seethedatashowninthesecondrowinTable1fordetails).d.DeterminethenominalresistanceRbfromRr.Infact,thenominalvalueofcommerciallyavailableresistorsisdifferentfromthiscalculatedvalue.Inspecificapplications,anominalresistanceRbwithasimilarresistancevaluecanbeselected.ThespecificvalueisshowninthethirdrowofTable1.e.DeterminethepotentialVofthenegativeinputterminalofeachcomparatorAbyRb.WhenthenominalvalueofresistanceRbisselected,usethefollowingformulatocheckthepotentialVgeneratedbythisresistance.(3)Thespecificpotentialvalueisshowninthe4throwofTable1,comparedwiththesetvalueinthe1strow,aslongasitdoesnotexceed0.1V.f.DeterminetheresistancesR1,R2,,R15ofthepositiveinputterminalsofeachcomparatorandsetthemasRzh.FirstfindR1,setthepositiveinputpotentialofeachcomparatorasVzh,whenGK1pullsin,itcanbeseenfromTable1that2VVzh2.4V,setVzh=2.2V,R=20k,accordingtoformula(3),itcanbelistedThesolutionisthatRzh=R14.5k.Thisresistanceisnotthenominalvalue.Chooseasimilarnominalvalueof4.8k.ThenfindtheotherresistancesR2,R3,,R15,whichcanallbecalculatedbythismethod.Theresultisthetheoreticalvalue,whichhasaslightdeviationinpractice.Aftercorrection,thevalueisshowninthefifthrowofTable1.Aftertheaboveparametersareselectedinthisway,itcanbeensuredthatwhenthewaterlevelinthepoolreachesthelowestlimitandthefloatholdingthemagneticsteelsinkstothelowestposition,themagneticsteelseparatesfromallthereedswitchesandtheLEDsareallextinguished;AndwhenthefirstreedswitchGK1isclosed(equivalenttothewaterlevelinthepoolreachesthehighestlimit,thefloatholdingthemagneticsteelrisestothehighestposition)LEDsareallon.Whenthefloatisatacertainpositioninthemiddle,thecorrespondingLEDandtheLEDsbelowareallon,andtheLEDaboveitisoff,toshowthewaterlevel.Aftertheabovecalculation,thespecificdatashowninTable1isobtained.4.2PartProductionItisnecessarytomeasuretheheightfromthelowestwaterlevelofthereservoirtothelimitwaterlevel,anddividethisheightinto15segments.Thedistanceofeachsegmentislessthan200mm,thisdistancecanensurethatthemagneticsteelcanalwaysattractanadjacentdryreedswitch,soastoavoiddisplaybreakpoints.Thatistopreventthemagneticsteelfromnotattractingtheupperdryreedpipeorthelowerdryreedpipeduringoperation,sothattheLEDdisplayisallextinguished,causingtheillusionofwaterlessness.FortheconnectionsofGK1,R1~GK15,R15,firstsolderthemtoasmallprintedcircuitboardwithawidthlessthanorequalto20mm,andthenusewirestoconnectthematadistanceoflessthanorequalto200mm,andencapsulatethemina25mmhardplastictube..Theupperandlowermouthsofthepipeshouldbetightlysealedtopreventwaterleakage.Thetubeiscoveredwitharing-shapedmagnet.Afterdroppinganon-ferromagneticheavyobjectonthelowerendofthehardplasticpipe,theplasticpipeisverticallysunkintothebottomofthereservoir.Aringfloatisplacedunderthemagneticsteelandissleevedonthetube,andtheupperendofthetubeisfixedontheobservationportabovethereservoir.Duetothefunctionofthefloat,themagneticsteelisalwayssuspendedonthewatersurface,risingandfallingwiththewatersurface.Notethattheplaneofthemagneticsteelshouldalwaysbeparalleltothewatersurface,andtheplasticpipeshouldbeverticaltothewatersurfacetopreventthemagneticsteelfrombeingstuckbyfrictionwiththepipewallwhenthewaterlevelrisesandfalls.VInstallationandDebuggingThewholedeviceconsistsoftwoparts:Itisadetectionpartcomposedofareedswitchandvariousvoltagedividers;ItisthesignalprocessingdisplaypartcomposedofLM339.5.1DetectionPartBeforeencapsulatingtheplastictube,putsomesilicagelinthetubetoabsorbthemoistureinthetubeandpreventthelineinthetubefromgettingdamp.Ifring-shapedmagneticsteelisusedasthedetectionelement,thereedpipeconnectedinseriesintheplastictubeshouldberealizedbytwostaggeredreedpipes.Accordingtotheelectromagneticinductiontheory,theanalysisofthemagneticfieldlinesofthemagneticsteelshowsthatthereareasmallsectionofmagneticfieldlinesparalleltotheplaneofthemagneticsteelattheupperandloweropeningsofthemagneticsteel.Whenthissectionisclosetothereedswitch,thedirectionofitsmagneticfieldlineisperpendiculartothedirectionofthereedofthereedswitch.Atthistime,althoughthereedswitchisveryclosetothemagneticsteel,thecontactisstillreleasedanddisconnected,whichwillmakealltheLEDsgoout.Iftwostaggeredreedpipesareusedinstead,theproblemcanbesolved,andthestaggereddistancecanbedeterminedinexperiments.5.2DisplayPartThewaterlevelofeachsegmentisdisplayedbygreen10LED,andthelimitwaterlevelisdisplayedbyeye-catchingredLED.IftheLEDsarearrangedneatlytogether,thewaterlevelinthepoolcanbeclearlyseenaccordingtotheonoroffoftheLEDs.Equippedwithabuzzer,itwillgivethepumpworkeraclearerreminder.Note:Fromthedetectorinthepooltothecircuitboardofthepumproom,itisbesttouseshieldedwiretopreventinterferencesignalsfromentering.Weshouldalsonotethatthepowersupplymustberegulated.Fugure4.lm339VIConclusionThenegativeinputpotentialofthevoltagecomparatorA1~A15composedofLM339shouldbesetaccordingtoacertainrule,andthepotentialintervalbetweeneachotherdependsonthedepthofthecell.Ifthewaterlevelisdeeper,theintervalcanbesmaller,andthenumberofsectionscanbeselectedmore.Thepotentialdifferencebetweenadjacentcomparatorsisgenerally0.4V.Ifthepotentialdifferenceislarge,theselectionoftheresistanceiseasy;ifthepotentialdifferenceissmall,becausethenominalvalueintervalofthegeneralresistanceislarge,itisnecessarytouseanadjustableresistortoadjustthepotential.Ofcourse,inthecaseofsmallintervals,thesmallestpotentialdifferencebetweeneachothershouldbegreaterthan10mV,otherwisetheinputcharacteristicsofLM339willnotbeabletodistinguishthepotentialbetweeneachother.Inaddition,thevoltageofthepowersupplyandthenominalvalueofeachresistancemustbeconsidered.Thismethodcanalsobeappliedtootherfields.Suchasmonitoringthewaterdepthofrivers,rivers,lakes,andbays,theoillevelofgasstations,andthedepthofwatertanksinwaterplants.FAQWhatisLM339?LM339isavoltagecomparatorICfromLMx39xseriesandismanufacturedbymanyindustries.Thedevicesconsistoffourindependentvoltagecomparatorsthataredesignedtooperatefromasinglepowersupply.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM324andLM339?TheLM324hasacomplementaryoutputwhiletheLM339isopencollector.Inthecomplementaryoutput,currentcanflowineitherdirectionasrequired(eithersourceorsink)whiletheopencollectoroutputcanonlysinkcurrent.HowdoesLM339comparatorwork?TheLM339isaquadopampcomparator.Acomparatorworksbyasimpleconcept.Eachopampofacomparatorhas2inputs,ainvertinginputandanoninvertinginput.Iftheinvertinginputvoltageisgreaterthanthenoninvertinginput,thentheoutputisdrawntoground.Whatiscomparatoric?Acomparatorisanelectroniccircuit,whichcomparesthetwoinputsthatareappliedtoitandproducesanoutput.Theoutputvalueofthecomparatorindicateswhichoftheinputsisgreaterorlesser.Pleasenotethatcomparatorfallsundernon-linearapplicationsofICs.WhatisthereplacementforLM339?LM311,LM324,LM397,LM139,LM239,LM2901Whatisacomparatorcircuit?Acomparatorcircuitcomparestwovoltagesandoutputseithera1(thevoltageattheplusside;VDDintheillustration)ora0(thevoltageatthenegativeside)toindicatewhichislarger.Comparatorsareoftenused,forexample,tocheckwhetheraninputhasreachedsomepredeterminedvalue.WhatistheuseofLM339?LM339isusedinapplicationswhereacomparisonbetweentwovoltagesignalsisrequired.Inadditionwithfourofthosecomparatorsonboardthedevicecancomparefourpairsofvoltagesignalsatatimewhichcomesinhandyinsomeapplications.

I.IntroductionThe74HC595isan8-bitserial-inorparallel-outshiftregisterwithastorageregisterand3-stateoutputs.74HC595withthecharacteristicsofhighspeed,lowpowerconsumptionandsimpleoperation,canbeeasilyusedinMCUinterfacetodriveLEDoperation.ThisarticleintroducesthecircuitdesignofLEDdisplaydrivedby74HC595.CatalogI.IntroductionII.BasicDescription2.1LEDDisplay2.274HC595III.CircuitDesign3.1HardwareCircuit3.2DisplayDriverIV.ConclusionFAQOrdering&QuantityII.BasicDescription2.1LEDDisplayA7SegmentLEDDisplay,alsoknownasLEDdisplay,hasbeenwidelyusedinvariousinstrumentsbecauseofitslowprice,lowpowerconsumptionandreliableperformance.TherearemanytypesofLEDdriversonthemarket,andmostofthemhavemultiplefunctions,butthepriceiscorrespondinglyhigher.Ifusedinasimplesystemwithlowcost,itisnotonlyawasteofresources,butalsoincreasesthecostofproducts.Using74HC595chiptodriveLEDhasvariousdisadvantages.Highspeed,lowpowerconsumption,unlimitednumberofLEDs.ItcancontrolboththecommoncathodeLEDdisplayandthecommonanodeLEDdisplay.Thecircuitdesignedwith74HC595isnotonlysimple,butalsolowinpowerconsumptionandstrongindrivingability.Itisalowcostandflexibledesignscheme.2.274HC595The74HC595isan8-bitserial-in/serialorparallel-outshiftregisterwithastorageregisterand3-stateoutputs.Boththeshiftandstorageregisterhaveseparateclocks.Thedevicefeaturesaserialinput(DS)andaserialoutput(Q7S)toenablecascadingandanasynchronousresetMRinput.ALOWonMRwillresettheshiftregister.DataisshiftedontheLOW-to-HIGHtransitionsoftheSHCPinput.ThedataintheshiftregisteristransferredtothestorageregisteronaLOW-to-HIGHtransitionoftheSTCPinput.Ifbothclocksareconnectedtogether,theshiftregisterwillalwaysbeoneclockpulseaheadofthestorageregister.Datainthestorageregisterappearsattheoutputwhenevertheoutputenableinput(OE)isLOW.AHIGHonOEcausestheoutputstoassumeahigh-impedanceOFF-state.OperationoftheOEinputdoesnotaffectthestateoftheregisters.Inputsincludeclampdiodes.ThisenablestheuseofcurrentlimitingresistorstointerfaceinputstovoltagesinexcessofVCC.Figure1.74HC595FunctionalDiagramFigure2.74HC595LogicSymbolIII.CircuitDesign3.1HardwareCircuitFigure3isadisplaypanelcircuitdesignedwithAT89C2051and74HC595interface.Figure3.CircuitofDisplayPanelTheP115,P116,andP117oftheP1portareusedtocontrolthedisplayoftheLED,andtheyareconnectedtotheSLCK,SCLKandSDApinsrespectively.Threedigitaltubesareusedtodisplaythevoltagevalue.Onthecircuitboard,LED3isonthefarleftandLED1isonthefarright.Whensendingdata,firstsendthedisplaycodeofLED3,andfinallysendthedisplaycodeofLED1.ThebrightnessoftheLEDiscontrolledbytheresistanceofPR1toPR3.2.2DisplayDriverUseDISP1,DISP2,andDISP3tostoredisplaydata.AftertheCPUinitializationiscomplete,calltheLRDISPsubroutinetocleartheregisterof74HC595.ThereisnoneedtocalltheclearsubroutinebeforecallingthedisplaysubroutineDISPLAY.Nowwritethetwosubroutinesasfollows.①CLRDISP:MOVR2,#24CLRBIT:CLRSCLKCLRCMOVSDA,led driver integrated circuitCSETBSCLKDJNZR2,switch diodesCLRBITRET②Display:CLRSLCKMOVR3,how to read resistor#3MOVR0,resistors sizes#DISP3DISP1:MOVA ,types of diodes@R0MOVR2,variable resistor symbol#8DISP2:CLRSCLKRLCAMOVSDA,CSETBSCLKDJNZR2 ,DISP2DECR0DJNZR3,DISP1SETBSLCKRETIV.ConclusionItcanbeseenfromtheaboveexamplesthattherearenocomplicatedtechnicalproblemsinthedesignofhardwareandsoftwarewhen74HC595isusedtodesignLEDdrivercircuit.Inaddition,74HC595canbeusednotonlytodriveLEDdisplays,butalsotodrivelight-emittingdiodes.Each74HC595candrive8LEDssimultaneously.Thissolutionisidealwhenthevolumerequirementsoftheproductarenothighandwanttoreducethecost.FAQWhatis74HC595?74HC595isashiftregisterwhichworksonSerialINParallelOUTprotocol.Itreceivesdataseriallyfromthemicrocontrollerandthensendsoutthisdatathroughparallelpins.Wecanincreaseouroutputpinsby8usingthesinglechip.Whatisa74hc595n?8-bitShiftRegister74HC595NAshiftregisterisachipyoucanusetocontrolmanyoutputs(8here)atthesametimewhileonlyusingafewpins(3here)ofyourArduino.Howdoesashiftregisterwork?Shiftregistersholdthedataintheirmemorywhichismovedorshiftedtotheirrequiredpositionsoneachclockpulse.Eachclockpulseshiftsthecontentsoftheregisteronebitpositiontoeithertheleftortheright.How74HC595ShiftRegiesterworks?The595hastworegisters(whichcanbethoughtofasmemorycontainers),eachwithjust8bitsofdata.ThefirstoneiscalledtheShiftRegister.TheShiftRegisterliesdeepwithintheICcircuits,quietlyacceptinginput.Howdoesan8bitshiftregisterwork?TheSN74HC595Nisasimple8-bitshiftregisterIC.Simplyput,thisshiftregisterisadevicethatallowsadditionalinputsoroutputstobeaddedtoamicrocontrollerbyconvertingdatabetweenparallelandserialformats.YourchosenmicroprocessorisabletocommunicatewiththeTheSN74HC595Nusingserialinformationthengathersoroutputsinformationinaparallel(multi-pin)format.Essentiallyittakes8bitsfromtheserialinputandthenoutputsthemto8pins.IntrodcutionTheCD4066isaquadbilateralswitchwhichcanbeappliedforswitchingofanalogsignalsanddigitalsignals.Itispin-for-pincompatiblewiththeCD4016Bdevice,butexhibitsamuchloweron-stateresistance.Inaddition,theon-stateresistanceisrelativelyconstantoverthefullsignal-inputrange.TheCD4066deviceconsistsoffourbilateralswitches,eachwithindependentcontrols.Theswitchescanbeswitchedoffindependentlyandcomplementeachother.Thisconfigurationeliminatesthevariationoftheswitch-transistorthresholdvoltagewithinputsignaland,thus,keepstheon-stateresistancelowoverthefulloperating-signalrange.Theadvantagesoversingle-channelswitchesincludepeakinput-signalvoltageswingsequaltothefullsupplyvoltageandmoreconstanton-stateimpedanceovertheinput-signalrange.CatalogIntrodcutionITestCircuitofCD4066IICordlessTelephoneIIISelf-lockingTouchSwitchCircuitIVElectronicSwitchCircuitFAQOrdering&QuantityITestCircuitofCD4066ThetestofCD4066quadbilateralswitchismainlytotestthecontrolfunctionandbilateralconductionfunctionofeachswitch.Figure1.TestCircuitofCD4066InFigure1,selectinghighorlowlevel,KIisaSPDTswitchatthecontrolterminal,whichisusedtochangetheonstateoftheanalogswitch.WhentheswitchisturnedtoHtoturnonthehighlevel,thecontrolterminalsofthefourswitchesareathighlevel,andeachswitchshouldbeturnedon.WhentheswitchisturnedtoLlowlevel,thefourswitchesshouldbeturnedoff.K2isadouble-poledouble-throwswitch.ToggletheswitchK2tocontrolthedirectionofthebilateralflowingswitchsignal.ItisindicatedbytwogroupsofredandgreenLED.WhentheswitchK2-1isturnedtoHhighlevel,K2-2isconnectedtoLlowlevel.WhenKIswitchisturnedtohighlevelstate,allswitchesareinforward(reverse)conductionstate.Sothepositivepoleofthepowersupplyisaddedtotheparallelconnectedlight-emittingdiodesLFD1,LED3,IED5,positivepoleofLED7andthestep-downresistorR.ThenthefourredLEDslightup.WhentheKlswitchisturnedtoLlowlevel,eachanalogswitchisinthecut-offstate.NomatterK2isswitchedtoHorLstate,thetwogroupsofredandgreenLEDwillnotlightup.IICordlessTelephoneCD4066isaquadbilateralswitch,whichiswidelyusedinTV,DVDplayer,telephone,variouselectronicinstrumentsandmeters.TheCD4066deviceconsistsoffourbilateralswitches,eachwithindependentcontrols.Theswitchescanbeswitchedoffindependentlyandcomplementeachother.ThetypicalapplicationcircuitofCD4066incordlesstelephoneisshowninthefigure.Figure2.CircuitofCordlessTelephoneIIISelf-lockingTouchSwitchCircuitIntheself-lockingtouchswitchcircuitcomposedofCD4066b,whenthetouchswitchS1isactivated,R4isdriventohighlevel,andthecontrolvoltagebecomeshigh,whichwilllatchtheswitch.WhenS2isactivated,R4becomeslowandthecontrolvoltagebecomeslow,whichwilldeactivatetheswitch.Figure3.Self-lockingTouchSwitchCircuitIVElectronicSwitchCircuitElectronicswitchcircuitcomposedofCD4017andCD4066isshownbelow.Figure4.ElectronicSwitchCircuitFAQWhatisCD4066?TheCD4066isaQuadBilateralSwitchIC,thatis,ithasfourswitcheswhichcanbecontrolledindividualusingacontrolpin.Theseswitchescanconductinboththedirectionsmakingitbilateral,itiscommonlyusedformultiplexinganalogordigitalsignals.HowtouseCD4066?TheCD4066ICconsistsoffourswitches.Itcanswitchanalogsignalsthroughdigitalcontrol.Ananalogsignalisappliedattheinputoftheswitch.IfaHIGHor1valueisfedintothecontrolinput,theanalogsignalwillbepassedfrominputtotheoutputofaswitch.HowCD4066work?The4066reallyfunctionsasananalogswitch.The4066isanICcomposedofswitcheswhicharedesignedtoswitchanalogsignalsviadigitalcontrol....The4066isaquadbilateralswitchcircuit,meaningthatiscomposedof4switches.Eachswitchhasasingleinputandasingleoutputterminal.WhataretheapplicationsofCD4066?TheCD4066isabi-directionalanalogswitchingICsimilartoCD4016,itiscommonlyusedinmultiplexingapplications;itcanalsobeusedtoisolatesignals.Theswitchisbilateralandhencecanbeusedforbothdigitalandanalogsignals.WhatsthedifferencebetweenCD4016andCD4066?ThemajordifferencebetweenbothisthatCD4066hasverylowinternalresistance,accordingtothedatasheetitcanonly5ofon-stateresistanceascomparedwith200ofCD4016IC.

IntroductionTheCD4066isaquadbilateralswitchwhichcanbeappliedforswitchingofanalogsignalsanddigitalsignals.Itconsistsoffourindependentanalogswitches,eachwiththreeterminals:input,outputandcontrol.Whenthecontrolterminalisappliedwithhighpowerlevel,theswitchison.Whenthecontrolterminalisaddedwithlowpowerlevel,theswitchisclosed.Theinputterminalandoutputterminalcanbeusedinterchangeably.Thisconfigurationeliminatesthevariationoftheswitch-transistorthresholdvoltagewithinputsignaland,thus,keepstheon-stateresistancelowoverthefulloperating-signalrange.Theadvantagesoversingle-channelswitchesincludepeakinput-signalvoltageswingsequaltothefullsupplyvoltageandmoreconstanton-stateimpedanceovertheinput-signalrange.ThisarticleintroducestwoapplicationexamplesofCD4066analogswitch.CatalogIntroductionCatalogITrack-and-HoldCircuitofSignalIIInterchangingDisplayCircuitofFourWaysofElectronicSignalFAQOrdering&QuantityITrack-and-HoldCircuitofSignalFigure1.Track-and-HoldCircuitofSignalTheanalogsignalUiisfromthein-phaseinputoftheoperationalamplifier.Whenthecontrolterminaloftheanalogswitchisathighlevel,theanalogswitchison,andthecapacitorCischargedtoUi.Thisprocessiscalledthesamplingoftheinputsignal.Whenthesamplingisover,thecontrolterminaloftheanalogswitchislowlevelandtheanalogswitchisoff.Becausetheresistanceisashighas100Mwhentheanalogswitchisoff,andtheinputimpedanceofoperationalamplifierA2isalsoveryhigh,thesamplingsignalcanbemaintainedonthecapacitorC.IIInterchangingDisplayCircuitofFourWaysofElectronicSignalAgeneralsinglelineoscilloscopecanonlydisplayonecontinuoussignal.Butthisdevicecandisplayfourcontinuoussignalssimultaneouslyinasinglelineoscilloscope.Itisveryconvenienttocomparethetimerelationofdifferentsignals.Figure2.InterchangingDisplayCircuitofFourWaysofElectronicSignalFigure2isthecircuitdiagramofthedevice.ItusesaCD4017counterandoscillatortoformafour-beatcircuittocontrolthefouranalogswitchesintwoCD4066.AdjustableDClevelandoneinputsignalareaddedrespectivelyoneachpairofanalogswitches.Whenthecontrolendoftheanalogswitchishighlevel1,theanalogswitchison.TheDClevelandinputsignalaresenttothey-axisinputendoftheoscilloscope.BecausethefoursignalscorrespondtodifferentDClevels,thefoursignalsdisplayseparatelyontheoscilloscope.AlthoughthefourpairsofanalogswitchesarecontrolledbythecountersQ0,Q1,Q2,Q3outputterminal,theflickerofthewaveformissmallduetothehighoscillationfrequencyoftheoscillator.FAQWhatisCD4066?TheCD4066isaQuadBilateralSwitchIC,thatis,ithasfourswitcheswhichcanbecontrolledindividualusingacontrolpin.Theseswitchescanconductinboththedirectionsmakingitbilateral,itiscommonlyusedformultiplexinganalogordigitalsignals.HowtouseCD4066?TheCD4066ICconsistsoffourswitches.Itcanswitchanalogsignalsthroughdigitalcontrol.Ananalogsignalisappliedattheinputoftheswitch.IfaHIGHor1valueisfedintothecontrolinput,theanalogsignalwillbepassedfrominputtotheoutputofaswitch.HowCD4066work?The4066reallyfunctionsasananalogswitch.The4066isanICcomposedofswitcheswhicharedesignedtoswitchanalogsignalsviadigitalcontrol....The4066isaquadbilateralswitchcircuit,meaningthatiscomposedof4switches.Eachswitchhasasingleinputandasingleoutputterminal.WhataretheapplicationsofCD4066?TheCD4066isabi-directionalanalogswitchingICsimilartoCD4016,itiscommonlyusedinmultiplexingapplications;itcanalsobeusedtoisolatesignals.Theswitchisbilateralandhencecanbeusedforbothdigitalandanalogsignals.WhatsthedifferencebetweenCD4016andCD4066?ThemajordifferencebetweenbothisthatCD4066hasverylowinternalresistance,accordingtothedatasheetitcanonly5ofon-stateresistanceascomparedwith200ofCD4016IC.IDescriptionIndailylife,calendarclocksareusedinvariousplaces.Suchasshoppingmalls,supermarkets,offices,homes,schools,etc.Comparedwiththetraditionalmechanicalclock,thedigitalcalendarclockhasaseriesofadvantages.Suchashighprecision,intuitivedisplay,andlonglife.ThisblogintroducesacalendarclockdesignedwithaDS1302rtcchip.DS1302RTCwithArduinoTutorialCatalogIDescriptionIISystemHardwareDesign2.1OverallStructure2.2DS1302ClockModule2.3LCD1602LCDModuleIIISystemSoftwareDesign3.1DesignofDS1302ClockSubprogram3.2LCD1602LiquidCrystalDisplaySubprogramDesignIVConclusionFAQOrdering&QuantityIISystemHardwareDesign2.1OverallStructureTakeAT89C51single-chipmicrocomputerasthemaincontroller,anduseDS1302clockchiptodesigncalendarclock.ItsoverallstructureisshowninFigure1.Figure1.OverallStructureofSystemThedesignedcalendarclockmustnotonlydisplayhours,minutesandseconds,butalsodisplayyears,months,daysandweeks.ThecoreofthesystemistheAT89C51microcontroller.Throughthesingle-chipcomputercontrolDS1302displaycalendarandtime.AndtheoutputresultisdisplayedonLCD1602liquidcrystalscreen.2.2DS1302ClockModuleTheDS1302clockchiphasthecharacteristicsoflowpowerconsumptionandhighperformance.Itcancommunicatewiththemicrocontrollerthroughasimplesynchronousserialmode,andonlyrequiresthreeI/Olines.Namelyreset(RST),I/Odatalineandserialclock(SCLK)2.2.1DS1302PinsandStructureFigure2showstheexternalpinsandfunctionsofDS1302.Figure2.DS1302PinoutVCC2-mainpowersupplypin;X1,X2-32.768kHzcrystaloscillatorpin;GND-ground;VCC1-batterypin;SCLK-serialclock;I/O-datainput/output;RST-reset.TheinternalstructureofDS1302isshowninFigure3,whichismainlycomposedofthefollowingparts:real-timeclock,datamemoryRAM,oscillatorcircuitandfrequencydivider,inputshiftregister,commandandcontrollogicandsoon.2.2.2DS1302RegistersandcontrolcommandsTheDS1302clockchiphas7registersrelatedtothecalendarclock,asshowninTable1.ThecommunicationsignalbetweenDS1302andsingle-chipmicrocomputerisrealizedthroughsimplesynchronousserialcommunication.AccordingtotheworkingtimingrequirementsofDS1302,whetherthesingle-chipmicrocomputerperformsreadoperationcommunicationfromDS1302orthesingle-chipcomputerperformswriteoperationcommunicationtoDS1302,eachcommunicationisinitiatedbythesingle-chipcomputerfirst.Inotherwords,beforeexecutingthecorrespondingreadorwriteoperation,themicrocontrollermustwriteabyteofcommandwordtoDS1302.Theeight-bitdataofthebytecommandwordisshowninFigure4.Figure4.CommandwordstructureofDS13022.3LCD1602LCDModuleTheLCD1602screencandisplaytwolinesofcharacters,16charactersperline,foratotalof32characters.Thereisan80*8-bitdisplaydatamemoryDDRAMbufferinLCD1602.SeeTable2forthecorrespondencebetweencharacterdisplaybitsandDDRAMaddress.TheaddressonthefirstlineofDDRAMstartsat00Handendsat27H.Theaddressesonthesecondlinestartat40Handendat67H,with40addressesperline.AndLCD1602displays16charactersperline.Therefore,whenwritingaprogram,selectthefirst16addressesofDDRAM.Itisimportanttonotethatthesecondlineaddressstartsfrom40H.IfyouwanttodisplayacharacterinacertainrowandcertaincolumnoftheLCD1602screen,writetheASCIIcodecorrespondingtothischaracterintothecorrespondingDDRAMaddressofacertainrowandcertaincolumn.Atthistime,youwillfindthatthecharactercannotbedisplayednormallyontheLCDscreen.Thereasonisthat80Hmustbeaddedtotheaddress.Forexample,todisplaythesymbolVinthesecondrowandsecondcolumnofthevoltageunitvolts,firstadd80HtothecorrespondingDDRAMaddress41Hinthesecondrowandsecondcolumn,thatis,C1H.ThenwritetheASCIIcode0x56correspondingtotheVcharacterintheC1Haddress.Onlythencanitbedisplayednormally.Thedisplayofothercharacterscanbededucedbyanalogyandwillnotberepeatedhere.IIISystemSoftwareDesignThesoftwareprogrammainlycompletesthefunctionsofdatareading,conversionandliquidcrystaldisplayofthecalendarclock.3.1DesignofDS1302ClockSubprogramsbitRST=P1^0;//DS1302resetportisdefinedinP1.0pinsbitSCLK=P1^1;//TheDS1302clockoutputportisdefinedontheP1.1pinsbitDATA=P1^2;//TheDS1302dataoutputportisdefinedontheP1.2pin(1)Theprogramthatthesingle-chipmicrocomputerwritesabyteofdatatoDS1302voidwright1302(unsignedchardate){Unsigneedchari;SCLK=0;//BepreparedfortherisingedgetowritedataDelaynus(2);for(i=0;i8;i++)//Writeeight-bitdatacontinuously{DATA=date0x01;//Writethebit0dataofdateintoDS1302Delaynus(2);SCLK=1;//WritedataonrisingedgeDelaynus(2);SCLK=0;//date=1;//moveoneplacetotheright}}(2)Theprogramforthesingle-chipmicrocomputertoreadabyteofdatafromDS1302unsignedcharreadd1302(void){Unsignedchari,date;Delaynus(2);for(i=0;i8;i++)//Continuouslyreadeight-bitdata{Date=1;//shiftonebittotherightif(DATA==1)//Ifthedatareadoutis1date|=0x80;//Takeout1andwriteitinthehighestbitofdateSCLK=1;//SetSCLKtoahighlevel,readoutforthefallingedgeDelaynus(2);SCLK=0;//PulldownSCLKtoformthefallingedgeofthepulseDelaynus(2);}returndate;//Returnthereaddata}3.2LCD1602LiquidCrystalDisplaySubprogramDesignThedriverprogramofLCD1602LCDscreenisrelativelycomplicatedtocompile,sowemustfigureouttheusageandmeaningofeachoperationinstructionof1602.Mainlyincludethefollowing:DisplaymodesettingDisplayswitchcontrolInputmodecontrolReaddatafromDDRAMWritedatatoDDRAMClearscreen,cursorhomesettingDataaddresspointersettingLCDscurrentbusyworksign...Partofthecodedesignisasfollows:voidLcd_initial()//InitializeLCD{E=0;Lcd_writecmd(0x38);//16*2display,5*7dotmatrixMsdelay(1);Lcd_writecmd(0x08);//displayoffMsdelay(2);Lcd_writecmd(0x01);//displayclearscreenMsdelay(2);Lcd_writecmd(0x06);//Setthecursor,afterreadingandwritingacharacter,thecursorincreasesby1Msdelay(1);Lcd_writecmd(0x0c);//displayison,nocursorisdisplayedMsdelay(1);}Figure5.HardwarepowersupplydiagramofDS1302calendarclockIntheMedwinV3.0developmentenvironment,useC51languagetocompilethesystemprogram,compileanddebug.AndloadtheHEXhexadecimalfilegeneratedbycompilingintotheMCUchip.StartthesimulationandyoucanseethesimulationrunningeffectoftheDS1302calendarclockdesignsystembasedon1602LCDdisplay.Forexample,thecurrenttimeis11:42:25onMay28,2019,andthesimulationresultisshowninFigure6.Figure6.SimulationresultsofcalendarclockItcanbeseenfromFigure6thatthecurrentdateandtimecanbedisplayedontheLCDscreeninrealtimeandaccurately.IVConclusionCalendarclocksareeverywhereinourlives.ThistexttakesAT89C51single-chipmicrocomputerasthemaincontroller,andusesDS1302real-timeclockchiptodesignthecalendarclocksystem.Inaddition,thehardwarecircuitwasdesignedintheProteussimulationsoftware,andthecorrespondingC51programwaswrittenintheMedwinV3.0developmentenvironment.Thejointuseofthesetwosoftwares,ProteusandMedWinV3.0,greatlyimprovestheefficiencyofsingle-chipsystemdesign,reducescosts,andshortensthedevelopmentcycle.FAQWhatisDS1302?DS1302isatickle-chargetimekeepingchipwhichcontainsareal-timeclock/calendarand31bytesofstaticRAM.DS1302usesserialcommunicationtointeractwithmicrocontrollers.Also,itautomaticallyadjustthedateforthemonthwithfewerdays.WhatdoesanRTCdo?Areal-timeclock(RTC)isacomputerclock(mostoftenintheformofanintegratedcircuit)thatkeepstrackofthecurrenttime.Althoughthetermoftenreferstothedevicesinpersonalcomputers,serversandembeddedsystems,RTCsarepresentinalmostanyelectronicdevicewhichneedstokeepaccuratetime.HowdoyouuseRTC?WiringItUp.5VisusedtopowertotheRTCchipwhenyouwanttoqueryitforthetime.Ifthereisno5Vsignal,thechipgoestosleepusingthecoincellforbackup.ConnectGNDtocommonpower/dataground.ConnecttheSCLpintotheI2CclockSCLpinonyourArduino....ConnecttheSDApintotheI2CdataSDApinonyourArduino.

DescriptionDS1302isalow-powerreal-timeclockchipwithtricklecurrentchargingcapability.Itcantimetheyear,month,day,week,hour,minute,andsecond.ThisVideoIntroducesDS1302ArduinoRealtimeClockCatalogDescriptionDS1302PinoutDS1302DocumentsandMediaDS1302CADModelsDS1302ParametersDS1302FeaturesDS1302AdvantageDS1302ApplicationsDS1302TypicalOperatingCircuitDS1302EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsDS1302BlockDiagramHowtoUseDS1302DS1302RTCModuleDS1302CommandByteFAQOrdering&QuantityDS1302PinoutThefigurebelowshowsthepinarrangementofDS1302.Amongthem,Vcc2isthemainpowersupply,andVCC1isthebackuppowersupply.Thecontinuousoperationoftheclockcanbemaintainedevenwhenthemainpowerisoff.DS1302ispoweredbythelargerofVcc1orVcc2.WhenVcc2isgreaterthanVcc1+0.2V,Vcc2suppliespowertoDS1302.WhenVcc2islessthanVcc1,DS1302ispoweredbyVcc1.X1andX2aretheoscillationsourcesandanexternal32.768kHzcrystaloscillator.RSTisthereset/chipselectline.AlldatatransfersarestartedbydrivingtheRSTinputtohigh.RSTinputhastwofunctions:First,RSTturnsonthecontrollogic,allowingtheaddress/commandsequencetobesenttotheshiftregister;second,RSTprovidesamethodtoterminatesingle-byteormulti-bytedatatransmission.WhenRSTishigh,alldatatransfersareinitialized,allowingoperationsonDS1302.IfRSTissettoalowlevelduringthetransfer,thedatatransferwillbeterminatedandtheI/Opinwillbecomehighimpedance.Duringpower-onoperation,RSTmustremainlowbeforeVcc2.0V.OnlywhenSCLKislow,canRSTbesethigh.I/Oisaserialdatainputandoutputterminal(two-way),whichwillbedescribedindetaillater.SCLKistheclockinputterminal.PinNumberPinNameDescription1VCC2PrimaryPower-SupplyPininDualSupplyConfiguration.VCC1isconnectedtoabackupsourcetomaintainthetimeanddateintheabsenceofprimarypower.TheDS1302operatesfromthelargerofVCC1orVCC2.WhenVCC2isgreaterthanVCC1+0.2V,VCC2powerstheDS1302.WhenVCC2islessthanVCC1,VCC1powerstheDS1302.2X1ConnectionsforStandard32.768kHzQuartzCrystal.Theinternaloscillatorisdesignedforoperationwithacrystalhavingaspecifiedloadcapacitanceof6pF.Formoreinformationoncrystalselectionandcrystallayoutconsiderations,refertoApplicationNote58:CrystalConsiderationsforDallasReal-TimeClocks.TheDS1302canalsobedrivenbyanexternal32.768kHzoscillator.Inthisconfiguration,theX1pinisconnectedtotheexternaloscillatorsignalandtheX2pinisfloated.3X24GNDGround5CEInput.CEsignalmustbeassertedhighduringareadorawrite.Thispinhasaninternal40kΩ(typ)pulldownresistortoground.Note:PreviousdatasheetrevisionsreferredtoCEasRST.Thefunctionalityofthepinhasnotchanged.6I/OInput/Push-PullOutput.TheI/Opinisthebidirectionaldatapinforthe3-wireinterface.Thispinhasaninternal40kΩ(typ)pulldownresistortoground.7SCLKInput.SCLKisusedtosynchronizedatamovementontheserialinterface.Thispinhasaninternal40kΩ(typ)pulldownresistortoground.8VCC1Low-PowerOperationinSingleSupplyandBattery-OperatedSystemsandLowPowerBatteryBackup.Insystemsusingthetricklecharger,therechargeableenergysourceisconnectedtothispin.ULrecognizedtoensureagainstreversechargingcurrentwhenusedwithalithiumbattery.DS1302DocumentsandMediaDatasheetsDS1302OtherRelatedDocumentsTipsforWritingBulletproofReal-TimeClockControlCodeMfgApplicationNotesEstimatingSuperCapacitorBackupTimeonTrickle-ChargerReal-TimeClocksSelectingaBackupSourceforReal-TimeClocksOscillatorDesignConsiderationsforLow-CurrentApplicationsStateMachineLogicinBinary-CodedDecimal(BCD)-FormattedReal-TimeClocksEnvironmentalInformationHalogenCertificateRedPhosphorousCertificateMaterialDeclarationDS1302PCNObsolescence/EOLMultDevOBS15/Jul/2015HTMLDatasheetDS1302EDA/CADModelsDS1302bySnapEDADS1302byUltraLibrarianDS1302CADModelsDS1302SymbolDS1302FootprintDS1302ParametersBaseProductNumberDS1302BatteryBackupSwitchingBackupSwitchingCategoryIntegratedCircuits(ICs)Clock/Timing-RealTimeClocksCurrent-Timekeeping(Max)0.3A~1A@2V~5VDateFormatYY-MM-DD-ddFeaturesLeapYear,NVSRAM,Trickle-ChargerFunctionCalendar,Clock,NVTimekeepingRAM,TrickleChargerInterface3-WireSerialManufacturerMaximIntegratedMaximumOperatingTemperature+70CMinimumOperatingTemperature0CMountingStyleThroughHoleOperatingTemperature0C~70CPackageTubePackage/Case8-DIP(0.300,7.62mm)PackagingTubePartStatusObsoleteProductCategoryRealTimeClockRoHSNRTCBusInterfaceSerialRTCMemorySize31BSubcategoryClockTimerICsSupplierDevicePackage8-PDIPSupplyVoltage-Max5.5VSupplyVoltage-Min2VTimeFormatHH:MM:SS(12/24hr)TypeClock/CalendarVoltage-Supply,Battery2V~5.5VDS1302FeaturesCompletelyManagesAllTimekeepingFunctionsoReal-TimeClockCountsSeconds,Minutes,Hours,DateoftheMonth,Month,DayoftheWeek,andYearwithLeap-YearCompensationValidUpto2100o31x8Battery-BackedGeneral-PurposeRAMSimpleSerialPortInterfacestoMostMicrocontrollersoSimple3-WireInterfaceoTTL-Compatible(VCC=5V)oSingle-ByteorMultiple-Byte(BurstMode)DataTransferforReadorWriteofClockorRAMDataLowPowerOperationExtendsBatteryBackupRunTimeo2.0Vto5.5VFullOperationoUsesLessThan300nAat2.0V8-PinDIPand8-PinSOMinimizesRequiredSpaceOptionalIndustrialTemperatureRange:-40Cto+85CSupportsOperationinaWideRangeofApplicationsUnderwritersLaboratories(UL)RecognizedDS1302AdvantageTheDS1302trickle-chargetimekeepingchipcontainsareal-timeclock/calendarand31bytesofstaticRAM.Itcommunicateswithamicroprocessorviaasimpleserialinterface.Thereal-timeclock/calendarprovidesseconds,minutes,hours,day,date,month,andyearinformation.Theendofthemonthdateisautomaticallyadjustedformonthswithfewerthan31days,includingcorrectionsforleapyear.Theclockoperatesineitherthe24-houror12-hourformatwithanAM/PMindicator.InterfacingtheDS1302withamicroprocessorissimplifiedbyusingsynchronousserialcommunication.Onlythreewiresarerequiredtocommunicatewiththeclock/RAM:CE,I/O(dataline),andSCLK(serialclock).Datacanbetransferredtoandfromtheclock/RAM1byteatatimeorinaburstofupto31bytes.TheDS1302isdesignedtooperateonverylowpowerandretaindataandclockinformationonlessthan1W.TheDS1302isthesuccessortotheDS1202.InadditiontothebasictimekeepingfunctionsoftheDS1202,theDS1302hastheadditionalfeaturesofdualpowerpinsforprimaryandbackuppowersupplies,programmabletricklechargerforVCC1,andsevenadditionalbytesofscratchpadmemory.DS1302ApplicationsTheapplicationsofDS1302includeincorporateddigitalclocks/timersofvariousmodulesinourreallives.OtherequivalentsICsofRTCare:DS1307,DS3231,DS3232DS1302TypicalOperatingCircuitDS1302EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsAttributeDescriptionRoHSStatusRoHSnon-compliantMoistureSensitivityLevel(MSL)1(Unlimited)HowtoUseDS1302AtypicaloperatingcircuitforDS1302isgivenbelow.DS1302havetwopowerinput,oneisfromcellandotherisfromcontroller.Acrystaloscillatorof32.768kHzisusedtogeneraterequiredfrequency.ForinterfacingDataline,ResetPinandSerial-clockpinsofDS1302areconnectedwiththemicro-controller.DS1302BlockDiagramDS1302RTCModuleDS1302isatickle-chargetimekeepingchipwhichcontainsareal-timeclock/calendarand31bytesofstaticRAM.DS1302usesserialcommunicationtointeractwithmicrocontrollers.Also,itautomaticallyadjustthedateforthemonthwithfewerdays.Clockoperatesin24hror12hrformatwithanAM/PMindicator.DS1302chipisalsocommonlyusedasDS1302RTCmodulewhichcomeswitha32kHzcrystalandon-boardbatterybackupallinasmallSIPmodulethatiscompatiblewithabreadboard.DS1302moduleareusedbymakerswithArduino,RaspberryPiandotherMicro-controllers.ADS1302RTCmodulepinoutisshowninbelowimage.DS1302CommandByteAcommandbyteinitiateseachdatatransfer.TheMSB(bit7)mustbealogic1.Ifitis0,writestotheDS1302willbedisabled.Bit6specifiesclock/calendardataiflogic0orRAMdataiflogic1.Bits1to5specifythedesignatedregisterstobeinputoroutput,andtheLSB(bit0)specifiesawriteoperation(input)iflogic0orreadoperation(output)iflogic1.ThecommandbyteisalwaysinputstartingwiththeLSB(bit0).DS1302RegisterDS1302has12registers,ofwhich7registersarerelatedtocalendarandclock.ThestoreddatabitsareintheformofBCDcodes.Thecalendar,timeregistersandtheircontrolwordsareshowninTable1.Inaddition,DS1302alsohasyearregister,controlregister,chargingregister,clockburstregister,andRAM-relatedregisters.Theclockburstregistercanreadandwritethecontentsofallregistersexceptthechargingregisterinsequenceatonetime.TheDS1302andRAM-relatedregistersaredividedintotwocategories:OneisasingleRAMunit,with31intotal.Eachunitisconfiguredasan8-bitbyte,anditscommandcontrolwordisC0H~FDH.Amongthem,oddnumbersarereadoperations,andevennumbersarewriteoperations;theothertypeisRAMregistersinburstmode.Inthismode,all31bytesofRAMcanbereadandwrittenatonce,andthecommandcontrolwordsareFEH(write)andFFH(read).FAQWhatisDS1302?DS1302isatickle-chargetimekeepingchipwhichcontainsareal-timeclock/calendarand31bytesofstaticRAM.DS1302usesserialcommunicationtointeractwithmicrocontrollers.Also,itautomaticallyadjustthedateforthemonthwithfewerdays.WhatdoesanRTCdo?Areal-timeclock(RTC)isacomputerclock(mostoftenintheformofanintegratedcircuit)thatkeepstrackofthecurrenttime.Althoughthetermoftenreferstothedevicesinpersonalcomputers,serversandembeddedsystems,RTCsarepresentinalmostanyelectronicdevicewhichneedstokeepaccuratetime.HowdoyouuseRTC?WiringItUp.5VisusedtopowertotheRTCchipwhenyouwanttoqueryitforthetime.Ifthereisno5Vsignal,thechipgoestosleepusingthecoincellforbackup.ConnectGNDtocommonpower/dataground.ConnecttheSCLpintotheI2CclockSCLpinonyourArduino....ConnecttheSDApintotheI2CdataSDApinonyourArduino.DescriptionTheTDA2822isadual-channel,single-chippoweramplifierintegratedcircuitdevelopedbyStMICROelectronics.Itiscommonlyusedasanaudioamplifierinportablecassetteplayers,cassetterecorders,andmultimediaactivespeakers.Ithasthecharacteristicsofsimplecircuit,goodsoundquality,widevoltagerangeandsoon.Itcanworkinthecircuitformofstereosoundandbridgeamplification(BTL).HowtoMakeaStereoAmplifierUsingICTDA2822?CatalogDescriptionTDA2822PinoutTDA2822CADModelTDA2822ParameterTDA2822ApplicationsTDA2822FeaturesTDA2822AdvantagesWheretouseTDA2822AmplifierICHowtouseTDA2822AmplifierTDA2822SchematicDiagramTDA2822DocumentsandMediaTDA2822EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsTDA2822CircuitOrdering&QuantityTDA2822PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1,3OutputProvidestheamplifiedAudiooutput5,8InvertingInput(IN-)TheInvertingPinofanamplifierisnormallygrounded6,7Non-InvertingInput(IN+)TheNon-Invertingpinisprovidedwiththeaudiosignal4Vcc-Connectedtothenegativesupplyrail2Vcc+ConnectedtoPositiveSupplyRailTDA2822CADModelTDA2822SymbolTDA2822FootprintTDA2822ParameterAudio-LoadImpedance8OhmsBaseProductNumberTDA2822BrandSTMicroelectronicsCategoryIntegratedCircuits(ICs)Linear-Amplifiers-AudioClassClass-ABDescription/FunctionHeadphone/SpeakerFactoryPackQuantity25Features-Gain39dBHeight4.59mmIb-InputBiasCurrent0.1uAInputTypeSingleLength20mmManufacturer:STMicroelectronicsMaxOutputPowerxChannels@Load3.2Wx1@8Ohm;1.7Wx2@4OhmMaximumOperatingTemperature:+150CMfrSTMicroelectronicsMinimumOperatingTemperature-40CMountingStyleThroughHoleNumberofChannels2ChannelOperatingSupplyCurrent12mAOperatingSupplyVoltage5V,9V,12VOperatingTemperature-40C~150C(TJ)OutputCurrent1500mAOutputPower3.2WOutputSignalTypeDifferential,SingleOutputType1-Channel(Mono)or2-Channel(Stereo)PackageTubePackage/Case16-DIP(0.300,7.62mm)Package/CasePDIP-16PackagingTubePartStatusObsoletePd-PowerDissipation4000mWProductAudioAmplifiersPSRR-PowerSupplyRejectionRatio40dBSeriesTDA2822SubcategoryAudioICsSupplierDevicePackage16-PowerDIPSupplyTypeSingleSupplyVoltageMax15VSupplyVoltageMin3VTHDplusNoise0.2%TypeClassABType1-ChannelMonoor2-ChannelStereoUnitWeight0.057419ozVoltageSupply3V~15VWidth7.1mmTDA2822ApplicationsAMandFMRadioamplifiersPortablemusicplayersLowPowerAudioamplifiersWienbridgeoscillatorPowerAmplifiersAudioboostersTDA2822FeaturesDualAmplifiersinoneDIP-8similarforLM368.Givepowerwattsat1W+1Wat4ohmsspeakers.Itisenough.WearehappyListeninginourcorner.Startvoltagesupplyof1.8Vto15V.Thewidealot.Saveenergywithonly6mA,Min.Thebandwidthexpansionratesat40dB120kHz.CheapandeasytouseTDA2822AdvantagesTDA2822isalowpowerstereoOpAmplifierusedinWalkmanplayersandHearingaids.Itcangive250mWoutput.TDA2822isanidealOpampforlowoutputapplications.Itisagoodchoiceasapreamplifierinstereohighpoweramplifiercircuits.Ithastwoinputsandtwooutputswhichcandeliver250milliwattsoutputpower.TheamplifiercircuitwithintheICiswellsetfornoisefreeoperation.Outputscanbedirectlycoupledtothespeakersthroughthedecouplingcapacitors.WheretouseTDA2822AmplifierICTheTDA2822isaDualAudioAmplifierIC,meaningithastwoOp-Ampsinsideitspackage,andtheyarecommonlyusedforaudioamplificationbecauseoftheirwidebandwidthgain.Thetwooutputscandeliver250milliwattsoutputpower.ThisICcanbeusedinportableaudiosystems,preamplifiers,hearingaidminiradio,headphoneamplifier,etc.SoifyouarelookingforadualpackageOperationalamplifierICwithhigh-gain,andwidebandwidthforaudioamplification,thenthisICmightbetherightchoiceforyou.HowtouseTDA2822AmplifierAnapplicationcircuitfromTDA2822datasheetisgivenbelowTheleftloadisconnectedtooutputpin1oftheICthroughelectrolyticcapacitorC4,andtherightloadisconnectedtooutputpin3throughelectrolyticcapacitorC5.TheInvertingInputPins(5and8)areconnectedtothegroundviaelectrolyticcapacitors.Non-InvertingInputPins(7and6)areconnectedtoinput1andinput2.Pin2isconnectedtoDCsupplyandpin4isconnectedtoground.ElectrolyticcapacitorC3connectedacrossVCCandground,workasafiltercapacitor.TDA2822SchematicDiagramTDA2822DocumentsandMediaDatasheetsTDA2822DesignResourcesDevelopmentToolSelectorHTMLDatasheetTDA2822TDA2822EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsAttributeDescriptionRoHSStatusROHS3CompliantMoistureSensitivityLevel(MSL)1(Unlimited)TDA2822CircuitTDA2822TestCircuit(Stereo)TDA2822TestCircuit(Bridge)TDA2822TypicalApplicationinPortablePlayersTDA2822LowCostApplicationinPortablePlayersTDA28223VStereoCassettePlayerwithMototSpeedControl

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