Tkool Electronics

TDA2030DescriptionTheTDA2030isamonolithicintegratedcircuitinPentawattpackage,intendedforuseasalow-frequencyclassABamplifier.Typicallyitprovides14Woutputpower(d=0.5%)at14V/4Ω;at14Vor28V,theguaranteedoutputpoweris12Wona4Ωloadand8Wonan8Ω(DIN45500).TheTDA2030provideshighoutputcurrentandhasverylowharmonicandcross-overdistortion.Further,thedeviceincorporatesanoriginal(andpatented)shortcircuitprotectionsystemcomprisinganarrangementforautomaticallylimitingthedissipatedpowersoastokeeptheworkingpointoftheoutputtransistorswithintheirsafeoperatingarea.Aconventionalthermalshut-downsystemisalsoincluded.HowToMakeHighPowerAmplifierUsingTDA2030/DC12v(EnglishSubtitle)CatalogTDA2030DescriptionTDA2030PinConfigurationsTDA2030FunctionalBlockDiagramTDA2030PackageOutlineTDA2030FeaturesTDA2030FunctionalEquivalentsTDA2030PopularitybyRegionTDA2030ApplicationsWheretoUseTDA2030?HowtoUseTDA2030?ProductManufacturerComponentDatasheetOrdering&QuantityTDA2030PinConfigurationsPinNumberPinNameDescription1NonInvertingInputNon-invertingend(+)ofAmplifier2InvertingInputInvertingend(-)ofAmplifier3Vs(Ground)Connecttothegroundofthecircuit4OutputThispinoutputstheamplifiedsignal5Vs(Power)Supplyvoltage,Minimum6VandMaximum36VTDA2030FunctionalBlockDiagramTDA2030PackageOutlineMechanicalData:TDA2030FeaturesFewexternalcomponentsMinimalbootimpactLow-frequencyclassABamplifier,mostsuitableforaudioamplificationCanprovideupto20wattsofoutputpowerWiderangepowersupplyfrom6Vto36VCanprovideshortcircuitandthermalprotectionBreadboardfriendlyAvailablein5-pinTO220packageTDA2030FunctionalEquivalentsTDA2030PopularitybyRegionTDA2030ApplicationsForaudiosignalamplificationSuitableforhighpoweramplificationAbletorunondual/splitpowersuppliesCanbeusedtocascadeaudiospeakersWheretouseTDA2030?TheTDA2030isapowerfulaudioamplifierIC.Anaudioamplifierisnothingbutonethathasthecapabilitytoamplifytheaudiosignalsfromanyaudiosourcesuchasmobilephonejackormicrophonesothatvolumeisincreasedwhentheaudioisplayedinaspeaker.Audioamplifiercircuitscanalsobemadeusingsimpleop-amps,butifyouneedthehighervolumethatisloudenoughforaroomthenthispoweraudioamplifieriswillbethebestchoice.ThisICcandeliverupto20Wofoutputpower,soyoucanruna4Ωspeakerat12Woran8Ωspeakerat8W.HowtouseTDA2030?TheTDA2030isbreadboardfriendlyandhencecanbeeasilytestedusingabreadboard.TheTDA2030AdatasheetgiveninthepaperconsistsofsomebasiccircuitswhichcanbeusedtomakethisICwork.Ihavealsogivenaverybasiccircuitbelow.TheICcanwitherworkondualpowersupplyorsinglemodepowersupply,tokeepthissimpleIhavepreferredsingle-modesupplybyusinga9Vbattery.The5thpin(Vs)isconnectedtothepositiveterminalofthebatteryandthe3rdpin(Ground)isconnectedtothenegativeterminalofthebattery.ThisICisapoweramplifierICandhencerequiresadecentamountofcurrenttooperate,hencemakesureyourbatterycansourceenoughcurrent.TheresistorR1andR2formapotentialdivideracrossthepins4and2.ThetwodiodesD1andD2areusedtoprotecttheICfromreversecurrents.ThespeakerLS1canbeanyordinaryspeakerofvalue4Ω,6Ωor8Ω.TheaudiosourceC2(1)canbeanyaudiosourcefromamobilejackorevenamicrophone.JustconnectthepositivepointtoC2(1)andgroundtheotherpoint.Also,notethatthisamplifiercanamplifyonlymonochannelsoundsignals.Soifyouhavetwoaudiowiresforleftandrightchannelcombinethembothtomakeitasasinglechannel.ProductManufacturerTheSTMicroelectronics(SGS-THOMSON,ST)groupwasestablishedin1987bythemergerofSGSMicroelectronicsinItalyandThomsonSemiconductorinFrance.InMay1998,SGS-THOMSONMicroelectronicschangeditscompanynametoSTMicroelectronicsCo.,Ltd.STMicroelectronicsisoneoftheworldslargestsemiconductorcompanies.Itaimstobethemarketleaderinmultimediaapplicationintegrationandpowersolutions.STMicroelectronicshastheworldsmostpowerfulproductlineup,includingdedicatedproductswithhighintellectualpropertyrights.Products,therearealsoinnovativeproductsinmanyfields,suchasdiscretedevices,high-performancemicrocontrollers,securitysmartcardchips,andmicro-electromechanicalsystems(MEMS)devices.Indemandingapplicationssuchasmobilemultimedia,set-topboxesandcomputerperipherals,STMicroelectronicsisapioneerinthedevelopmentofcomplexICsusingplatform-baseddesignmethods,andcontinuestoimprovethisdesignmethod.STMicroelectronicshasawell-balancedproductportfoliothatcanmeettheneedsofallmicroelectronicsusers.Globalstrategiccustomerssystem-on-chip(SoC)projectsalldesignateSTMicroelectronicsasthepreferredpartner.Atthesametime,thecompanyalsoprovidesfullsupportforlocalcompaniestomeetlocalcustomersneedsforgeneral-purposedevicesandsolutions.ComponentDatasheetTDA2030Datasheet

MMSZ5254B-HE3-08-VISHAY

TDA2030DescriptionTheTDA2030isamonolithicintegratedcircuitinPentawattpackage,intendedforuseasalow-frequencyclassABamplifier.Typicallyitprovides14Woutputpower(d=0.5%)at14V/4Ω;at14Vor28V,theguaranteedoutputpoweris12Wona4Ωloadand8Wonan8Ω(DIN45500).TheTDA2030provideshighoutputcurrentandhasverylowharmonicandcross-overdistortion.Further,thedeviceincorporatesanoriginal(andpatented)shortcircuitprotectionsystemcomprisinganarrangementforautomaticallylimitingthedissipatedpowersoastokeeptheworkingpointoftheoutputtransistorswithintheirsafeoperatingarea.Aconventionalthermalshut-downsystemisalsoincluded.HowToMakeHighPowerAmplifierUsingTDA2030/DC12v(EnglishSubtitle)CatalogTDA2030DescriptionTDA2030PinConfigurationsTDA2030FunctionalBlockDiagramTDA2030PackageOutlineTDA2030FeaturesTDA2030FunctionalEquivalentsTDA2030PopularitybyRegionTDA2030ApplicationsWheretoUseTDA2030?HowtoUseTDA2030?ProductManufacturerComponentDatasheetOrdering&QuantityTDA2030PinConfigurationsPinNumberPinNameDescription1NonInvertingInputNon-invertingend(+)ofAmplifier2InvertingInputInvertingend(-)ofAmplifier3Vs(Ground)Connecttothegroundofthecircuit4OutputThispinoutputstheamplifiedsignal5Vs(Power)Supplyvoltage,Minimum6VandMaximum36VTDA2030FunctionalBlockDiagramTDA2030PackageOutlineMechanicalData:TDA2030FeaturesFewexternalcomponentsMinimalbootimpactLow-frequencyclassABamplifier,mostsuitableforaudioamplificationCanprovideupto20wattsofoutputpowerWiderangepowersupplyfrom6Vto36VCanprovideshortcircuitandthermalprotectionBreadboardfriendlyAvailablein5-pinTO220packageTDA2030FunctionalEquivalentsTDA2030PopularitybyRegionTDA2030ApplicationsForaudiosignalamplificationSuitableforhighpoweramplificationAbletorunondual/splitpowersuppliesCanbeusedtocascadeaudiospeakersWheretouseTDA2030?TheTDA2030isapowerfulaudioamplifierIC.Anaudioamplifierisnothingbutonethathasthecapabilitytoamplifytheaudiosignalsfromanyaudiosourcesuchasmobilephonejackormicrophonesothatvolumeisincreasedwhentheaudioisplayedinaspeaker.Audioamplifiercircuitscanalsobemadeusingsimpleop-amps,butifyouneedthehighervolumethatisloudenoughforaroomthenthispoweraudioamplifieriswillbethebestchoice.ThisICcandeliverupto20Wofoutputpower,soyoucanruna4Ωspeakerat12Woran8Ωspeakerat8W.HowtouseTDA2030?TheTDA2030isbreadboardfriendlyandhencecanbeeasilytestedusingabreadboard.TheTDA2030AdatasheetgiveninthepaperconsistsofsomebasiccircuitswhichcanbeusedtomakethisICwork.Ihavealsogivenaverybasiccircuitbelow.TheICcanwitherworkondualpowersupplyorsinglemodepowersupply,tokeepthissimpleIhavepreferredsingle-modesupplybyusinga9Vbattery.The5thpin(Vs)isconnectedtothepositiveterminalofthebatteryandthe3rdpin(Ground)isconnectedtothenegativeterminalofthebattery.ThisICisapoweramplifierICandhencerequiresadecentamountofcurrenttooperate,hencemakesureyourbatterycansourceenoughcurrent.TheresistorR1andR2formapotentialdivideracrossthepins4and2.ThetwodiodesD1andD2areusedtoprotecttheICfromreversecurrents.ThespeakerLS1canbeanyordinaryspeakerofvalue4Ω,6Ωor8Ω.TheaudiosourceC2(1)canbeanyaudiosourcefromamobilejackorevenamicrophone.JustconnectthepositivepointtoC2(1)andgroundtheotherpoint.Also,notethatthisamplifiercanamplifyonlymonochannelsoundsignals.Soifyouhavetwoaudiowiresforleftandrightchannelcombinethembothtomakeitasasinglechannel.ProductManufacturerTheSTMicroelectronics(SGS-THOMSON,ST)groupwasestablishedin1987bythemergerofSGSMicroelectronicsinItalyandThomsonSemiconductorinFrance.InMay1998,SGS-THOMSONMicroelectronicschangeditscompanynametoSTMicroelectronicsCo.,Ltd.STMicroelectronicsisoneoftheworldslargestsemiconductorcompanies.Itaimstobethemarketleaderinmultimediaapplicationintegrationandpowersolutions.STMicroelectronicshastheworldsmostpowerfulproductlineup,includingdedicatedproductswithhighintellectualpropertyrights.Products,therearealsoinnovativeproductsinmanyfields,suchasdiscretedevices,high-performancemicrocontrollers,securitysmartcardchips,andmicro-electromechanicalsystems(MEMS)devices.Indemandingapplicationssuchasmobilemultimedia,set-topboxesandcomputerperipherals,STMicroelectronicsisapioneerinthedevelopmentofcomplexICsusingplatform-baseddesignmethods,andcontinuestoimprovethisdesignmethod.STMicroelectronicshasawell-balancedproductportfoliothatcanmeettheneedsofallmicroelectronicsusers.Globalstrategiccustomerssystem-on-chip(SoC)projectsalldesignateSTMicroelectronicsasthepreferredpartner.Atthesametime,thecompanyalsoprovidesfullsupportforlocalcompaniestomeetlocalcustomersneedsforgeneral-purposedevicesandsolutions.ComponentDatasheetTDA2030Datasheet

DescriptionTheCD405xBanalogmultiplexersanddemultiplexersaredigitally-controlledanalogswitcheshavinglowONimpedanceandverylowOFFleakagecurrent.ThesemultiplexercircuitsdissipateextremelylowquiescentpoweroverthefullVDDVSSandVDDVEEsupplyvoltageranges,independentofthelogicstateofthecontrolsignals.TheCD4051Bisasingle8-Channelmultiplexerhavingthreebinarycontrolinputs,A,B,andC,andaninhibitinput.Thethreebinarysignalsselect1of8channelstobeturnedon,andconnectoneofthe8inputstotheoutput.CatalogDescriptionPinoutConfigurationandFunctionCD4051BlockDiagramDocumentsandMediaFeaturesApplicationCD4051TypicalApplicationCircuitsOrdering&QuantityPinoutConfigurationandFunctionCD4051BlockDiagramThelogicdiagramofCD4051iscomposedofthreeparts:logiclevelconversioncircuit,8select1decodingcircuitand8CMOSswitchunits.A,BandCare3-bitbinaryaddressinputterminals,and8combinationsof3-bitbinarycanbeusedforselection8channels;INHistheaddressinputprohibitionterminal,whenitishigh,theaddressinputterminalisinvalid,thatis,nochannelisstrobed.TheinputlevelsofA,B,CandINHarecompatiblewithTTL.CD4051has8input\outputterminals,1output/inputterminal,digitalcircuitpowersupply+Eand-E1,analogcircuitpowersupply+Eand-E2.ThemainfunctionofthelogiclevelconversioncircuitistoinputtheaddressA,B,CandaddressinputinhibitterminalINHinputTTLlogiclevelisconvertedintoCMOSlevel,sothattheswitchunitcanbecontrolledbyTTLlevel.Themainfunctionofthe8-to-1addressdecodingcircuitistoconverttheaddressinputsignalfromthelogiclevelconversioncircuitintothecorrespondingswitchunitstrobesignalandturnonthecorrespondingswitchunit.DocumentsandMediaDatasheetCD405xBCMOSSingle8-ChannelAnalogMultiplexer/DemultiplexerwithLogic-LevelConversiondatasheet(Rev.I)FeaturesWideRangeofDigitalandAnalogSignalLevelsDigital:3Vto20VAnalog:20VP-PLowONResistance,125Ω(Typical)Over15VP-PSignalInputRangeforVDDVEE=18VHighOFFResistance,ChannelLeakageof100pA(Typical)atVDDVEE=18VLogic-LevelConversionforDigitalAddressingSignalsof3Vto20V(VDDVSS=3Vto20V)toSwitchAnalogSignalsto20VP-P(VDDVEE=20V)MatchedSwitchCharacteristics,rON=5Ω(Typical)forVDDVEE=15VVeryLowQuiescentPowerDissipationUnderAllDigital-ControlInputandSupplyConditions,0.2W(Typical)atVDDVSS=VDDVEE=10VBinaryAddressDecodingonChip5V,10V,and15VParametricRatings100%TestedforQuiescentCurrentat20VMaximumInputCurrentof1Aat18VOverFullPackageTemperatureRange,100nAat18Vand25CBreak-Before-MakeSwitchingEliminatesChannelOverlapApplicationAnalogandDigitalMultiplexingandDemultiplexingA/DandD/AConversionSignalGatingFactoryAutomationTelevisionsAppliancesConsumerAudioProgrammableLogicCircuitsSensorsCD4051TypicalApplicationCircuits1.CD4051,CH3130multi-channeldemodulatorcircuitdiagramThiscircuitismainlycomposedof8-channelanalogswitchCD4051andvoltagefollowerCH3130,etc.TheinputsignaloftheprohibitionterminalINHofanalogswitchCD4051isusedtocontrolthegatingofvoltagefollowerCH3130,therebyperformdemodulationtomultipleanalogsignals.2.CD4051constructs32-channelcircuitBecausetheCD4051hasonlyeightinputports,fourCD4051sareneededtobuilda32-waymultiplexer,labeledINH1,INH2,INH3,andINH4.The32-waymultiplexershouldhave5controlports,ofwhichthefirstthreearetheinputportsofCD4051andthelasttwoarecontrolports.(BecauseCD4051hasthreeinputports),labelthemasD1,D2,D3,D4,D5(0000011111,00000channel0,11111channel31).Thebasicideaistorealizethechoiceof32channelports(0-7,8-15,16-23,24-31)byselecting4CD4051s.IfyouchoosethethirdCD4051,youcanchoose16-23(10000-10111)channelport.However,theselectionofCD4051isachievedbycontrollingtheINHlevelofeachCD4051.Forexample,ifyouwanttoturnonthethirdCD4051,makeitsINHhigh(atthistimeD5=1,D4=0,thenINH3=D5!D4).Therefore,thechoiceofINHisachievedbycontrollingthelogicalrelationshipbetweenD5andD4.WhereINH1=!D5!D4;INH2=!D5D4;INH3=D5!D4;INH4=D5D4.DescriptionLM317isaadjustable3-terminalpositive-voltageregulator,thisbolgcoversLM317regulatoralternative,datasheet,applications,featuresandotherinformationonhowtouseandwheretousethisdevice.ABasicIntroductiontoLM317VoltageRegulatorCatalogDescriptionLM317PinoutLM317FeaturesLM317ApplicationsLM317CircuitLM317ParametersLM317CADModelLM317AdvantageLM317ElectricalCharacteristicsLM317PackageLM317AlternativesLM317EquivalentsWheretouseLM317HowtouseLM317LM317ManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityLM317PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1AdjustThispinsadjuststheoutputvoltage2OutputVoltage(Vout)Theregulatedoutputvoltagesetbytheadjustpincanbeobtainedfromthispin3InputVoltage(Vin)TheinputvoltagewhichhastoberegulatedisgiventothispinLM317FeaturesOutputvoltagerangeadjustablefrom1.25Vto37VOutputcurrentgreaterthan1.5AInternalshort-circuitcurrentlimitingThermaloverloadprotectionOutputsafe-areacompensationLM317ApplicationsATCAsolutionsDLP:3Dbiometrics,hyperspectralimaging,opticalnetworking,andspectroscopyDVRandDVSDesktopPCsDigitalsignageandstillcamerasECGelectrocardiogramsEVHEVchargers:levels1,2,and3ElectronicshelflabelsEnergyharvestingEthernetswitchesFemtobasestationsFingerprintandirisbiometricsHVAC:heating,ventilating,andairconditioningHigh-speeddataacquisitionandgenerationHydraulicvalvesIPphones:wiredandwirelessIntelligentoccupancysensingMotorcontrols:brushedDC,brushlessDC,lowvoltage,permanentmagnet,andsteppermotorsPoint-to-pointmicrowavebackhaulsPowerbanksolutionsPowerlinecommunicationmodemsPoweroverethernet(PoE)PowerqualitymetersPowersubstationcontrolsPrivatebranchexchanges(PBX)ProgrammablelogiccontrollersRFIDreadersRefrigeratorsSignalorwaveformgeneratorsSoftware-definedradios(SDR)Washingmachines:high-endandlow-endX-rays:baggagescanners,medical,anddentalLM317CircuitLM317ParametersOutputoptionsAdjustableOutputIout(Max)(A)1.5Vin(Max)(V)40Vin(Min)(V)3Vout(Max)(V)37Vout(Min)(V)1.25Noise(uVrms)38Iq(Typ)(mA)5ThermalresistanceJA(C/W)24Approx.price(US$)1ku|0.14Loadcapacitance(Min)(F)0RatingCatalogRegulatedoutputs(#)1FeaturesAccuracy(%)5PSRR@100KHz(dB)38Dropoutvoltage(Vdo)(Typ)(mV)2000Operatingtemperaturerange(C)0to125IhsManufacturerTEXASINSTRUMENTSINCBrandNameTexasInstrumentsLM317CADModelPackagePinsDownloadDDPAK/TO-263(KTT)3ViewoptionsSOT-223(DCY)4ViewoptionsTO-220(KCS)3ViewoptionsTO-220(KCT)3ViewoptionsLM317ElectricalCharacteristicsOverrecommendedrangesofoperatingvitualjunctiontemperature(unlessotherwisenoted)LM317PackageDDPAK/TO-263(KTT)SOT-223(DCY)TO-220(KCS)TO-220(KCT)LM317AlternativesSharethesamefunctionalityandpinoutbutisnotanequivalenttothecompareddevice:LM7805,LM7806,LM7809,LM7812,LM7905,LM7912,LM117V33,XC6206P332MR.LM317EquivalentsLT1086,LM1117(SMD),PB137,LM337(NegativeVariableVoltageregulator)WheretouseLM317WhenitcomestovariablevoltageregulationrequirementsLM317wouldmostlikelybethefirstchoice.Apartfromusingitasavariablevoltageregulator,itcanalsobeusedasafixedvoltageregulator,currentlimiter,Batterycharger,ACvoltageregulatorandevenasanadjustablecurrentregulator.OnenotabledrawbackofthisICisthatithasavoltagedropofabout2.5acrossitduringregulation,soifyoulookingtoavoidthatproblemlookintotheotherequivalentICsgivenabove.So,ifyouarelookingforavariablevoltageregulatortodelivercurrentupto1.5AthenthisregulatorICmightbetherightchoiceforyourapplication.HowtouseLM317LM317isa3-terminalregulatorICanditisverysimpletouse.Ithasmanyapplicationcircuitsinitsdatasheet,butthisICisknownforbeingusedasavariablevoltageregulator.So,letslookintohowtousethisICasavariablevoltageregulator.AssaidearliertheIChas3pins,inwhichtheinputvoltageissuppliedtopin3(VIN)thenusingapairofresistors(potentialdivider)wesetavoltageatpin1(Adjust)whichwilldecidetheoutputvoltageoftheICthatisgivenoutatpin2(VOUT).Nowtomakeitactasavariablevoltageregulatorwehavetosetvariablevoltagesatpin1whichcanbedonebyusingapotentiometerinthepotentialdivider.Thebelowcircuitisdesignedtotake12V(youcansupplyupto24V)asinputandregulateitfrom1.25Vto10V.TheResistorR1(1K)andthepotentiometer(10k)togethercreatesapotentialdifferenceatadjustpinwhichregulatestheoutputpinaccordingly.TheformulaetocalculatetheOutputvoltagebasedonthevalueofresistorsisVOUT=1.25(1+(R2/R1))Now,letsverifythisformulafortheabovecircuit.ThevalueofR1is1000ohmsandthevalueofR2(potentiometer)is5000becauseitisa10kpotentiometerplacedat50%(50/100of1000is5000).Vout=1.25(1+(5000/1000))=1.256=7.5VAndthesimulationshows7.7Vwhichisprettymuchclose.Youcanvarytheoutputvoltagebysimplyvaryingthepotentiometer.Inourcircuit,amotorisconnectedasaloadwhichconsumesaround650mAyoucanconnectanyloadupto1.5A.Thesameformulaecanalsobeusedtocalculatethevalueofresistorforyourequiredoutputvoltage.Oneeasywaytodothisistousethisonlinecalculatortorandomlysubstitutethevalueofresistorsyouhaveandcheckwhichoutputvoltageyouwillget.LM317ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.ComponentDatasheetLM317DatasheetFAQWhatislm317usedfor?TheLM317servesawidevarietyofapplicationsincludinglocal,oncardregulation.Thisdevicecanalsobeusedtomakeaprogrammableoutputregulator,orbyconnectingafixedresistorbetweentheadjustmentandoutput,theLM317canbeusedasaprecisioncurrentregulator.Whatisthemaximuminputvoltageoflm317?TheLM317isanadjustablevoltagelinearregulatorthatcanoutput1.2537Vatupto1.5Acurrentwithaninputvoltagerangeof340V.Whatisthedifferencebetweenlm317andlm317t?Member.Thereisnofunctionaldifferenceastheyareoneinthesame.TheTattheendjustindicatesthatitsinaTO-220package.Theyusuallytagonextrathingsafterthepartnametoreferencethingslikepackage,temprange,etc.Islm317atransistor?TheLM317isanadjustablethree-terminalpositive-voltageregulatorcapableofsupplyingmorethan1.5Aoveranoutput-voltagerangeof1.25Vto32V....Byusingaheat-sinkedpasstransistorsuchasa2N3055(Q1)wecanproduceseveralampsofcurrentfarabovethe1.5ampsoftheLM317.Howdoesanlm317work?Thecircuitconsistsofalow-sideresistorandhigh-sideresistorconnectedinseriesformingaresistivevoltagedividerwhichisapassivelinearcircuitusedtoproduceanoutputvoltagewhichisafractionofitsinputvoltage.WhatisIClm317?TheLM317deviceisanadjustablethree-terminalpositive-voltageregulatorcapableofsupplyingmorethan1.5Aoveranoutput-voltagerangeof1.25Vto37V.Itrequiresonlytwoexternalresistorstosettheoutputvoltage.Thedevicefeaturesatypicallineregulationof0.01%andtypicalloadregulationof0.1%.HowdoIknowifmylm317isworking?Testinglm317t.Ifyoulooktotheic,thelegstowardsyou,therightoneistheinputpin.youmustseeadifferenceofminimum1.2Vbetweenthetwopins,otherwisetheICisfaulty.furthermore,thefirsttestistoseeifyouhaveinputvoltage!Whatistheworkingpricipleoflm317?LM317worksonaverysimpleprinciple.Itisavariablevoltageregulatori.e.supportsdifferentoutputvoltagelevelsforaconstantappliedinputvoltagesupply.HowtomakeasimplevoltageregulatorcircuitusingLM317?

MMSZ5254B-HE3-08-VISHAY

DescriptionLM339(Quaddifferentialcomparator)consistoffourindependentvoltagecomparators.Itisacommonintegratedcircuitandismainlyusedinhigh-voltagedigitallogicgatecircuits.UsingLM339caneasilyformvariousvoltagecomparatorcircuitsandoscillatorcircuits.CatalogDescriptionComponentDatasheetLM339PinoutBasicParametersFeaturesApplicationPinFunctionListCircuitDiagramPackageElectricalCharacteristicsInstructionsProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityComponentDatasheetComparatorDatasheetLM339DatasheetLM339PinoutLM339PinoutBasicParametersParameternameSymbolNumericalvalueunitsupplyvoltageVCC18or36VDifferentialmodeinputvoltageVID36VCommonmodeinputvoltageVI-0.3~VCCVPowerdissipationPd570mWWorkingenvironmenttemperatureTopr0to+70℃StoragetemperatureTstg-65to150℃FeaturesLowvoltageoffset,generally2mVThecommon-modevoltagerangeisverylarge,from0vtothepowersupplyvoltageminus1.5vTheinternalresistancelimittothesignalsourceisverywideSingleSupplyOperation:2-36VDualSupplyOperation:1V-18VThepotentialofoutputcanbeselectedflexiblyandconvenientlyLM339issimilartooperationalamplifierwithnon-adjustablegain.Eachcomparatorhastwoinputsandoneoutput.Oneofthetwoinputterminalsiscalledthenon-invertinginputterminal,whichisrepresentedby+,andtheotheriscalledtheinvertinginputterminal,whichisrepresentedby-.Whencomparingtwovoltages,addafixedvoltageasareferencevoltageatanyinputterminal,andaddasignalvoltagetobecomparedattheotherterminal.Whenthevoltageatthe+terminalishigherthanthe-terminal,theoutputtubewillcutoff.Whenthevoltageofthe-terminalishigherthanthe+terminal,theoutputtubeissaturated.Thevoltagedifferencebetweenthetwoinputterminalsisgreaterthan10mV,whichcanensurethattheoutputcanbereliablyswitchedfromonestatetoanotherstate.Therefore,itisidealtousetheLM339inweaksignaloccasions.TheoutputterminalofLM339isequivalenttoacrystaltransistorthatisnotconnectedtothecollectorresistor.Whenusing,theoutputterminaltothepositivepowersupplygenerallyneedstobeconnectedtoaresistor(calledpull-upresistor).Choosingpull-upresistorswithdifferentresistancevalueswillaffectthevalueofthehighpotentialattheoutput.Becausewhentheoutputtransistorisoff,itscollectorvoltagebasicallydependsonthevalueofthepull-upresistorandtheload.Inaddition,theoutputofeachcomparatorisallowedtobeconnectedtogether.ApplicationIndustrialAutomotiveInfotainmentandClustersBodyControlModulePowerSupervisionOscillatorsPeakDetectorsLogicVoltageTranslationPinFunctionListPinNumberPinfunctionSymbolPinNumberPinfunctionSymbol1Output2OUT28Invertinginput31N-(3)2Output1OUT19Forwardinput31N+(3)3PowerSupplyVCC+10Invertinginput41N-(4)4Invertinginput11N-(1)11Forwardinput41N+(4)5Positiveinput11N+(1)12PowerSupplyVcc6Invertinginput21N-(2)13Output4OUT47Forwardinput2OUT2(2)14Output3OUT3CircuitDiagramLM339CircuitDiagramPackageLM339PackageElectricalCharacteristicsVCC=5.0V,Tamb=25℃,unlessotherwisestatedParameternameSymbolTestconditionsMinimumTypicalMaximumunitInputoffsetvoltageVIOVCM=0toVCC-1.5VO(P)=1.4V,Rs=0-1.05.0mVInputoffsetcurrentIIO--550nAInputbiascurrentIb--65250nACommonmodeinputvoltageVIC-0-VCC-1.5VQuiescentCurrentICCVCC=+5V,noload-1.12.0mAVCC=+30V,noload-1.32.5mAVoltagegainAVVCC=15V,RL>15k-200-V/mVSinkcurrentIsinkVi(-)>1V,Vi(+)=0V,Vo(p)<1.5V616-mAOutputleakagecurrentIOLEVi(-)=0V,Vi(+)=1V,VO=5V-0.1-nAInstructionsTheLM339seriesarehighgain,widebandwidthdeviceswhich,likemostcomparators,caneasilyoscillateiftheoutputleadisinadvertentlyallowedtocapacitivelycoupletotheinputsviastraycapacitance.Thisshowsuponlyduringtheoutputvoltagetransitionintervalsasthecomparatorchangesstates.Powersupplybypassingisnotrequiredtosolvethisproblem.StandardPCboardlayoutishelpfulasitreducesstrayinput-outputcoupling.Reducingthisinputresistorsto10kreducesthefeedbacksignallevelsandfinally,addingevenasmallamount(1to10mv)ofpositivefeedback(hysteresis)causessucharapidtransitionthatoscillationsduetostrayfeedbackarenotpossible.SimplysocketingtheICandattachingresistorstothepinswillcauseinput-outputoscillationsduringthesmalltransitionintervalsunlesshysteresisisused.Iftheinputsignalisapulsewaveform,withrelativelyfastriseandfalltimes,hysteresisisnotrequired.Allpinsofanyunusedcomparatorsshouldbetiedtothenegativesupply.ThebiasnetworkofLM339establishesadraincurrentwhichisindependentofthemagnitudeofthepowersupplyvoltageovertherangeoffrom2Vto30V.Itisusuallyunnecessarytouseabypasscapacitoracrossthepowersupplyline.ThedifferentialinputvoltagemaybelargerthanV+withoutdamagingthedevice.Protectionshouldbeprovidedtopreventtheinputvoltagesfromgoingnegativemorethan-0.3VDC(at25℃).Aninputclampdiodecanbeusedasshownintheapplicationssection.TheoutputoftheLM339istheuncommittedcollectorofagrounded-emitterNPNoutputtransistor.ManycollectorscanbetiedtogethertoprovideanoutputORingfunction.Anoutputpull-upresistorcanbeconnectedtoanyavailablepowersupplyvoltagewithinthepermittedsupplyvoltagerangeandthereisnorestrictiononthisvoltageduetothemagnitudeofthevoltagewhichisappliedtotheV+terminaloftheLM1339package.TheoutputcanalsobeusedasasimpleSPSTswitchtoground(whenapull-upresistorisnotused).Theamountofcurrentwhichtheoutputdevicecansinkislimitedbythedriveavailable(whichisindependentofV+)andtheofthisdevice.Whenthemaximumcurrentlimitisreached(approximately16mA),theoutputtransistorwillcomeoutofsaturationandtheoutputvoltagewillriseveryrapidly.Theoutputsaturationvoltageislimitedbytheapproximately60RSAToftheoutputtransistor.Thelowoffsetvoltageoftheoutputtransistor(1mV)allowstheoutputtoclampessentiallytogroundlevelforsmallloadcurrents.ProductManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.FAQWhatisLM339?LM339isavoltagecomparatorICfromLMx39xseriesandismanufacturedbymanyindustries.Thedevicesconsistoffourindependentvoltagecomparatorsthataredesignedtooperatefromasinglepowersupply.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM324andLM339?TheLM324hasacomplementaryoutputwhiletheLM339isopencollector.Inthecomplementaryoutput,currentcanflowineitherdirectionasrequired(eithersourceorsink)whiletheopencollectoroutputcanonlysinkcurrent.HowdoesLM339comparatorwork?TheLM339isaquadopampcomparator.Acomparatorworksbyasimpleconcept.Eachopampofacomparatorhas2inputs,ainvertinginputandanoninvertinginput.Iftheinvertinginputvoltageisgreaterthanthenoninvertinginput,thentheoutputisdrawntoground.Whatiscomparatoric?Acomparatorisanelectroniccircuit,whichcomparesthetwoinputsthatareappliedtoitandproducesanoutput.Theoutputvalueofthecomparatorindicateswhichoftheinputsisgreaterorlesser.Pleasenotethatcomparatorfallsundernon-linearapplicationsofICs.WhatisthereplacementforLM339?LM311,LM324,LM397,LM139,LM239,LM2901Whatisacomparatorcircuit?Acomparatorcircuitcomparestwovoltagesandoutputseithera1(thevoltageattheplusside;VDDintheillustration)ora0(thevoltageatthenegativeside)toindicatewhichislarger.Comparatorsareoftenused,forexample,tocheckwhetheraninputhasreachedsomepredeterminedvalue.WhatistheuseofLM339?LM339isusedinapplicationswhereacomparisonbetweentwovoltagesignalsisrequired.Inadditionwithfourofthosecomparatorsonboardthedevicecancomparefourpairsofvoltagesignalsatatimewhichcomesinhandyinsomeapplications.DescriptionThe74HC595isanhighspeedCMOS8-BITSHIFTREGISTERS/OUTPUTLATCHES(3-STATE)fabricatedwithsilicongateC2MOStechnology.Thisdevicecontainsan8-bitserial-in,parallel-outshiftregisterthatfeedsan8-bitD-typestorageregister.Thestorageregisterhas83-STATEoutputs.Separateclocksareprovidedforboththeshiftregisterandthestorageregister.Theshiftregisterhasadirect-overridingclear,serialinput,andserialoutput(standard)pinsforcascading.Boththeshiftregisterandstorageregisterusepositive-edgetriggeredclocks.Ifbothclocksareconnectedtogether,theshiftregisterstatewillalwaysbeoneclockpulseaheadofthestorageregister.Allinputsareequippedwithprotectioncircuitsagainststaticdischargeandtransientexcessvoltage.TheShiftRegister:Explained[74HC595]CatalogDescriptionFeaturesApplicationPinoutLogicDiagramParametersComponentDatasheetPackageProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityFeaturesLowquiescentcurrent:80AmaximumLowinputcurrent:1Amaximum8-bitserial-in,parallel-outshiftregisterwithstorageWideoperatingvoltagerange:2V~6VShiftregisterhasdirectclearGuaranteedshiftfrequency:DCto30MHzPackage:SOP16ApplicationSerial-to-paralleldataconversionRemotecontrolholdingregisterPinoutPinNo.SymbolNameandFunction1,2,3,4,5,6,7,15QAtoQHDataoutput8GNDGround(0V)9QHSerialdataoutput10SCLRShiftregisterclearinput11SCKShiftregisterclockinput12RCKStorageregisterclockinput13GOutputenableinput14SISerialdatainput16VCCPositivesupplyvoltageLogicDiagramParametersBrandNameDiodesLow-powerconsumptionWhenTA=25℃,Icc=4A(MAX)LowquiescentcurrentMaximum80ALowinputcurrentMaximum1AWideoperatingvoltagerange2V-6VPackageDIP16/SOP16ComponentDatasheetDatasheet74HC595DatasheetPackageProductManufacturerDiodesIncorporatedisaleadingglobalmanufacturerandsupplierofhigh-qualityapplicationspecificstandardproductswithinthebroaddiscrete,logic,analog,andmixed-signalsemiconductormarkets.DiodescorporateheadquartersandAmericassalesofficearelocatedinPlano,Texas,andMilpitas,California.Diodesservetheconsumerelectronics,computing,communications,industrial,andautomotivemarkets.Diodesproductsincludediodes,rectifiers,transistors,MOSFETs,protectiondevices,function-specificarrays,singlegatelogic,amplifiersandcomparators,Hall-effectandtemperaturesensors,powermanagementdevices,includingLEDdrivers,AC-DCconvertersandcontrollers,DC-DCswitchingandlinearvoltageregulators,andvoltagereferencesalongwithspecialfunctiondevices,suchasUSBpowerswitches,loadswitches,voltagesupervisors,andmotorcontrollers.FAQWhatis74HC595?74HC595isashiftregisterwhichworksonSerialINParallelOUTprotocol.Itreceivesdataseriallyfromthemicrocontrollerandthensendsoutthisdatathroughparallelpins.Wecanincreaseouroutputpinsby8usingthesinglechip.Whatisa74hc595n?8-bitShiftRegister74HC595NAshiftregisterisachipyoucanusetocontrolmanyoutputs(8here)atthesametimewhileonlyusingafewpins(3here)ofyourArduino.Howdoesashiftregisterwork?Shiftregistersholdthedataintheirmemorywhichismovedorshiftedtotheirrequiredpositionsoneachclockpulse.Eachclockpulseshiftsthecontentsoftheregisteronebitpositiontoeithertheleftortheright.How74HC595ShiftRegiesterworks?The595hastworegisters(whichcanbethoughtofasmemorycontainers),eachwithjust8bitsofdata.ThefirstoneiscalledtheShiftRegister.TheShiftRegisterliesdeepwithintheICcircuits,quietlyacceptinginput.Howdoesan8bitshiftregisterwork?TheSN74HC595Nisasimple8-bitshiftregisterIC.Simplyput,thisshiftregisterisadevicethatallowsadditionalinputsoroutputstobeaddedtoamicrocontrollerbyconvertingdatabetweenparallelandserialformats.YourchosenmicroprocessorisabletocommunicatewiththeTheSN74HC595Nusingserialinformationthengathersoroutputsinformationinaparallel(multi-pin)format.Essentiallyittakes8bitsfromtheserialinputandthenoutputsthemto8pins.DescriptionTheMMBT3904LT1GisaNPNsiliconBipolarTransistor,designedforuseinlinear,lowerpowersurfacemountandswitchingapplications.MMBT3904LT1GHowdoesatransistorwork?CatalogMMBT3904LT1GDescriptionMMBT3904LT1GPinoutMMBT3904LT1GFeaturesMMBT3904LT1GMarkingDiagramMMBT3904LT1GCADModelsMMBT3904LT1GFunctionalEquivalentsMMBT3904LT1GPackageOutlinesMMBT3904LT1GPopularitybyRegionMMBT3904LT1GMarketingPriceAnalysisMMBT3904LT1GManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityMMBT3904LT1GPinoutMMBT3904LT1GFeaturesTheseDevicesarePbFree,HalogenFree/BFRFreeandareRoHSCompliantSPrefixforAutomotiveandOtherApplicationsRequiringUniqueSiteandControlChangeRequirements;AECQ101QualifiedandPPAPCapableMMBT3904LT1GMarkingDiagramMMBT3904LT1GCADModelsPartSymbolFootprint3DModelMMBT3904LT1GFunctionalEquivalentsMMBT3904LT1GPackageOutlinesMMBT3904LT1GPopularitybyRegionMMBT3904LT1GMarketingPriceAnalysisMMBT3904LT1GManufacturerONSemiconductor(Nasdaq:ON)isdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ONSemiconductoroperatesaresponsive,reliable,world-classsupplychainandqualityprogram,andanetworkofmanufacturingfacilities,salesofficesanddesigncentersinkeymarketsthroughoutNorthAmerica,Europe,andtheAsiaPacificregions.ComponentDatasheetMMBT3904LT1GDatasheetFAQWhatisMMBT3904LT1G?TheMMBT3904LT1GisaNPNsiliconBipolarTransistor,designedforuseinlinear,lowerpowersurfacemountandswitchingapplications.Whatisatransistor?Atransistorisasemiconductordeviceusedtoamplifyorswitchelectronicsignalsandelectricalpower.Itiscomposedofsemiconductormaterialusuallywithatleastthreeterminalsforconnectiontoanexternalcircuit.WhatisPNPtransistor?APNPtransistorisabipolarjunctiontransistorconstructedbysandwichinganN-typesemiconductorbetweentwoP-typesemiconductors.APNPtransistorhasthreeterminalsaCollector(C),Emitter(E)andBase(B).ThePNPtransistorbehavesliketwoPNjunctionsdiodesconnectedbacktoback.Whatdoesatransistordo?Atransistor,alsoknownasaBJT(BipolarJunctionTransistor),isacurrentdrivensemiconductordevicewhichcanbeusedtocontroltheflowofelectriccurrentinwhichasmallamountofcurrentintheBaseleadcontrolsalargercurrentbetweentheCollectorandEmitter.Howmanytypesoftransistorarethere?Transistorsarebasicallyclassifiedintotwotypes;theyareBipolarJunctionTransistors(BJT)andFieldEffectTransistors(FET).TheBJTsareagainclassifiedintoNPNandPNPtransistors.TheFETtransistorsareclassifiedintoJFETandMOSFET.Whatistransistordiagram?DiagramAshowsanNPNtransistorwhichisoftenusedasatypeofswitch.Asmallcurrentorvoltageatthebaseallowsalargervoltagetoflowthroughtheothertwoleads(fromthecollectortotheemitter).ThecircuitshownindiagramBisbasedonanNPNtransistor.Whentheswitchispressedacurrentpassesthroughtheresistorintothebaseofthetransistor.Thetransistorthenallowscurrenttoflowfromthe+9voltstothe0vs,andthelampcomeson.Thetransistorhastoreceiveavoltageatitsbaseanduntilthishappensthelampdoesnotlight.Whatarethetwomainappilcationsoftransistor?Transistorsarecommonlyusedindigitalcircuitsaselectronicswitcheswhichcanbeeitherinanonoroffstate,bothforhigh-powerapplicationssuchasswitched-modepowersuppliesandforlow-powerapplicationssuchaslogicgates.

MMSZ5254B-HE3-08-VISHAY

DescriptionBC327isageneralpurposePNPtransistor,todaywewilldiscussaboutitspinoutconfiguration,equivalent,uses,packagedimensionsandmanyotherdetails.BC327UsingTransistorsBC327BC337toMakeaMiniPowerfulAudioAmplifierCatalogueDescriptionBC327IntroductionBC327PinConfigurationBC327MarkingDiagramBC327TechnicalSpecificationsBC327CADModelsBC327ApplicationsBC327PackageDimensionsBC327FunctionalEquivalentsBC327PopularitybyRegionWhereandHowtoUseBC327HowtoGetLongTermPerformancefromBC327BC327ManufacturerComponentDatasheetOrdering&QuantityBC327IntroductionBC327isageneralpurposePNPBJPtransistorthatcanbeusedforswitchingandamplificationpurposesinelectroniccircuits.Thetransistorfeatures800mAcollectorcurrenthenceitcanbeusedtodrivevarietyofloadsinanelectronicapplication.Themaxcollector-emittervoltageis-45Vthereforeitcaneasilyhandleloadvoltageunder45V.Apartfromthattransistoralsofeatures625mWcollectordissipationandDCcurrentgainofmaximum630thereforeitcanalsobeusedasanaudioamplifierorforanytypeofsignalamplification.BC327manufacturedindifferenthFEclassificationthatcanbedifferentiatewiththecodenumberwrittenafterthetransistornumber.Ifyoufindcode-16afterthetransistornumberthenthehFEwillbe100~250,ifthecodeis-25thenthehFEwillbe160~400andifthecodeis-40thenthehFEwillbe250~630.BC327PinConfigurationPinNumberPinNameDescription1CollectorCurrentflowsinthroughcollector,normallyconnectedtoload2BaseControlsthebiasingoftransistor,UsedtoturnONorOFFthetransistor3EmitterCurrentDrainsoutthroughemitter,normallyconnectedtogroundBC327MarkingDiagramBC327TechnicalSpecificationsPackageType:TO-92TransistorType:PNPMaxCollectorCurrent(IC):-800mAMaxCollector-EmitterVoltage(VCE):-45VMaxCollector-BaseVoltage(VCB):-50VMaxEmitter-BaseVoltage(VBE):-5VMaxCollectorDissipation(Pc):625MilliwattMaxTransitionFrequency(fT):100MHzMinimumMaximumDCCurrentGain(hFE):100to630MaxStorageOperatingtemperatureShouldbe:-55to+150CentigradeBC327CADModelsBC327PartSymbolBC327FootprintBC327ApplicationsOutputofMicrocontrollerstoDriveLoadsAnyTypeofSignalAmplificationAudioamplifierAudioAmpStagesDriveLoadsUnder800mABC327PackageDimensionsBC327FunctionalEquivalentsBC327PopularitybyRegionWhereandHowtoUseBC327LikeotheressentialgeneralpurposetransistorstheBC327isalsoamustofhavetransistorinyourlabbecauseitcanbeusedinwidevarietyofapplications.Itcanbeusedasaswitchtodriveloadsupto800mAwhichincludeshighpowerrelays,highpowertransistors,highpowerLEDs,ICsandotherpartsofacircuit.With-5Vemitter-basevoltagethistransistorcanalsobeusedastheoutputofmicrocontrollerstodriveloadofupto800mAwhichcaneasilydrivemotors,modules,sensorsetc.HowtoGetLongTermPerformancefromBC327Togetlongtermgoodperformancewiththistransistorinyourelectronicapplicationsitisrecommendedtonotdriveloadmorethan0.8Aor800mA,donotdriveloadormorethan-45V,alwaysuseasuitablebaseresistorwiththetransistor.Donotstoreoroperatethistransistorintemperaturebelow-55centigradeandabove+150centigradeandalwayscheckpinconfigurationbeforeplacinginthecircuit.BC327ManufacturerONSemiconductor(Nasdaq:ON)isdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ONSemiconductoroperatesaresponsive,reliable,world-classsupplychainandqualityprogram,andanetworkofmanufacturingfacilities,salesofficesanddesigncentersinkeymarketsthroughoutNorthAmerica,Europe,andtheAsiaPacificregions.ComponentDatasheetBC327DatasheetDescriptionIRFZ44NisaN-channelPowerMOSFETs,thisblogcoversIRFZ44NMOSFETpinout,datasheet,equivalent,featuresandotherinformationonhowtouseandwheretousethisdevice.CatalogDescriptionIRFZ44NCADModelIRFZ44NPinoutIRFZ44NCircuitIRFZ44NApplicationsIRFZ44NFeaturesIRFZ44NAdvantageIRFZ44NPackageIRFZ44NParametersIRFZ44NDocumentsIRFZ44NProductComplianceIRFZ44NAlternativesIRFZ44NEquivalentsWheretouseIRFZ44NIRLZ44NandIRFZ44NDifferenceHowtouseIRFZ44NHowtoSafelyLongRunIRFZ44NinCircuitsIRFZ44NManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityIRFZ44NCADModelIRFZ44NSymbolIRFZ44NFootprintIRFZ44NPinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1SourceCurrentflowsoutthroughSource2GateControlsthebiasingoftheMOSFET3DrainCurrentflowsinthroughDrainIRFZ44NCircuitSwitchingTimeTestCircuitUnclampedInductiveTestCircuitGateChargeTestCircuitPeakDiodeRecoverydv/dtTestCircuitIRFZ44NApplicationsBatteryChargersBatteryManagementSystemsSolarBatteryChargersApplicationsFastSwitchingApplicationsUninterruptiblePowerSuppliesMotorDriverCircuitsSolarUninterruptiblePowerSuppliesIRFZ44NFeaturesAdvancedProcessTechnologyUltraLowOn-ResistanceDynamicdv/dtRating175COperatingTemperatureFastSwitchingFullyAvalancheRatedLead-FreeIRFZ44NAdvantageIRFZ44NisawidelyusedMOSFETtransistordesignedtouseinvarietyofgeneralpurposeapplications.Thetransistorpossesseshighspeedswitchingcapabilitywhichmakesitidealtouseinapplicationswherehighspeedswitchingisacrucialrequirement.Thetransistoriscapabletodriveloadofupto49Aandthemaxloadvoltagecanbe55V.Howeverthepeakpulsecurrentcanbeupto160A.Theminimumthresholdvoltagerequiredforthistransistortomakeitinfullyopenstateis2Vto4V.Thistransistorcanalsobeusedasanaudioamplifierorinaudioamplifierstages;itiscapabletodelivermaximumaudiooutputof94W.IRFZ44NPackageTo-220ABPackageOutlineIRFZ44NParametersBrandInfineon/IRChannelModeEnhancementConfigurationSingleFallTime45nsForwardTransconductance-Min19SHeight15.65mmId-ContinuousDrainCurrent49ALength10mmManufacturerInfineonMaximumOperatingTemperature+175CMinimumOperatingTemperature-55CMountingStyleThroughHoleNumberofChannels1ChannelPackage/CaseTO-220-3Pd-PowerDissipation94WProductCategoryMOSFETProductTypeMOSFETRdsOn-Drain-SourceResistance17.5mOhmsRiseTime60nsSubcategoryMOSFETsTechnologySiTransistorPolarityN-ChannelTransistorType1N-ChannelTypeHEXFETPowerMOSFETTypicalTurn-OffDelayTime44nsTypicalTurn-OnDelayTime12nsUnitWeight0.211644ozVds-Drain-SourceBreakdownVoltage55VVgs-Gate-SourceVoltage-20V,+20VWidth4.4mmIRFZ44NDocumentsEOLEndofLifeNotification(PDF)ModelsIRFZ44NSymbolFootprintbySnapEDAProductCatalogsGateDriverSelectionGuide2019(PDF)SelectionGuide(PDF)IRFZ44NProductComplianceUSHTS8541290095TARIC8541100000ECCNEAR99IRFZ44NAlternativesIRF2807,IRFB3207,IRFB4710IRFZ44NEquivalentsIRFZ46N,STP55N06,2SK2376,BUK456-60H,STP50N06,2SK2312,2SK2376,BUZ102S,IRF1010AIRLZ44NandIRFZ44NDifferenceTheIRLZ44NandIRFZ44NMOSFETsareoftenconfusedamongeachotherandusedincorrectly.TheIRLZ44NisaLogiclevelMosfetwithaverylowgatethresholdvoltageof5V,meaningtheMOSFETcanbefullyturnedonwithjust5Vonitsgatepinwhichavoidstheneedforadrivercircuit.IRLZ44NTheIRFZ44NontheotherhandrequiresagatedrivercircuitiftheMOSFEThastobeturnedoncompletelyusingamicrocontrollerlikeArduino.Howeveritdoesturnonpartiallywithdirect5VformaI/Opin,buttheoutputdraincurrentwillbelimited.IRFZ44NWheretouseIRFZ44NTheIRFZ44Nisknownforitshighdraincurrentandfastswitchingspeed.AddingtothatitalsohasalowRdsvaluewhichwillhelpinincreasingtheefficiencyofswitchingcircuits.TheMOSFETwillstartturningonwithasmallgatevoltageof4V,butthedraincurrentwillbemaximumonlywhenagatevoltageof10Visapplied.IfthemosfethastobedrivendirectlyfromamicrocontrollerlikeArduinothentrythelogiclevelversionIRLZ44Nmosfet.HowtouseIRFZ44NUnliketransistorsMOSFETsarevoltagecontrolleddevices.Meaning,theycanbeturnedonorturnedoffbysupplyingtherequiredGatethresholdvoltage(VGS).IRFZ44NisanN-channelMOSFET,sotheDrainandSourcepinswillbeleftopenwhenthereisnovoltageappliedtothegatepin.Whenagatevoltageisappliedthesepinsgetsclosed.IfitisrequiredtobeswitchedwithArduino,thenasimpledrivecircuitusingatransistorwillworktoprovidetherequiredgatevoltagetotriggertheMOSFETtoopenfully.Forotherswitchingandamplifyingapplications,adedicatedMOFETDriverICisrequired.HowtoSafelyLongRunIRFZ44NinCircuitsTogetlongtermperformancewithIRFZ44Nitissuggestedtonotusethistransistoronitsmaximumratings.Usinganycomponentsonitsmaximumratingcancausestressonthecomponentandmaydamageorweakitsinsidecircuitrywhichresultinweakerperformance.Wealwayssuggestuseanycomponentatleat20%belowfrommaximumcapacityorspecifications.ThesamerulewillbeappliedforIRFZ44N.Themaximumdraincurrentis49amperesthereforedonotdriveloadofmorethan39amperes.Themaximumloadvoltageis55Vandforsafetydonotdriveloadofmorethan44V.TheGatetosourcevoltageshouldbeunder20Vandalwaysstoreoroperatethetransistorintemperatureabove-55centigradeandbelow+175centigrade.IRFZ44NManufacturerInfineonTechnologiesAGisaworldleaderinsemiconductorsolutionsthatmakelifeeasier,saferandgreener.MicroelectronicsfromInfineonisthekeytoabetterfuture.Inthe2019fiscalyear(ending30September),thecompanyreportedsalesofaround8billionwithabout41,400employeesworldwide.InfineonislistedontheFrankfurtStockExchange(tickersymbol:IFX)andintheUSAontheover-the-countermarketOTCQXInternationalPremier(tickersymbol:IFNNY).ComponentDatasheetIRFZ44NDatasheetFAQWhatisirfz44n?TheIRFZ44NisaN-channelMOSFETwithahighdraincurrentof49AandlowRdsvalueof17.5m.Italsohasalowthresholdvoltageof4VatwhichtheMOSFETwillstartconducting.Henceitiscommonlyusedwithmicrocontrollerstodrivewith5V.WhatarepowerMOSFETsusedfor?PowerMOSFETsarewidelyusedintransportationtechnology,whichincludeawiderangeofvehicles.Intheautomotiveindustry,powerMOSFETsarewidelyusedinautomotiveelectronics.PowerMOSFETs(includingDMOS,LDMOSandVMOS)arecommonlyusedforawiderangeofotherapplications.HowdoIuseirfz44n?IRFZ44NisanN-channelMOSFET,sotheDrainandSourcepinswillbeleftopenwhenthereisnovoltageappliedtothegatepin.Whenagatevoltageisappliedthesepinsgetsclosed.HowdoIturnonamosfetchannel?N-ChannelForanN-ChannelMOSFET,thesourceisconnectedtoground.ToturntheMOSFETon,weneedtoraisethevoltageonthegate.Toturnitoffweneedtoconnectthegatetoground.P-ChannelThesourceisconnectedtothepowerrail(Vcc).Whattodowithirfz44n?

MMSZ5254B-HE3-08-VISHAY

74HC164DescriptionThe74HC164isan8-bitserial-in/parallel-outshiftregister.Thedevicefeaturestwoserialdatainputs(DSAandDSB),eightparalleldataoutputs(Q0toQ7).DataisenteredseriallythroughDSAorDSBandeitherinputcanbeusedasanactiveHIGHenablefordataentrythroughtheotherinput.DataisshiftedontheLOW-to-HIGHtransitionsoftheclock(CP)input.ALOWonthemasterresetinput(MR)clearstheregisterandforcesalloutputsLOW,independentlyofotherinputs.Inputsincludeclampdiodes.ThisenablestheuseofcurrentlimitingresistorstointerfaceinputstovoltagesinexcessofVCC.74HC164Catalog74HC164Description74HC164PinConfigurationandFunctions74HC164Features74HC164FunctionalBlockDiagram74HC164ApplicationsDifferencesBetween74HC164and74HC59574HC164PackageOutlineComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&Quantity74HC164PinConfigurationandFunctionsPinFunctions:74HC164FeaturesWidesupplyvoltagerangefrom2.0to6.0VCMOSlowpowerdissipationHighnoiseimmunityInputlevels:1.For74HC164:CMOSlevel2.For74HCT164:TTLlevelGatedserialdatainputsAsynchronousmasterresetComplieswithJEDECstandardsJESD8C(2.7Vto3.6V)JESD7A(2.0Vto6.0V)Latch-upperformanceexceeds100mAperJESD78ClassIILevelBESDprotection:1.HBMJESD22-A114Fexceeds2000V2.MMJESD22-A115-Aexceeds200VMultiplepackageoptionsSpecifiedfrom-40Cto+85Cand-40Cto+125C.74HC164FunctionalBlockDiagram74HC164ApplicationsProgramableLogicControllersAppliancesVideoDisplaySystemsOutputExpanderDifferencesBetween74HC164and74HC59574HC595Pinout74HC595PinFunctionsPinNo.SymbolNameandFunction1,2,3,4,5,6,7,15QAtoQHDataoutput8GNDGround(0V)9QHSerialdataoutput10SCLRShiftregisterclearinput11SCKShiftregisterclockinput12RCKStorageregisterclockinput13GOutputenableinput14SISerialdatainput16VCCPositivesupplyvoltage74HC595hasalatch,sotheoutputcanremainunchangedduringtheshift;74HC164hasnolatch,soitchangeseverytimeashiftclockisgenerated.Thisisthebiggestdifferencebetweenthetwo74HC595usesspecialQ7pintorealizemulti-chipcascade;74HC164directlyusesoutputpinQ7tocascade74HC595hasenableOE,whenOEisinvalid,theoutputpinishighimpedance;while74HC164hasnoenablepinTheresetof74HC595isfortheshiftregister.IfyouwanttoresettheLATCHregister,youmustloadtheshiftregistercontentintothelatchregisterontherisingedgeofST_CP;thatistosay:74HC595resetissynchronous,74HC164resetisasynchronous,Sotheresetof74HC164iseasier74HC164hasacorresponding74HC165parallel-to-serialchip.74HC164PackageOutlinePackageoutlineSOT108-1(SO14)PackageoutlineSOT337-1(SSOP14)PackageoutlineSOT402-1(TSSOP14)PackageoutlineSOT762-1(DHVQFN14)ComponentDatasheet74HC164DatasheetFAQHowdoesthe74HC164transmitdatainthemicrocontrollercircuit?Onepinofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerislikeafaucet,andthedataissentonebyone,thatis,likethewaterfromthefaucet,drippingdropbydrop.The74H164islikeasmallbowlreceivingwater.Itisjustfullafterreceiving8dropsofwater.Atthistime,itissenttothedigitaltube.Thesingle-chipmicrocomputermustsendan8-bit(ormore)data,ifitissentatthesametime,itisaparalleltransmission,ifitisabitbybit,itisaserialtransmission.Thedataofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerissenttothe74HC164bitbybit,whichisserial,andthe74HC164sendsthedatatothedigitaltubeatonce,whichisparallel.So74HC164playsarolefromserialtransmissiontoparalleltransmission.Whatisthedifferencebetween74HC164Dand74HC164NMCU?TheDin74HC164Drepresentsachippackage.TheNin74HC164Nmeansdualin-lineplasticpackaging.Whatisthedifferencebetween74HC164and74LS164,cantheybeusedtogether?74ls164isaTTLcircuit,thepowersupplyvoltageis5V,thehigh-leveloutputcurrentIohis-0.4MA,andthelow-leveloutputcurrentis8MA.74HC164isaCMOScircuit,thepowersupplyvoltageis2V~6V,theoutputdrivecurrentcanreachplusorminus20MA.Ifthepowersupplyvoltageyouuseis5Vandtheoutputdrivecurrentissuitablefor74ls164,theycanbeusedtogether.Whatdevicescan74hc164bereplacedwith?74HC164isaCMOSdevicewithapowersupplyvoltageof2V-6V.Itcanbedirectlyreplacedby74HCT164,40H164.Ifthepowersupplyvoltageis5Vandtheoutputdrivecurrentissmall,itcanalsobereplacedby74164,74LS164,74F164,74ALS164.Whichof74LS164and74HC164hashigherdrivingcapability?74LS164isaTTLdevicewithahigh-leveldrivingcapabilityofabout0.4mAandalow-leveldrivingcapabilityofabout8mA.74HC164isaCMOSdevice,withhigh-levelandlow-leveldrivecapabilityupto20mA.TheabovedatacomesfromDATASHEET.Butgenerallyspeaking,thehigh-leveloutputcapabilityofmanyCMOSdevicesisweak,smallerthanTTL,andthelow-leveldrivecapabilityisstronger.Can74hc164nbeusedtodrivethedigitaltube?Ofcourse,youcanusethe164chiptodrivethenixietube,whichismostlyusedinsituationswheretheIOportresourcesaretightandthedisplaydatarefreshofthenixietubeisslow.Whendesigningthecircuit,multiple164chipsareusedincascade,nomatterhowmanydigitaltubesaredriven,only2IOportsofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerareoccupied.ItcanbesaidthatitisthemostIOport-savingdrivingmethod,anditisstilldrivenstatically,withoutstrobeandbrightnessLowphenomenon.Thedisadvantageisthatmultiple164sareusedincascadeconnection,whichwillcausethesingle-chipmicrocomputertosendalargeamountofdisplaydata(1bytepernixietube)atonetimewhenrefreshingthedisplaydata.Duringthisprocess,thenixietubewillbeallon,althoughthedataissentTheprocessdurationisveryshort,butitstillaffectsthedisplayeffect.Itisrecommendedtoturnoffthedigitaltubewhenrefreshingthedata.

AD603IntroductionTheAD603isalownoise,voltage-controlledamplifierforuseinRFandIFAGCsystems.Itprovidesaccurate,pin-selectablegainsof11dBto+31dBwithabandwidthof90MHzor+9dBto51+dBwithabandwidthof9MHz.Anyintermediategainrangemaybearrangedusingoneexternalresistor.Theinputreferrednoisespectraldensityisonly1.3nV/Hz,andpowerconsumptionis125mWattherecommended5Vsupplies.CatalogAD603IntroductionAD603FeaturesAD603PinConfigurationandFunctionsAD603FunctionalBlockDiagramAD603WorkingModesAD603FunctionalEquivalentsAD603PackageOutlineAD603TypicalApplicationAD603ApplicationsAD603ApplicationNoteComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityAD603FeaturesLinear-in-dBgaincontrolPin-programmablegainranges:11dBto+31dBwith90MHzbandwidth9dBto51dBwith9MHzbandwidthAnyintermediaterange,forexample,1dBto+41dBwith30MHzbandwidthBandwidthindependentofthevariablegain1.3nV/Hzinputnoisespectraldensity60.5dBtypicalgainaccuracyAD603PinConfigurationandFunctionsAD603FunctionalBlockDiagramFigure1AD603functionalblockdiagramItisnotdifficulttofindthatitisdifferentfromAD600inthat:thefixedgainamplifieritusescanchangethegainvalue.ThegainGFisdeterminedbytheconnectionformofVOUTandFDBK.WhenVOUTandFDBKareshort-circuited,GF=31.07dB;whenitisopen,GF=51.07dB;connectresistorREXTbetweenVOUTandFDBKtosetGFAnyvaluebetween31.07dB~51.07dB.However,thegainaccuracyinthismodeisreduced.Whentheexternalresistanceisabout2K,theerroristhelargest.IfanappropriateresistorisconnectedbetweenVOUTandCOMM,thegaincanbeincreased,upto60dB.AD603WorkingModesAD603hasthreeworkingmodes:Mode1:Short-circuitVOUTandFDBK,thisconnectioncanobtainthemaximumbandwidth-90MHz,andthegainrangeis-11.07dB~+31.07dB.AsshowninFigure2.Figure2ShortconnectionbetweenVOUTandFDBKMode2:ConnectaresistorREXTbetweenVOUTandFDBK,anda5.6pFcapacitorbetweenFDBKandCOMMasfrequencycompensation.Accordingtotherelationalexpressionoftheamplifier,selectingtheappropriateREXTvaluecanobtaindifferentgainrangevalues.WhenREXT=2.15Kohms,thegainrangeis:-1dB~+41dB.AsshowninFigure3.Figure3VOUTandFDBKaccessresistanceREXTMode3:OpenacircuitbetweenVOUTandFDBK,andconnectan18pFcapacitorbetweenVOUTandCOMMtoextendthefrequencyresponserange.Thismodeisahighgainmodewithagainrangeof8.93dB~51.07dBandabandwidthof9MHz.AsshowninFigure4.Figure4HighgainmodeIntheabovethreemodes,therelationshipbetweengainGFandcontrolvoltageVGisshowninFigure5.Figure5TherelationshipbetweengainGFandcontrolvoltageVGWhenVGisintherangeof-500mV~+500mVat40dB/V(thatis25mV/dB,whichisdifferentfromAD600s32mV/dB)forlineargaincontrol,therelationshipbetweengainG(dB)andVG(V)is:G=40VG+Goi(I=1,2,3),whereVG=VPOS-VNEG.G0iisthedifferentgainconstantsinthreemodes.Mode1:GOi=10dB;Mode2:GOi=10dB~30dB(determinedbytheexternalresistorREXT);Mode3:GOi=30dB.WhenthecontrolvoltageVGisoutside-500mV~+500mV,thegainGandVGnolongersatisfythelinearrelationship.WhenVG=-526mV,thegainisG=GF-42.14,whenVG=+526,thegainisG=GF.AD603TypicalApplicationFigure6AD603typicalapplicationcircuitFigure6isatwo-stageAD603amplifiercircuitwithautomaticgaincontrol.Inthefigure,Q1andR8formadetectortodetectchangesintheamplitudeoftheoutputsignal.TheautomaticgaincontrolvoltageVAGCisformedbyCAV,thedifferencebetweenthecurrentQ2andthecollectorcurrentofQ1flowingintothecapacitorCAV,anditsmagnitudechangeswiththeamplitudeoftheoutputsignalofA2,whichmakesitaddedtoA1andA2amplifier1.TheautomaticgaincontrolvoltageVAGCofthepinchangeswiththeoutputsignalamplitudechange,soastoachievethepurposeofautomaticallyadjustingtheamplifiergain.AD603FunctionalEquivalentsAD603PackageOutlineAD603ApplicationsRF/IFAGCamplifiersVideogaincontrolsA/DrangeextensionsSignalmeasurementsAD603ApplicationNote(1)Thepowersupplyvoltageshouldgenerallybeselectedas5V,andthemaximumshouldnotexceed7.5V.(2)Inthecaseof5Vpowersupply,theeffectivevalueoftheratedvoltageappliedtotheinputterminalVINPshouldbe1V,thepeakvalueis1.4V,andthemaximumshouldnotexceed2V.Ifyouwanttoexpandthemeasurementrange,youshouldaddalevelofattenuationinfrontofAD603.Inthisway,thetypicalvalueofthepeakoutputvoltagecanreach3.0V.Therefore,itisusuallynecessarytoaddafirstlevelofamplificationafterAD603toconnecttotheA/Dconverter.(3)Thevoltageappliedtothevoltagecontrolterminalmustbeverystable,otherwisethegainwillbeunstable,whichwillincreasethenoiseoftheamplifiedsignal.(4)Thesignalmustbedirectlyconnectedtopin4oftheamplifier,otherwisetheaccuracyoftheamplifierwillbereducedduetothelargeimpedance.ComponentDatasheetAD603DatasheetFAQWhatisAD603?AD603isalow-noise,voltage-controlledamplifierforradiofrequency(RF)andintermediatefrequency(IF)automaticgaincontrol(AGC)systems.Itprovidesprecisepin-selectablegain,withagainrangeof-11dBto+31dBat90MHzbandwidth,andagainrangeof+9dBto+51dBat9MHzbandwidth.Anyintermediategainrangecanbeobtainedwithanexternalresistor.Thenoisespectraldensityreferredtotheinputisonly1.3nV/Hz,andthepowerconsumptionis125mWwhenusingtherecommended5Vpowersupply.WhataretheproblemsthatneedtobepaidattentiontowhenusingAD603?Thevoltagecannotbetoohigh.Generally,thevoltageisplusorminus5V,andthemaximumvoltagecannotexceedplusorminus7.5V.Theoutputvoltagecannotexceed2V.Howtosolvetheself-oscillationproblemofAD603?Forhigh-frequencyoperationalamplifiers,thefollowingpointsarethebasicwaystosolveself-excitation.Thepowersupplyisstableandnoripple.Theelectricalconnectionwiresareasshortaspossible.Thead603circuitshouldbefarawayfromthepowercircuit,especiallyawayfromthetransformer.Thepowertransformerandthecircuitboardofad603shouldbeshieldedwithametalboxandgroundedifpossible.Onepointisveryimportant.Foropamps,toolargemagnificationcaneasilycauseself-excitation,soreducethemagnificationasmuchaspossibleandminimizethenumberofmagnificationlevels(generallynotgreaterthan4).Reverseamplificationcansuppressself-excitationinmulti-stageamplification.Ifyouwanttoconnecttothepoweramplifierandthenamplify,itisbesttousetwopowersupplies,andthecircuitshouldbeconnectedtothesameground.WhatisthedifferencebetweenAD603AQandAD603AR?Theirdifferencesareinmodel,Temperature,Package.AD603AQ-40Cto+85C8-LeadCERDIPAD603AR-40Cto+85C8-LeadSOIC_NAfterinputtinganACsignalandbeingamplifiedbyAD603,whydoestheoutputcontainaDCsignal?HowtoeliminatetheDCsignal?WhentheDCblockingcapacitorisnotused,thebiasvoltageoftheinputcircuitneedstobeadjustedforcompensation.IftheDCvoltageoftheACsignalisnotfixed,onlyaDCblockingcapacitorcanbeused,ortheaveragevaluecanbeusedtoeliminateitaftersamplingthenumber.ⅠIntroductionAlinefollowingcardesignedwithLM393VoltageComparatorcapableoftrackingonaspecificrunway.Thelinefollowingcarmainlyincludesasolarpowersupplypartandatrackingcontrolpart.Thecontrolcircuitpartmainlyincludesabattery,aswitch,firstandsecondlightsensitivecircuits,aDCmotor,acomparisoncircuit,andamotordrivecircuit.ThisblogtestshowsthatthelinefollowingcarcontrolledbytheLM393voltagecomparatorhasthecharacteristicsofhighcontrolaccuracy,faststartandstop,etc.,andsolvestheproblemsofthecomplicatedcontrolcircuitstructureofthelinefollowingcarandthelargedeviationofthedrivingtrajectory.CatalogⅠIntroductionⅡWhatisLM393?ⅢWhatisALineFollowingCar?3.1SolarPowerDesign3.2LineFollowingDesignⅣCircuitDesignofLineFollowingCarⅤTestⅥConclusionOrdering&QuantityⅡWhatisLM393?TheLM393offersexceptionalvalueforcost-sensitiveapplicationswithaloweroffsetvoltage,highersupplyvoltagecapability,lowersupplycurrent,lowerinputbiascurrent,shorterpropagationdelay,aswellasimproved2kVESDperformanceandinputrobustnesswithdedicatedESDclamps.TheLM393devicesconsistoftwoindependentvoltagecomparatorsthataredesignedtooperatefromasinglepowersupplyoverawiderangeofvoltages.Thequiescentcurrentisindependentofthesupplyvoltage,andtheoutputscanbeconnectedtootheropen-collectoroutputstoachieveawiredANDrelationship.Figure1.LM393ⅢWhatisALineFollowingCar?Alinefollowingcarisacarthatcantravelalongapresettrajectory.Intheprocessofdrivingthelinefollowing,howtomakethecarcanaccuratelyfollowthetrajectorywithoutlargedeviationsisthefundamentalapplicationofthelinefollowingcar.However,theexistinglinefollowingcargenerallyusestheinfraredreflectionmethodtofeedbackthedrivingtrajectoryofthecar,thecontrolcircuitstructureismorecomplicated,andtheinfraredreflectioniseasilyaffected,sonotonlythecostishigher,butalsothedrivingtrajectoryofthecarispronetodeviation,soitoftendoesnotmatchthedesigntrajectory.UsingLM393voltagecomparatorasthemaincontrolchipofthetrackingcarwillbeabetterway.UsetheresistancechangeofthephotoresistorunderthelightintensityandtheLM393voltagecomparatortocontroltheleftandrightdrivingwheelsofthecartorealizethetrackingdriveofthecar,andcooperatewiththedisplaycircuittounderstandthestatusofthecar.TheprincipleblockdiagramoflinefollowingcarbasedonLM393voltagecomparatorisshowninFigure3.Figure2.LineFollowingCarⅣCircuitDesignofLineFollowingCarThecircuitdesignoflinefollowingcarbasedonLM393voltagecomparatormainlyincludessolarpowersupplyandcartrackingdesign.Themaincomponentsofthelinefollowingcarincludeabatterybox,acontrolcircuitboardattachedtothebottomofthebatteryboxbydouble-sidedadhesive,andseveralwheelassembliesinstalledonbothsidesofthecontrolcircuitboardandasolarbatterypanelinstalledabovethebatterybox.Figure3.BlockDiagramofLineFollowingCar3.1SolarPowerDesignThelinefollowingcaradoptsbatterypowersupplyandstorage.Thesolarbatteryboardprovidespowerforthebattery,thatis,thebatteryinthecarischargedfirst,andonlywhenthebatteryhasenoughpoweroutputvoltage,therequiredvoltagecanbeoutputattheoutputendofthebatterytodrivethetracingcar.ThedesignofthepowersupplypartmentionedinthisblogusesasinglelithiumbatterychargingmanagementchipTP4057withaninputvoltageof4V9V(typicalvalue5V),whichcanbeusedtochangetheresistancetocontrolthechargingcurrent,anditsadjustmentrangeis100mm500mAandthecut-offvoltageis4.2V.Thechargingcircuithassimpleperipherals,noexternalswitchtubeisrequired,andhasfunctionssuchaschargingindicationandfullindication,anti-reversebatterypositiveandnegativepolereverseconnectionprotection,andpowersupplyundervoltageprotection.Inadditiontousingsolarpanelstopowerthecircuit,itcanalsoworkwithUSBpowerandadapterpower.Figure4.SchematicDiagramofChargingCircuit3.2LineFollowingDesignThecartrackingadoptstheLM393voltagecomparatorasthecontrolcenteroftheentiretrackingcircuit.LM393isadualvoltagecomparatorintegratedcircuit,whichiscomposedoftwoindependentprecisionvoltagecomparators.Itsfunctionistocomparetwoinputvoltagesandchangetheleveloftheoutputvoltageaccordingtothelevelofthetwoinputvoltages.TheschematicdiagramusingtheLM393voltagecomparatorasthetrackingcontrolcircuitisshowninFigure5.ThiscarchoosesredLEDlightasitslightsource.Whenthelightsourceshinesonwhiteobjectsandblackobjects(thepredeterminedtrajectoryofthecarisblack),thereflectivityisdifferent.Thelightisreflectedontothephotoresistorthroughtheground.WhentheredLEDlightisprojectedonthewhiteareaandtheblacktrackline,theresistanceofthephotoresistorwillbesignificantlydifferentbecauseofthedifferentreflectance;Bydetectingtheresistancechangeofthephotoresistor,itcanbejudgedwhetherthecarisdrivingontheblacktrackline.ThiscarchoosesredLEDlightasitslightsource.Whenthelightsourceshinesonwhiteobjectsandblackobjects(thepredeterminedtrajectoryofthecarisblack),thereflectivityisdifferent.Thelightisreflectedontothephotoresistorthroughtheground.WhentheredLEDlightisprojectedonthewhiteareaandtheblacktrackline,theresistanceofthephotoresistorwillbesignificantlydifferentbecauseofthedifferentreflectance;Bydetectingtheresistancechangeofthephotoresistor,itcanbejudgedwhetherthecarisdrivingontheblacktrackline.Figure5.SchematicDiagramofTracingIftheresistanceofthephotoresistorchanges,itmeansthatthewhiteareahasbeendetected,andthecarhasdeviated;atthistime,themotoroftheleftorrightwheelofthecarisdeceleratedorevenstoppedtomakethecarreturntotheblacktrack.ThetrackcarrunsonasimilarS-shapedroutetoachievethelinefollowingfunction.Whenthereisanimbalance(forexample,onewheelispressedontheblacktrackline),themotorononesideisstoppedimmediately,andthemotorontheothersideisacceleratedtorotate,sothatthecarcancorrectthedirectionandreturntothecorrectdirection.Thewholeprocessisaclosedloopcontrol,soyoucanquicklyandsensitivelycontrolthemovementofthelinefollowingcar.Atthesametime,thephotoresistorcandetecttheintensityoftheexternallight.Thestrongertheexternallightis,thesmallertheresistancevalueofthephotoresistoris.TheleftandrightwheeldriveofthistrackingcarusesaDCmotorwithareductiongear.TheDCmotordrivesthecartoslowdown,otherwisethecarwillruntoofastifthespeedistoohigh.Moreover,thetorqueistoosmalltorunevenwithoutdeceleration.Themotorusedinthislinefollowingcarhasintegratedareductiongeartogreatlyreducethedifficultyofproductionanddebugging.Comparedwiththeuseofasingle-chipmicrocomputerasthecontrolcircuit,thecontrolcircuitcomposedoftheLM393voltagecomparatorhasasimplerstructure,isconvenientforassemblyanddebugging,andhasalowercost.ⅤTestFirstofall,placethecaronthewhitebackgroundtestfieldoftheblacktrackline(theblackrunwayisthecarspresettrack),andturnontheswitchesS1,S2,solarpanels(orbatteries)toprovideelectricity,sothatthevoltagecomparatorcontrolsthestartoftwoDCmotorstodrivethewheelassembliesonbothsidesofthecar.OurDIYlinefollowingcarbegantodrivealongthedesignedtrack(blackrunway)!Duringthedrivingofthecar,thelight-emittingdiodesD2andD3ontheleftandrightsidesofthecarbothemitredlightsources.Becausethelightsourceirradiatestheblackrunwayandthewhiterunwaywithdifferentreflectivity,andthephotoresistorcandetecttheexternallightintensity,thestrongertheexternallight,thesmallerthephotoresistorresistance,theweakertheexternallight,thegreatertheresistance.Therefore,whentheredLEDlightisprojectedontotheblackandwhiterunway,becauseofthedifferentreflectance,theresistanceofthephotoresistorwillbesignificantlydifferent.Figure6.RedLEDWhenthelightsourceisreflectedbytherunwaytothephotoresistorsR14andR15,thecomparatorcandeterminewhetherthecarisdrivingontheblacktracklineorthewhiteareaaccordingtothechangesintheresistanceofthephotoresistorsonbothsides.Andthroughthediodesandphotoresistorsontheleftandrightsides,wecanalsodeterminewhichsidethecarisdeflectingatthistime.Whenanimbalanceoccurs(forexample,thesideofthecarispressedagainstthewhitearea),theDCmotorononesideisimmediatelystopped,andtheDCmotorontheothersideisacceleratedtorotate,sothatthecarcancorrectthedrivingdirectionandreturntothecorrectdrivingdirection(blacktrackon-line.Actually,wecanseethattheleftandrightdrivingwheelsofthecarrotateinturnandstopdrivingthecarforward;thereisaprocessofdeviation,correction,deviation,andcorrection;butitalwaysadvancesalongtheestablishedblacktrajectory.ⅥConclusionThesolartrackingcardiscussedinthisblog:Passedthetestandsuccessfullyrealizedthecarslinefollowing;Canbepoweredbysolarenergyorbattery;Strongstabilityandanti-interferenceability,highcontrolaccuracy,faststartandstop;Solvedtheproblemsofcomplicatedcontrolcircuitoflinefollowingcarandlargedeviationofdrivingtrajectory.UsingonlytheLM393voltagecomparatorasthecontrollercircuitallowsustoassembleanddebugconvenientlyandatalowercost.Theuseofnon-singlechipcontrolisafeatureofthislinefollowingcar.Figure7.LM393Insummary,thelinefollowingcarbasedonLM393controlissuitablefortechnologicalinnovationandtechnologypromotion.Afterreadingtheblog,haveyoubetterunderstandLM393?Finally,ifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutLM393,pleasedonothesitatetoleaveamessageinthecommentsectionbelow!

IDescriptionLM1875isapoweramplifierintegratedblockchip.Itssuperiorperformanceandattractivetonehavebeenacceptedbymanyenthusiasts,anditwasalltherageinthe1990s.LM1875adoptsTO-220packagestructure,whichisshapedlikeamid-powertube,smallinsize,simpleinperipheralcircuits,andlargeinoutputpower.Theintegratedcircuitintroducedinthisblogisequippedwithoverload,overheatingandinductiveloadreversepotentialsafetyprotection,whichisoneoftheidealchoicesforhigh-endaudio.Figure1.LM1875CatalogIDescriptionIILM1875ParametersIIILM1875CircuitPrincipleIVLM1875CircuitAssemblyandDebuggingVIntheEndOrdering&QuantityIILM1875ParametersVoltageRange16~60VQuiescentCurrent50MmAOutputPower25WHarmonicDistortion0.02%,whenf=1kHz,RL=8,P0=20WRatedGain26dB,whenf=1kHzWorkingVoltage25VConversionRate18V/SIIILM1875CircuitPrincipleThiscircuitiscomposedofanattenuatedtonecontrolcircuitcontrolledseparatelyforhighandlowsounds,LM1875amplifiercircuitandpowersupplycircuit.Amongthem,thesoundqualitycontrolpartusesanattenuatedtonecircuitcontrolledseparatelyforhighandlowsounds.Thespecificcomponentsareasfollows:R02,R03,C02,C01,W02formabasscontrolcircuit;C03,C04,W03formatreblecontrolcircuit;R04istheisolationresistance;W01isthevolumecontroller,whichadjuststhevolumeoftheamplifier;C05isanisolationcapacitortopreventthedownstreamLM1875DCpotentialelementfromaffectingtheprevioustonecircuit.TheamplifyingcircuitmainlyadoptsLM1875,whichiscomposedof1875,R08,R09,C066,etc.ThemagnificationofthecircuitisdeterminedbytheratioofR08toR09;C06isusedtostabilizethedriftoftheLM1875s4thpinDCzeropotential,butithasacertainimpactonthesoundquality;C07andR10functiontopreventtheamplifierfromgeneratinglow-frequencyself-excitation.InAddtion,theloadimpedanceofthisamplifieris416.Figure2.LM1875CircuitWhataboutthepowersupplycircuitofthepoweramplifier?Pleasetakealookatthepicturebelow.Inordertoensurethesoundqualityofthepoweramplifierboard,weneedtopayattentiontothefollowingwhendesigningthecircuit:Theoutputpowerofthepowertransformershallnotbelessthan80W;Theoutputvoltageis2*25V;Thefiltercapacitorusestwo4700UF/25Velectrolyticcapacitorsinparallel;Positiveandnegativepowersuppliesshare44700UF/25Vcapacitors;Thetwo104basecapacitorsarehigh-frequencyfiltercapacitors;Onlyiftheaboverequirementsaremet,theamplifiercanmaintainbettersoundquality.Figure3.LM1875CircuitIVLM1875CircuitAssemblyandDebuggingThisblogwillintroducethenecessarytoolsforcircuitassembly,howtoprepareforsoldering,andfinallyhowtodebugthecircuit.Ofcourse,ifyoustillfeellikeyouarestillcannotgetenough,intheendyoucanevenfollowourtipstotryanextrainterestingexperimentwiththiscircuit.ToolsThatYouNeedA20Welectricsolderingiron,preferablywithadjustabletemperature;Amultimeter;Apairofneedlenosepliers;Ascrewdriver;Somesolderwireandpineperfume.HowtoPrepareforWeldingWeldingsequence:①Weldingjumpers;②Weldingresistance;③Weldingcapacitor;④Weldedrectifiertube;⑤Weldingpotentiometer;⑥WeldLM1875.NotesFixtheLM1875withscrewsontheheatsinkbeforeweldingLM1875,otherwisethescrewswillbedifficulttodriveinwhentheheatsinkisinstalledattheend;ThepartofLM1875incontactwiththeheatsinkmustbecoatedwithasmallamountofheatdissipationgreasetofacilitateheatdissipation;Payattentiontotheweldingqualitywhenwelding.Forbeginners,youcanpracticeafewmoretimesontheoldcircuitboard,andthenformallysolder.HowtoDebugCorrectlyThedebuggingofthispoweramplifierboardisverysimple.Afterthecircuitboardissolderedwithelectroniccomponents,wemustcarefullycheckthecircuitboardforsolderingerrors.Specialattentionshouldbepaidtoelectronicpartswithpolarity,suchaselectrolyticcapacitorsandbridgerectifiers.Oncetheweldingisreversed,thereisariskofburningthecomponents.Whenthetransformerisconnected,theoutputterminaloftheamplifierisnotconnectedtothespeaker,butconnectedtoamultimeter(preferablydigitaldisplay,andthemultimeterissettoDC*2V).Inaddition,payattentiontothereadingofthemultimeterwhenpoweringonthepoweramplifierboard.Undernormalcircumstances,thereadingshouldbewithin30mV,otherwiseweshouldimmediatelycutoffthepowertocheckthecircuitboard.Ifthereadingoftheelectricmeteriswithinthenormalrange,itindicatesthatthefunctionofthepoweramplifierboardisbasicallynormal.Atthistime,weconnectedthespeaker,theninputthemusicsignal,andthenpoweronthetestmachine.Underthecorrectproceduresandspecifications,turnthevolumepotentiometer,thevolumeshouldchange,andturnthehighandlowknobs,thetoneofthespeakerwillchange.Figure4.LM1875ExperimentWorthTryingFirst,wewillshort-circuitC6andmeasuretheDCpotentialattheoutputofLM1875withamultimetertoseeifitiswithin30MV.Then,connectthespeakerandtestfortwohours.UseamultimetertomeasuretheDCpotentialattheoutputoftheLM1875toseeiftheDCpotentialiswithin30MV.IftheDCpotentialiswithin30MV,thecapacitorC6canbeomitted.Inthiscase,theamplifierboardbecomesapureDCpoweramplifier.VIntheEndSofar,thepoweramplifierboardhasbeensuccessfullyinstalledandadjusted.Lookingatthispieceofworkthatyoucanbeproudofandenjoyingthewonderfulmusic,areyousatisfied?IDescriptionThisblogintroducesthedesignofalithiumbatterybackuppowercontrolboardbasedonLM393,whichissimple,stable,reliable,andlow-cost.Itcandirectlyoutputthemainsvoltagewhenthereismainspower,andcontinuouslymonitorthemainsvoltage.Notonlycanthisdesignautomaticallyturnontheinverterwithin10msafterthemainspowerisoff,butitalsohasapowermanagementfunction:whentheinternallithiumbatteryvoltageislowerthanthesetvalue,itwillautomaticallycharge.ThisVediointroducesHowDoesLM393WorksCatalogIDescriptionIIDesignandWorkingPrinciple2.1Design2.2WorkingPrincipleIIITestIVConclsionOrdering&QuantityIIDesignandWorkingPrincipleThedetailsofLM393basedlithiumbatterybackupcircuitareasfollows:2.1Design2.1.1MainsPowerFailureWhenthereisnomainspowerinput,thecontrolpanelwillturnontheinverterandoutput220VACwithin10msofthemainspowerfailure.2.1.2ChargingManagementFigure1.FunctionDiagramWhenthereismainsinput,thecontrolboardfirstshutsdowntheinverteroutputandswitchestothemainsoutput;thenentersthechargingmanagementstate(duetothefeatureofthelithiumbatteryprotectionboard,theprotectionboardstopschargingafteroverchargeprotection.WhenthebatteryvoltageWhenitdropstotheoverchargerecoveryvalueorbelow,itwillautomaticallyresumecharging.Whenthereismainsinputforalongtime,thelithiumbatterychargerwillberepeatedlycharged,whichwillaffectthelifeofthelithiumbattery).Whenthelithiumbatteryisfullycharged,itwillstopcharging.Whenitdropstoacertainlevel(thisparameterislowerthantheoverchargerecoveryvalueofthelithiumbatteryprotectionboard,thespecificparametervalueisadjustable)andthenresumecharginguntilitisfullycharged,andrepeattheaboveprocess.2.2WorkingPrincipleAccordingtothedesignrequirements,theprincipledesignofthiscontrolboardisdividedintotwoparts:lithiumbatteryvoltagedetectionandcontrol,andmainsvoltagedetectionandcontrol.ThemainvoltagecomparisonpartofthecontrolboardusesthedualvoltagecomparatorintegratedchipLM393.LM393integrates2independentcomparators,itsoperatingpowersupplyvoltagerangeiswide,itcanworkfor2~36Vwhensinglepowerinput,and1~18Vwhendualpowerinput.Inaddition,itscurrentconsumptionissmall,only0.8mA.AndwhatisthepinoutofLM393?WecantakealookatFigure2below:Pins3,5arethenon-invertinginputterminalsofthetwocomparatorsrespectively;Pins2,6aretheinvertinginputterminalsofthetwocomparatorsrespectively;Pins1,7arethecorrespondingoutputterminalsofthetwocomparatorsrespectively.Figure2.LM393PinoutWhenusedasabasiccomparisoncircuit,ifthevoltageatthenon-invertinginputterminalisgreaterthanthevoltageattheinvertinginputterminal,thecorrespondingoutputterminaloutputsahighlevel,andviceversa.Forexample,whenU5U6,U7outputshighlevel;whenU5U6,U7outputslowlevel.2.2.1LithiumBatteryVoltageDetectionandControlLithiumbatteryvoltagedetectioncontrolisshowninFigure3.(1)PowerSupplyThepowersupplyofthecontrolpartistakenfromthelithiumbatteryofthebackuppowersupply,andthevoltageofthecontrolboardis12VDC.Becausethelithiumbatteryinthisdesignis48V,itsvoltagerangeis32Vto54.6V,whichishigherthanthelargeinputvoltagerequiredbythestabilizerblock7812.Therefore,inordertoprotectthevoltageregulatorblock7812,weneedtoconnecta20Vvoltageregulatortubeinseriesattheinputtostepdown.Here,diodeD5actsasreversevoltageprotection(2)VoltageComparisonThepowermanagementadoptsthecomparatorLM393,thesamplingvoltageofthelithiumbatteryisdividedbyresistorsR11andR12,andtheninputtothenon-invertinginputofLM393.Thereferencevoltagedivides12VthroughtheresistorR4andthepotentiometer,andthenenterstheinvertinginputofLM393.WhenthesamplingvoltageU1ishigherthanthereferencevoltageU2,theoutputterminalcorrespondingtoLM393outputsahighlevel,thetransistor9012isturnedoff,therelaydoesnotoperate,andtheinverterstopsworking.WhenthesamplingvoltageU1islowerthanthereferencevoltageU2,theoutputterminalcorrespondingtoLM393outputsalowlevel,thetransistor9012isturnedon,therelayacts,andtheinverteristurnedon.ThereferencevoltagecanbeadjustedaccordingtotheactualparametersthroughthepotentiometerR5.Figure3.LM393LithiumBatteryVoltageDetectionandControl(3)HysteresisComparatorCircuitInasingle-limitcomparator,iftheinputsignalUinhasaslightinterferencenearthethreshold,theoutputvoltagewillproducecorrespondingjitter(fluctuation).Forexample,inthedesignoflithiumbatteryvoltagedetection,ifthesamplingvoltageofthelithiumbatteryfluctuatesnearthetargetvoltage(seeFigure3),thevoltageofU1ishigherthanthevoltageofU2,andtheoutputofthecomparatorshouldoutputahighlevel.However,iftheU1voltageorU2voltagefluctuatesslightlyatthistime,thetransistor9012islikelytobeturnedonandofffrequentlyatthistime,andthecontroloutputwillbeveryunstable.Thenhowtoovercomethisshortcoming?Wecanintroducepositivefeedbackinthedesign(thatis,thewayofhardwaretoachievereturndifference).Ifweneedtofixatrippointatacertainreferencevoltagevalue,wecaninsertanon-linearelement(suchasacrystaldiode)inthepositivefeedbackcircuit.Byusingtheunidirectionalconductivityofthediode(inFigure2,D10diode1N4148),theaboverequirementscanbeachieved.2.2.2MainsVoltageDetectionandControlThedescriptionofthemainsvoltagedetectioncontrolpartisshowninFigure4.(1)PowerSupplyPartThepowersupplypartusesthesamepowersupplyDC12Vasthelithiumbatteryvoltagedetectionandcontrolpart.(2)MainsVoltageDetectionTakingintoaccountthecostofthemainsvoltagedetectionpart,thisdesignabandonsthetraditionaltransformerorvoltagetransformerdetectionmethod,andusestwooptocouplerchipsPC817todetectthemains.PC817isacommonlyusedlinearoptocoupler,whichisoftenusedinfunctionalcircuitsthatrequiremoreprecision.Whenanelectricalsignalisappliedtotheinputend,thelightemitteremitslightandilluminatesthelightreceiver.Thelightreceiveristurnedonafterreceivingthelight,andgeneratesaphotocurrentoutputfromtheoutputend,thusrealizingtheelectricity-optical-electricityconversion.Thisconversionisoftenappliedtovariouscivilindustrialproductssuchasswitchingpowersupplies,UPS,adapters,etc.Figure4.LM393MainsVoltageDetectionandControlTakeAC220Vasanexample.Inordertoprotecttheoptocoupler,weusea1Mresistorinthedesigntolimitthecurrentoftheoptocoupleremitter.TheoptocouplerchipsU1andU2arerespectivelyturnedonundertheactionofalternatingcurrent,andcooperatewiththecapacitorC6toensurethatthevoltageofthenon-invertinginputterminalU3isgreaterthantheinvertinginputterminalU4undertheconditionofnormalmainsinput.Theoptocouplerchipusedinthisdesigncanalsobeusedforelectricalisolationbetweenthecontrolboardandthemains.Whenthereismainspower:LM393snon-invertinginputterminalU3voltageisDC12VInvertinginputterminalU4voltageis9V(R2,R10dividedvoltage)ThecorrespondingoutputterminalishighThetransistor9014isturnedonTherelayoperatesThenormallyclosedpointisopenThereisoutputbetweenmainsvoltageWhenthereisnomainspower:Thevoltageatthenon-invertinginputterminalU3ofLM393isDC0VThevoltageattheinvertinginputterminalU4is9VThecorrespondingoutputterminalislowlevelThetransistor9014iscutoffTherelaydoesnotoperateThenormallyclosedpointisclosedTheinverteroutputs220V.IIITestAftertesting,thiscontrolcircuitmeetsthedesignrequirements:whenthereismainspowersupply,itoutputsmainsvoltage,andautomaticallyconvertstobackuppowersupplywithin10msinthecaseofmainspowerfailure,andhasgoodchargingmanagementfunctions,asshowninFigure5andFigure6.Figure5.LithiumBatteryVoltageDetectionWaveformFigure6.MainsVoltageDetectionWaveformInpracticalapplications,MOStubesandtriacscanalsobeusedtoreplacetherelaysinthevoltagedetectionandcontrolpartofthelithiumbatteryandtherelaysinthemainsvoltagedetectionandcontrolparttoachievethecontroloutput.IVConclsionThiscontrolboardisdesignedaccordingtothecharacteristicsofthelithiumbatterybackuppowersupplythatisgraduallypopularizedatpresent.Ithastheadvantagesofstronganti-interferenceandlowcost,andhasstrongmarketpromotionvalue.Insubsequentdesigns,wecanalsoaddprotectionfunctionssuchasbatteryunder-voltageprotection,short-circuitprotection,overloadprotection,over-voltageprotection,andover-temperatureprotectionaccordingtouserrequirementstocontinuouslyimprovetheproduct.Afterreadingtheblog,haveyoubetterunderstandLM393?Finally,ifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutLM393,pleasedonothesitatetoleaveamessageinthecommentsectionbelow!

IntroductionInordertosolvetheproblemoftransientdistortion,thetypicalapplicationcircuitofLM3886poweramplifierischangedtothecurrentnegativefeedbacktype.Thecurrentsampleflowingthroughthespeakervoicecoilisfedbacktothepoweramplifierinputterminalviaresistance,andtheloudspeakersystemisalsoincludedinthefeedbacksystem.CatalogIntroductionCatalogITypicalpoweramplifiercircuitIIImprovedPowerAmplifierCircuitOrdering&QuantityITypicalpoweramplifiercircuitThepoweramplifiercircuitmadeofLM3886consistsoftwoparts:pre-amplifierandpoweramplifier.ThepreamplifierconsistsofanintegratedoperationalamplifierNE5534,whichprovidesavoltagegainofabout5times.ThepoweramplifieriscomposedofLM3886,whichprovidesavoltagegainofabout10times.Therefore,thefullpoweroutputcanbeachievedbyinputtingabout0.5Vsignalattheinputend.Figure1onlyshowstheLM3886dualpowersupplycircuit,whichcanalsoworkinasinglepowersupply.Consideringfromtheaspectofsoundquality,theaudioamplifiercircuitgenerallydoesnotusesinglepowersupply,butdualpowersupply.Figure1.typicalpoweramplifiercircuitThetypicalapplicationcircuitofLM3886adoptsthetraditionalnegativevoltagefeedbackmode.Negativevoltagefeedbackcanimprovethefrequencycharacteristicsofpoweramplifierandreducenonlineardistortion,butthesoundislackofstrength.Asthevolumeincreases,thelowfrequencywillbecometight,dryandhard,andthedistortionwillincrease.Atthesametime,thehighfrequencybecomessharpandharsh,andthemusicanditsdefinitionaregreatlyreduced.Thisistheso-calledTransientIntermodulationDistortion.Thetransientintermodulationdistortionismainlycausedbytheintroductionofdeepnegativefeedback.Voltagetypenegativefeedbackiseffectivetoimprovethenonlineardistortionofpoweramplifier,butitcannottakeintoaccountthetransientdistortionatthesametime.IIImprovedPowerAmplifierCircuitTheimprovedcircuitisshowninFigure2.Thelow-frequencyspectralgainofpoweramplifierisdeterminedbytheratioofR3andR4.C3andR5determinethehigh-frequencygainofpoweramplifier.DuetothelargecapacitancereactanceofC3atlowfrequency,thecurrentfeedbackisterminatedatlowfrequency,whilethehighfrequencyisimprovedbycurrentnegativefeedback.Theresultisthatthetotalbandwidthisimprovedandthetransientdistortionisgreatlyreduced.Theselectionoffeedbackcomponentsshouldbebasedontheimpedanceandinductanceoftheloudspeaker,sothatthelow-frequencygainis2-3timesofthehigh-frequencygain.Formerpoweramplifiersoftendesignedthefrequencycharacteristicstobeflat,whichdidnotachievegoodsoundeffects.Inordertoimprovethesoundeffectofthepoweramplifier,weshouldusethenegativefeedbackcircuittoconsciouslyincreasethelowfrequencygaintoachievethebesteffect,whichalsomeetstherequirementsofthelargedynamicsoundeffectoftodayshometheater.Figure2.schematicdiagramofpoweramplifiercircuitThesoundeffectofthismachineisexcellent.Thelowfrequencyextensionisincreasedanditisflexible.Thehighfrequencyisclearandsmooth.Theresolutionisgreatlyimproved,andthemetallicsoundiscompletelydisappeared.Evenifthevolumewasdoubled,nosignificantdistortionwasheard.DescriptionLM3886isahigh-performanceaudiopoweramplifier.Undertheratedworkingvoltage,itiscapableofdelivering68Wofcontinuousaveragepowertoa4loadand38Winto8with0.1%THD+Nfrom20Hz20kHz.TheperformanceoftheLM3886,utilizingitsSelfPeakInstantaneousTemperature(Ke)(SPiKe)protectioncircuitry,putsitinaclassabovediscreteandhybridamplifiersbyprovidinganinherently,dynamicallyprotectedSafeOperatingArea(SOA).SPiKeprotectionmeansthatthesepartsarecompletelysafeguardedattheoutputagainstovervoltage,undervoltage,overloads,includingshortstothesupplies,thermalrunaway,andinstantaneoustemperaturepeaks.TheLM3886maintainsanexcellentsignal-to-noiseratioofgreaterthan92dBwithatypicallownoisefloorof2.0V.ItexhibitsextremelylowTHD+Nvaluesof0.03%attheratedoutputintotheratedloadovertheaudiospectrum,andprovidesexcellentlinearitywithanIMD(SMPTE)typicalratingof0.004%.CatalogDescriptionCADModelsFeaturesApplicationsParametersElectricalCharacteristicsPinoutCircuitDiagramPackageProductComplianceComponentDatasheetProductManufacturerOrdering&QuantityCADModelsLM3886SymbolLM3886FootprintFeatures68WCont.Avg.OutputPowerinto4atVCC=28V38WCont.Avg.OutputPowerinto8atVCC=28V50WCont.Avg.OutputPowerinto8atVCC=35V135WInstantaneousPeakOutputPowerCapabilitySignal-to-NoiseRatio92dBAnInputMuteFunctionOutputProtectionfromaShorttoGroundortotheSuppliesviaInternalCurrentLimitingCircuitryOutputOver-VoltageProtectionagainstTransientsfromInductiveLoadsSupplyUnder-VoltageProtection,notAllowingInternalBiasingtoOccurwhen|VEE|+|VCC|12V,thusEliminatingTurn-OnandTurn-OffTransients11-LeadTO-220PackageWideSupplyRange20V-94VApplicationsComponentstereoCompactstereoSelf-poweredspeakersSurround-soundamplifiersHifg-endstereoTVsParametersAudioinputtypeAnalogInputArchitectureClass-ABSpeakerchannels(Max)MonoPowerstagesupply(Max)(V)94Powerstagesupply(Min)(V)20Load(Min)(ohms)4Outputpower(W)68SNR(dB)110THD+N@1kHz(%)0.03Iq(Typ)(mA)50ControlinterfaceHardwareClosed/openloopOpenAnalogsupply(Min)(V)20Analogsupply(Max)(V)84Powertoparallelbridgetiedload(Max)(W)68PSRR(dB)120Operatingtemperaturerange(C)0to70NumberofTerminals11NumberofFunctions1BrandNameTexasInstrumentsElectricalCharacteristicsThefollowingspecificationsapplyforV+=+28V,V-=-28V,lMUTE=-o.5mAwithRL=4unlessotherwisespecified.LimitsapplyforTA=25℃.PinoutPin1isthepositivepowersupplyV+terminal;Pin2isanemptypin(NC);Pin3istheoutputterminalaftersignalamplification;Pin4isthenegativepowerV-terminal;Pin5isanemptypin(NC)(internallyindependent,butinthe150WLM3886,thispinshouldbeconnectedtoV+);Pin6isanemptypin(NC);Pin7istheground(GND)terminal;Pin8isthemuteend.Ifitisnotneeded,itshouldbeconnectedtothev-terminal.Pin9istheinvertinginputofthesignal;Pin10isthenon-invertinginputterminalofthesignal;Pin11isanemptypin(NC)CircuitDiagramPackageLM3886hastwopackagingmethods.Oneisthatthebackplateisnotinsulatedfromtheinnerelectrode,anditmustbeinsulatedwhenaheatsinkisadded.Theotheristhatthebackplateisinsulatedfromtheinternalelectrodes,sothereisnoneedtoconsiderinsulationwhenaddingaheatsink.ProductComplianceECCNEAR99USHTS8542330001ComponentDatasheetDatasheetLM3886DatasheetProductManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.

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