Tkool Electronics

If you are looking for a high gain transistor to amplify any type of very low level signals in your circuit design with low noise features then this transistor might be a good choice.

1.5SMC33CA-E3/57T-VISHAY

If you are looking for a high gain transistor to amplify any type of very low level signals in your circuit design with low noise features then this transistor might be a good choice.

TheCD4066isaquadbilateralswitchwhichcanbeappliedforswitchingofanalogsignalsanddigitalsignals.Itispin-for-pincompatiblewiththeCD4016Bdevice,butexhibitsamuchloweron-stateresistance.Inaddition,theon-stateresistanceisrelativelyconstantoverthefullsignal-inputrange.CatalogCD4066PinoutCD4066FeaturesCD4066ApplicationsCD4066ParametersCD4066ElectricalCharacteristicsCD4066CircuitCD4066FunctionalBlockDiagramCD4066PackageWheretouseCD4066BICCD4066ProductComplianceCD4066ManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQCD4066PinoutThepinfunctionsofCD4066areshowninthetablebelow.Therearefourindependentanalogswitchesineachpackage.Eachanalogswitchhasthreeterminals:input,outputandcontrol.Theinputandoutputterminalsareinterchangeable.Whenthecontrolterminalisappliedwithhighpowerlevel,theswitchison.Whenthecontrolterminalisaddedwithlowpowerlevel,theswitchisclosed.PinNumberPinNameDescription1IN/OUTSignalIN/OUTA2OUT/INSignalOUT/INA3OUT/INSignalOUT/INB4IN/OUTSignalIN/OUTB5CONTROLBCONTROLB6CONTROLCCONTROLC7VSSGround8IN/OUTSignalIN/OUTC9OUT/INSignalOUT/INC10OUT/INSignalOUT/IND11IN/OUTSignalIN/OUTD12CONTROLDCONTROLD13CONTROLACONTROLA14VDDPowersupplyCD4066FeaturesQuadBilateralSwitchforMultiplexingVeryLowInternalResistanceOperatingVoltage:3Vto18VSwitchingVoltage:20V(maximum)On-stateResistance:5Ω(at15VVccand10kΩLoad)OutputcurrentHigh:-0.4mALowLevelControlpinVoltage:0.9V(max)HighLevelControlpinVoltage:11V(min@15VVcc)Availablein14-pinPDIP,GDIP,PDSOpackagesCD4066ApplicationsAnalogSignalSwitchingandMultiplexing:SignalGating,Modulators,SquelchControls,Demodulators,Choppers,CommutatingSwitchesDigitalSignalSwitchingandMultiplexingTransmission-GateLogicImplementationAnalog-to-DigitalandDigital-to-AnalogConversionsDigitalControlofFrequency,Impedance,Phase,andAnalog-SignalGainBuildingAutomationCD4066ParametersBrandNameTexasInstrumentsConfiguration1:1SPSTNumberofchannels(#)4Powersupplyvoltage-single(V)3.3,5,12,16,20Ron(Typ)(Ohms)125Bandwidth(MHz)40Operatingtemperaturerange(C)-55to125Input/outputcontinuouscurrent(Max)(mA)10RatingCatalogCON(Typ)(pF)8Supplycurrent(Typ)(uA)0.01CD4066ElectricalCharacteristicsDCElectricalCharacteristics(TA=+25C,VSS=0Vunlessotherwisespecified.)ACElectricalCharacteristics(TA=25C,tR=tF=20nSandVSS=0V,unlessotherwisespecified)CD4066CircuitCD4066CircuitDiagramBidirectionalSignalTransmissionThroughDigitalControlLogicCD4066FunctionalBlockDiagramCD4066PackagePDIP(N)SOIC(D)SOP(NS)TSSOP(PW)WheretouseCD4066BICTheCD4066isabi-directionalanalogswitchingICsimilartoCD4016,itiscommonlyusedinmultiplexingapplications;itcanalsobeusedtoisolatesignals.Theswitchisbilateralandhencecanbeusedforbothdigitalandanalogsignals.TheICcanoperatefrom3Vto18V,butcommonlyoperatedat5V,10Vor15Vnominalvoltages.Itcanswitchvoltagesupto20V(peak).CD4066ProductComplianceECCNEAR99USHTS8542390001CD4066ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.ComponentDatasheetCD4066DatasheetFAQWhatisCD4066?TheCD4066isaQuadBilateralSwitchIC,thatis,ithasfourswitcheswhichcanbecontrolledindividualusingacontrolpin.Theseswitchescanconductinboththedirectionsmakingitbilateral,itiscommonlyusedformultiplexinganalogordigitalsignals.HowtoUseCD4066?TheCD4066ICconsistsoffourswitches.Itcanswitchanalogsignalsthroughdigitalcontrol.Ananalogsignalisappliedattheinputoftheswitch.IfaHIGHor1valueisfedintothecontrolinput,theanalogsignalwillbepassedfrominputtotheoutputofaswitch.HowCD4066Work?The4066reallyfunctionsasananalogswitch.The4066isanICcomposedofswitcheswhicharedesignedtoswitchanalogsignalsviadigitalcontrol....The4066isaquadbilateralswitchcircuit,meaningthatiscomposedof4switches.Eachswitchhasasingleinputandasingleoutputterminal.WhatAretheApplicationsofCD4066?TheCD4066isabi-directionalanalogswitchingICsimilartoCD4016,itiscommonlyusedinmultiplexingapplications;itcanalsobeusedtoisolatesignals.Theswitchisbilateralandhencecanbeusedforbothdigitalandanalogsignals.WhatstheDifferencebetweenCD4016andCD4066?ThemajordifferencebetweenbothisthatCD4066hasverylowinternalresistance,accordingtothedatasheetitcanonly5ofon-stateresistanceascomparedwith200ofCD4016IC.TheL7812CVisathree-terminalpositivevoltageregulator.Thisregulatorcanprovidelocalon-cardregulation,eliminatingthedistributionproblemsassociatedwithsinglepointregulation.ThisblogwillcoverdetailedinformationaboutL7812CVincludingpinout,features,applications,circuits,CADmodelsandsoon.CatalogL7812CVPinoutConfigurationL7812CVPackageL7812CVCADModelsL7812CVFeaturesL7812CVElectricalChracteristicsL7812CVSchematicDiagramL7812CVApplicationsL7812CVTypicalApplicationL7812CVFunctionalEquivalentsL7812CVDesignConsiderationL7812CVPopularitybyRegionL7812CVMarketPriceAnalysisL7812CVManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrderingQuantityL7812CVPinoutConfigurationL7812CVPackageL7812CVCADModelsPartSymbolFootprint3DModelL7812CVFeaturesOutputcurrentupto1.5AOutputvoltagesof5;6;8;8.5;9;12;15;18;24VThermaloverloadprotectionShortcircuitprotectionOutputtransitionSOAprotection2%outputvoltagetolerance(Aversion)Guaranteedinextendedtemperaturerange(Aversion)L7812CVElectricalCharacteristicsL7812CVSchematicDiagramL7812CVApplicationsConstant+12VoutputregulatortopowermicrocontrollersandsensorsinmostoftheprojectsAdjustableOutputRegulatorCurrentLimiterforcertainapplicationsRegulatedDualSupplyOutputPolarity-Reversal-ProtectionCircuitL7812CVTypicalApplicationL7812CVFunctionalEquivalentsPartNumberDescriptionManufacturerAN7812POWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,12VBIPolar,PSFM3,TO-220AB,3PINPanasonicElectronicComponentsML7812FAPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,12VBIPolar,PSFM3,TO-220F,3PINMicroElectronicsCorporationIP140AIG-15POWERCIRCUITS15VFIXEDPOSITIVEREGULATOR,SFM3,TO-257,3PINTTElectronicsPowerandHybrid/SemelabLimitedSG7815AIGPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,15VBIPolar,CSFM3,HERMETICSEALED,TO-257,3PINLinfinityMicroelectronicsSG7812IGPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,12VBIPolar,HERMETICSEALED,TO-257,3PINMicrosemiCorporationMC7815AECTBUPOWERCIRCUITS15VFIXEDPOSITIVEREGULATOR,PSFM3,ROHSCOMPLIANT,TO-220,3PINRochesterElectronicsLLCKA7812AEPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,12VBIPolar,TO-220,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporationKA7812ATUPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,12VBIPolar,PSFM3,TO-220,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporationMC7812ACTGPOWERCIRCUITSLinearVoltageRegulator,1A,5to24V,PositiveVout:12.0V;TJ=0Cto+125C,TO-220,SINGLEGAUGE,3-LEAD,50-TUBEONSemiconductorMC7812CTGPOWERCIRCUITSLinearVoltageRegulator,1A,5to24V,PositiveVout:12.0V;TJ=0Cto+125C,TO-220,SINGLEGAUGE,3-LEAD,50-TUBEONSemiconductorL7812CVDesignConsiderationTheL78seriesoffixedvoltageregulatorsaredesignedwiththermaloverloadprotectionthatshutsdownthecircuitwhensubjectedtoanexcessivepoweroverloadcondition,internalshort-circuitprotectionthatlimitsthemaximumcurrentthecircuitwillpass,andoutputtransistorsafe-areacompensationthatreducestheoutputshortcircuitcurrentasthevoltageacrossthepasstransistorisincreased.Inmanylowcurrentapplications,compensationcapacitorsarenotrequired.However,itisrecommendedthattheregulatorinputbebypassedwithcapacitoriftheregulatorisconnectedtothepowersupplyfilterwithlonglengths,oriftheoutputloadcapacitanceislarge.Aninputbypasscapacitorshouldbeselectedtoprovidegoodhighfrequencycharacteristicstoinsurestableoperationunderallloadconditions.A0.33Forlargertantalum,mylarorothercapacitorhavinglowinternalimpedanceathighfrequenciesshouldbechosen.Thebypasscapacitorshouldbemountedwiththeshortestpossibleleadsdirectlyacrosstheregulatorsinputterminals.Normallygoodconstructiontechniquesshouldbeusedtominimizegroundloopsandleadresistancedropssincetheregulatorhasnoexternalsenselead.Theadditionofanoperationalamplifierallowsadjustmenttohigherorintermediatevalueswhileretainingregulationcharacteristics.Theminimumvoltageobtainedwiththearrangementis2Vgreaterthantheregulatorvoltage.Thecircuitofahighcurrentvoltageregulator(thefigureshownbelow)canbemodifiedtoprovidesupplyprotectionagainstshortcircuitbyaddingashortcircuitsenseresistor,RSC,andanadditionalPNPtransistor.ThecurrentsensingPNPmustbeabletohandletheshortcircuitcurrentofthethreeterminalregulator.Thereforeafourampereplasticpowertransistorisspecified.L7812CVPopularitybyRegionL7812CVMarketPriceAnalysisL7812CVManufacturerSTmicroelectronics(ST)groupwasestablishedinJune1988asaresultofthemergerofSGSMicroelectronicsofItalyandThomsonOfFrance.InMay1998SGS-ThomsonMicroelectronicschangeditsnametoSTmicroelectronicsLimited.Itistheworldslargestmanufacturerofdedicatedanalogchipsandpowerconversionchips,theworldslargestsupplierofindustrialsemiconductorsandset-topboxchips,andaworldleaderindiscretecomponents,mobilephonecameramodules,andautomotiveintegratedcircuits.ComponentDatasheetL7812CVDatasheetFAQWhatisl7812cv?TheL7812CVisathree-terminalpositivevoltageregulator.Thisregulatorcanprovidelocalon-cardregulation,eliminatingthedistributionproblemsassociatedwithsinglepointregulation.Canka7812andl7812cvbeusedincommon?KA7812isaFAIRCHILDproductwithamaximumoutputcurrentof1A,andL7812CVisaSTproductwithamaximumoutputcurrentof1.5A.Therefore,whentheoutputcurrentrequirementdoesnotexceed1A,thetwocanbeusedincommon.Iftheoutputcurrentisbetween1Aand1.5A,onlyL7812CVcanbeused.HowtowiretheL7812cvregulatorIC?IfitispackagedasTO-220,theidentificationmethodistofacethesidewiththewordstoyourself,andthepinsdownwards.Count123fromlefttoright.Pin1isinput,pin2isground,andpin3isoutput.78SeriesofvoltageregulatorchipsmustbeDCinput,iftheinputandoutputarereversed,thechipwillbeburnt.Inaddition,theinputDCvoltageshouldnotbetoohigh.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM7812CVandLM7812CT?Whichoutputcurrentishigher?LM7812CVandLM7812CTareboth+12Vthree-terminalregulators,andthemaximumoutputcurrentis1A.Thedifferenceisthattheirmanufacturersaredifferent.Can7812cvand78m12bereplacedwitheachother?Themaximumoutputcurrentof7812isgenerally1A(afewmanufacturersis1.5A),whilethemaximumoutputcurrentof78M12is0.5A,so7812canreplace78M12,but78M12maynotbeabletoreplace7812(onlywhentheloadcurrentdoesnotexceed0.5A)Canreplaceeachotheronlyundercircumstances).Whatistheoutputvoltageoftheintegratedthree-terminalregulatorL7812?12V.Theoutputvoltageofthethree-terminalregulatorintegratedcircuitistheoutputvoltage.Forexample,7805outputs5V,7815outputs15V.Themaximumoutputcurrentof78seriesstabilizedintegratedcircuitsisgenerally1.5A.Whatistherangeofl7812inputcurrent?Thehighestinputvoltageof7812is35V.Themaximuminputcurrentis1A,butitsbestworkingvoltageis15V~17V,especiallywhentheloadcurrentislarge.Becausethisisalinearregulator,iftheinputandoutputvoltagedifferenceandoutputcurrentarebothlargeatthesametime,itwillcauseexcessivepowerconsumptionandsevereheatgeneration.

1.5SMC33CA-E3/57T-VISHAY

L7805CVisathreeterminallinearvoltageregulatorICwithafixedoutputvoltageof5Vwhichisusefulinawiderangeofapplications.TheyareavailableinseveralICPackageslikeTO-220,SOT-223,TO-263andTO-3.Outofthese,theTO-220Packageisthemostcommonlyusedone.Thisblogcoversthepinout,features,parameter,circuits,equivalentsandotherinformationaboutL7805CV.ThisisatutorialvideoonhowtouseL7805CVlinearvoltageregulator(11V-5V)CatalogL7805CVParametersL7805CVPinConfigurationL7805CVCADModelsInformationL7805CVFeaturesL7805CVElectricalChracteristicsL7805CVSchematicDiagramL7805CVBlockDiagramL7805CVApplicationCircuitL7805CVFunctionalEquivalentsL7805CVPopularitybyRegionL7805CVMarketPriceAnalysisL7805CVDesignConsiderationL7805CVManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrderingQuantityL7805CVParametersFixedOutputVoltageNom.5VAdjustableOutputVoltageMin-AdjustableOutputVoltageMax-InputVoltageMin10VInputVoltageMax35VProductRange7805VoltageRegulatorsOutputCurrent1.5AOutputTypeFixedLinearRegulatorCaseStyleTO-220No.ofPins3PinsOperatingTemperatureMin0COperatingTemperatureMax125CAutomotiveQualificationStandard-MSLMSL1-UnlimitedL7805CVPinConfigurationL7805CVCADModelsInformationPartSymbolFootprint3DModelL7805CVFeaturesOutputcurrentinexcessof1.5AOutputvoltageof5VInternalthermaloverloadprotectionOutputtransitionSafe-AreacompensationThermaloverloadprotectionShortcircuitprotectionL7805CVElectricalCharacteristicsTj=25℃(Vi=10V,Io=0.5A,Ci=0.33F,Co=0.1Funlessotherwisespecified)SymbolParameterConditionsMinMaxUnitVoOutputVoltageVin=20V;Io=500mA4.85.2V△VvLineRegulation7.5VVin20V;Io=0.5A-50mV△ViLoadRegulation5.0mAIo1.5A;Vin=10V-100mVIqQuiescentCurrentVin=10V;Io=1.5A-6.0mA△q1QuiescentCurrentChange5.0mAIo1.0A;Vin=10V-0.5mA△q2QuiescentCurrentChange7VVin25V;Io=500mA-1.3mAL7805CVSchematicDiagramTheinternalcircuitofL7805three-terminalvoltageregulatorIChasthefunctionsofovervoltageprotection,overcurrentprotectionandoverheatprotection,whichmakesitsperformanceverystable.Therefore,itcanachievemorethan1Aoutputcurrent.Thedevicealsohasagoodtemperaturecoefficient,sotheproducthasawiderangeofapplications.Localregulationcanbeusedtoeliminatetheinfluenceofnoiseandsolvethedispersionproblemrelatedtosingle-pointregulation.Theoutputvoltageerroraccuracyis3%and5%.L7805CVBlockDiagramL7805CVApplicationCircuitL7805CVFunctionalEquivalentsPartNumberDescriptionManufacturerLM7805A-220MR1POWERCIRCUITS5VFIXEDPOSITIVEREGULATOR,PSFM3,METAL,TO-220,3PINTTElectronicsPowerandHybrid/SemelabLimitedLM7805A-220MPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VPSFM3,METAL,TO-220,3PINTTElectronicsResistorsLM340T-5POWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VBIPolar,PSFM3,PLASTIC,SFM-3MotorolaSemiconductorProductsUA7805CKCSPOWERCIRCUITS5VFIXEDPOSITIVEREGULATOR,PSFM3,ROHSCOMPLIANT,PLASTIC,TO-220,3PINRochesterElectronicsLLCMC7805AECTPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VBIPolar,TO-220,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporationMC7805ECTPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VBIPolar,TO-220,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporationMC7805ACTBUPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VBIPolar,PSFM3,TO-220,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporationMC7805CT-BP-HFPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,MicroCommercialComponentsUPC7805AHF-AZPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VBIPolar,PSFM3,ISOLATED,PLASTIC,TO-220,SIP-3NECElectronicsAmericaIncKA7805TSTUPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VPSFM3,TO-220,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporationL7805CVPopularitybyRegionL7805CVMarketPriceAnalysisL7805CVDesignConsiderationTheL78seriesoffixedvoltageregulatorsaredesignedwiththermaloverloadprotectionthatshutsdownthecircuitwhensubjectedtoanexcessivepoweroverloadcondition,internalshort-circuitprotectionthatlimitsthemaximumcurrentthecircuitwillpass,andoutputtransistorsafe-areacompensationthatreducestheoutputshortcircuitcurrentasthevoltageacrossthepasstransistorisincreased.Inmanylowcurrentapplications,compensationcapacitorsarenotrequired.However,itisrecommendedthattheregulatorinputbebypassedwithacapacitoriftheregulatorisconnectedtothepowersupplyfilterwithlonglengths,oriftheoutputloadcapacitanceislarge.Aninputbypasscapacitorshouldbeselectedtoprovidegoodhigh-frequencycharacteristicstoensurestableoperationunderallloadconditions.A0.33Forlargertantalum,mylarorothercapacitorhavinglowinternalimpedanceathighfrequenciesshouldbechosen.Thebypasscapacitorshouldbemountedwiththeshortestpossibleleadsdirectlyacrosstheregulatorsinputterminals.Normallygoodconstructiontechniquesshouldbeusedtominimizegroundloopsandleadresistancedropssincetheregulatorhasnoexternalsenselead.Theadditionofanoperationalamplifierallowsadjustmenttohigherorintermediatevalueswhileretainingregulationcharacteristics.Theminimumvoltageobtainedwiththearrangementis2Vgreaterthantheregulatorvoltage.Thecircuitofahighcurrentvoltageregulator(thefigureisshownbelow)canbemodifiedtoprovidesupplyprotectionagainstshortcircuitbyaddingashortcircuitsenseresistor,RSC,andanadditionalPNPtransistor.ThecurrentsensingPNPmustbeabletohandletheshortcircuitcurrentofthethreeterminalregulator.Thereforeafourampereplasticpowertransistorisspecified.L7805CVManufacturerSTmicroelectronics(ST)groupwasestablishedinJune1988asaresultofthemergerofSGSMicroelectronicsofItalyandThomsonOfFrance.InMay1998SGS-ThomsonMicroelectronicschangeditsnametoSTmicroelectronicsLimited.Itistheworldslargestmanufacturerofdedicatedanalogchipsandpowerconversionchips,theworldslargestsupplierofindustrialsemiconductorsandset-topboxchips,andaworldleaderindiscretecomponents,mobilephonecameramodules,andautomotiveintegratedcircuits.ComponentDatasheetL7805CVDatasheetFAQWhatisl7805cv?STMicroelectronicsL7805CV|3-PinLinearRegulatorLinearRegulators.WhatistheworkingprincipleofIC7805?AvoltageregulatorICmaintainstheoutputvoltageataconstantvalue.7805IC,amemberof78xxseriesoffixedlinearvoltageregulatorsusedtomaintainsuchfluctuations,isapopularvoltageregulatorintegratedcircuit(IC).Thexxin78xxindicatestheoutputvoltageitprovides.HowdoItesta7805withamultimeter?TurnontheDCpowersupplyandadjusttheoutputvoltageofabout8Vorslightlylarger.Oralternatively,youcanuseabattery9V-12Vasvoltagesource.Lookatthevoltmeterpanelwhenyousetthevoltage.PrepareaDCvoltmeterreadingonvoltagerange50VtomeasuretheoutputvoltageoftheIC7805.Howdoes7805regulatevoltage?For7805IC,itis+5VDCregulatedpowersupply.ThisregulatorICalsoaddsaprovisionforaheatsink.Theinputvoltagetothisvoltageregulatorcanbeupto35V,andthisICcangiveaconstant5Vforanyvalueofinputlessthanorequalto35Vwhichisthethresholdlimit.TherehavebeenmanyarticlesaboutLM317,todaywewilltalkaboutLM317Tseparately.Thisblogwillcovernotonlyitspinout,features,applicationsbutalsoitsCADmodels,functionalequivalentsandsomeusefulcircuits,thedatasheetisatthebottomofthepageasalways.TheLM317Tbelongstoasortofanadjustablethreeterminalpositivevoltageregulator,designedtosupplymorethan1.5Aofloadcurrentwithanoutputvoltageadjustableovera1.2Vto3.7Vrange.Thenominaloutputvoltageisselectedbymeansofaresistivedivider,makingthedeviceexceptionallyeasytouseandeliminatingthestockingofmanyconstantregulators.Apartfromusingitasavariablevoltageregulator,LM317TICcanalsobeusedasaconstantvoltageregulator,currentlimiter,Batterycharger,ACvoltageregulatorandevenasanadjustablecurrentregulator.DownbelowisavideoabouthowLM317Tfunctionsinacircuit.AdjustableVoltageRegulatorLM317TfunctionaldemoCatalogLM317TPinoutLM317TFeaturesLM317TSchematicCircuitLM317TSpecificationsLM317TCADModelsLM317TApplicationsLM317TPackageLM317TCircuitLM317TFunctionalEquivalentsLM317TPopularitybyRegionLM317TMarketPriceAnalysisLM317TManufacturerComponentDatasheetLM317TPinoutPinNumberPinNameDescriptionPin1AdjustThispinadjuststheoutputvoltagePin2OutputVoltage(Vout)TheregulatedoutputvoltagesetbytheadjustpincanbeobtainedfromthispinPin3InputVoltage(Vin)TheinputvoltagewhichhastoberegulatedisgiventothispinLM317TFeaturesAccordingtoLM317Tdatasheet,itfeatures:Outputvoltagerange:1.2to37VOutputcurrentinexcessof1.5A0.1%lineandloadregulationCurrentLimitConstantwithTemperature100%ElectricalBurnInEliminatestheNeedtoStockManyVoltages80dBRippleRejectionLM317TSchematicCircuitCircuitschematiccanhelpustounderstandbetterabouthowacomponentorchipisusedandworkedincircuits.Itsareferencetomakethemworkinanactualcircuit.ThefollowingLM317Tcircuitschematicisasampleforreference.LM317TSpecificationsProductAttributeAttributeValueManufacturer:STMicroelectronicsProductCategory:LinearVoltageRegulatorsMountingStyle:ThroughHolePackage/Case:TO-220-3NumberofOutputs:1OutputPolarity:PositiveOutputVoltage:1.2Vto37VOutputCurrent:1.5AOutputType:AdjustableInputVoltageMAX:40VInputVoltageMIN:4.2VMinimumOperatingTemperature:0CMaximumOperatingTemperature:+125CLoadRegulation:0.5%LineRegulation:0.04%/VSeries:LM317Packaging:TubeHeight:9.15mmLength:10.4mmOperatingTemperatureRange:0Cto+125CWidth:4.6mmBrand:STMicroelectronicsPSRR/RippleRejection-Typ:80dBProductType:LinearVoltageRegulatorsFactoryPackQuantity:1000Subcategory:PMIC-PowerManagementICsUnitWeight:0.081130ozLM317TCADModelsPartSymbolFootprint3DModelLM317TApplicationsLM317Tvoltageregulatorisusedinawiderangeincircuits,themostcommonapplications:UsedforPositivevoltageregulationsUsedinmotorcontrolcircuitsCommonlyusedinDesktopPC,DVDandotherconsumerproductsVariablepowersupplyCurrentlimitingcircuitsReversepolaritycircuitsLM317TPackageLM317TCircuitThisishowaLM317TregulatorwouldlookwhenconnectedtoacircuitsothatitsuppliesaconstantDCvoltageoutput.Inthiscircuit,weaddaDCvoltagesupplytotheVINpinoftheregulator.Thisisthepinwhich,again,receivesincomingvoltagewhichthechipwillthenregulatedown.Thevoltagewhichentersthispinmustbelargerthanthevoltageitisfeedingout.Remember,voltageregulatorsarejustdevicesthatregulatevoltagedowntoacertainlevel.Theydonotandcannotcreatevoltageontheirown.Therefore,inordertoagetavoltage,VOUT,VINmustbegreaterthanVOUT.Inthiscircuit,wewantaregulated5VDCasoutput.Therefore,VINmustbegreaterthan5volts.Generally,withregulators,unlesstheyarelowdropoutregulators,youwanttheinputvoltagetobeabout2voltshigher.Sotherefore,sincewewant5voltsasoutput,wewillfeedintothisregulator7volts.Nowthatwevedealtwiththeinputpin,wemustnowdealwiththeadjustablepin(Adj).Thisisthepinwhichallowsustoadjustthevoltagetothelevelwewant.Sincewewant5voltstobeoutput,wemustcalculatewhichvalueofR2willyieldanoutputof5volts.Usingtheformulafortheoutputvoltage,VOUT=1.25V(1+R2/R1).BeingthatR1=240Ω,ourequationisnow5V=1.25V(1+R2/240Ω),soR2=720Ω.SowithR2beingavalueof720Ω,theLM317willoutput5Viffedaninputvoltagegreaterthan5volts.IfyouneedtocalculateoutputvoltagesorwhichresistorR2valueyouwouldneedforacircuit,seeLM317Calculatoronline.Thiscanhelpyoufindtheexactresistorvalueneededforacircuit.ThelastpinoftheLM317istheoutputpin.Thisiswheretheregulatedvoltage(inthiscase,5volts)willcomeout.Tofeedacircuittheregulated5volts,wejustconnectittotheoutputpin.LM317TFunctionalEquivalentsPartNumberDescriptionManufacturerLM317T#PBFPOWERCIRCUITSICVREG1.2V-37VADJUSTABLEPOSITIVEREGULATOR,PSFM3,PLASTIC,TO-220,3PIN,AdjustablePositiveSingleOutputStandardRegulatorLinearTechnologyLM317T2POWERCIRCUITS1.2V-37VADJUSTABLEPOSITIVEREGULATOR,PSFM3,PLASTIC,TO-220,3PINMotorolaMobilityLLCLM317KCSPOWERCIRCUITS1.5-A,40-V,adjustablelinearvoltageregulator3-TO-2200to125TexasInstrumentsLM317T/NOPBPOWERCIRCUITSICVREG1.2V-37VADJUSTABLEPOSITIVEREGULATOR,PSFM3,ROHSCOMPLIANT,PLASTIC,TO-220,3PIN,AdjustablePositiveSingleOutputStandardRegulatorNationalSemiconductorCorporationLM317KCPOWERCIRCUITS3/4Pin1.5AAdjustablePositiveVoltageRegulator3-TO-2200to125TexasInstrumentsLM317PPOWERCIRCUITS1.2Vto37VadjustablevoltageregulatorsSTMicroelectronicsLM317BT4POWERCIRCUITS1.2V-37VADJUSTABLEPOSITIVEREGULATOR,PSFM3,PLASTIC,TO-220,3PINMotorolaMobilityLLCLM317BTPOWERCIRCUITS1.2V-37VADJUSTABLEPOSITIVEREGULATOR,PSFM3,PLASTIC,TO-220,3PINONSemiconductorLM317BTGPOWERCIRCUITSLinearVoltageRegulator,1.5A,HighPSRR,Adjustable,PositiveTJ=-40to+125C,TO-220,SINGLEGAUGE,3-LEAD,50-TUBEONSemiconductorLM317KCE3POWERCIRCUITS3/4Pin1.5AAdjustablePositiveVoltageRegulator3-TO-2200to125TexasInstrumentsLM317TPopularitybyRegionLM317TMarketPriceAnalysisLM317TManufacturerSTMicroelectronics(SGS-THOMSON,ST)groupwasestablishedin1987bythemergerofSGSMicroelectronicsinItalyandThomsonSemiconductorinFrance.InMay1998,SGS-THOMSONMicroelectronicschangeditscompanynametoSTMicroelectronicsCo.,Ltd.STMicroelectronicsisoneoftheworldslargestsemiconductorcompanies.Itaimstobethemarketleaderinmultimediaapplicationintegrationandpowersolutions.STMicroelectronicshastheworldsmostpowerfulproductlineup,includingdedicatedproductswithhighintellectualpropertyrights.Products,therearealsoinnovativeproductsinmanyfields,suchasdiscretedevices,high-performancemicrocontrollers,securitysmartcardchips,andmicro-electromechanicalsystems(MEMS)devices.ComponentDatasheetLM317TDatasheetLM7805isa5VoutputpositivevoltageregulatorIC.ItistheICofLM78xxpositivevoltageregulatorseries.ItismanufacturedinTO-220andotherpackages.ThisICisquitereliableduetowhichitiswidelyusedincommercialequipmentandeducationalproject.Thisblogmainlyintroducethepinout,specification,applicationcircuitsandotherusefulinformationofLM7805,includinghowtousethisdeviceproperbly.CatalogLM7805PinoutLM7805FeaturesLM7805ApplicationsLM7805FunctionalBlockDiagramLM7805FunctionalEquivalentsLM7805TypicalApplicationsLM7805PackageHowtoSafelyLongRunLM7805inaCircuitLM7805ManufacturerComponentDatasheetLM7805PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1Input(V+)UnregulatedInputVoltage2Ground(Gnd)ConnectedtoGround3Output(Vo)OutputsRegulated+5VLM7805FeaturesOutputCurrentupto1.5AAvailableinFixed5-V,12-V,and15-VOptionsOutputVoltageTolerancesof2%atTJ=25C(LM340A)LineRegulationof0.01%/Vofat1-ALoad(LM340A)LoadRegulationof0.3%/A(LM340A)InternalThermalOverload,Short-CircuitandSOAProtectionAvailableinSpace-SavingSOT-223PackageOutputCapacitanceNotRequiredforStabilityLM7805ApplicationsIndustrialPowerSuppliesSMPSPostRegulationHVACSystemsACInventorsTestandMeasurementEquipmentBrushedandBrushlessDCMotorDriversSolarEnergyStringInvertorsLM7805FunctionalBlockDiagramLM7805FunctionalEquivalentsPartNumberDescriptionManufacturerLM7805A-220MR1POWERCIRCUITS5VFIXEDPOSITIVEREGULATOR,PSFM3,METAL,TO-220,3PINTTElectronicsPowerandHybrid/SemelabLimitedLM7805A-220MPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VPSFM3,METAL,TO-220,3PINTTElectronicsResistorsLM340T-5POWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VBIPolar,PSFM3,PLASTIC,SFM-3MotorolaSemiconductorProductsUA7805CKCSPOWERCIRCUITS5VFIXEDPOSITIVEREGULATOR,PSFM3,ROHSCOMPLIANT,PLASTIC,TO-220,3PINRochesterElectronicsLLCMC7805AECTPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VBIPolar,TO-220,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporationMC7805ECTPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VBIPolar,TO-220,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporationMC7805ACTBUPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VBIPolar,PSFM3,TO-220,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporationMC7805CT-BP-HFPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,MicroCommercialComponentsUPC7805AHF-AZPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VBIPolar,PSFM3,ISOLATED,PLASTIC,TO-220,SIP-3NECElectronicsAmericaIncKA7805TSTUPOWERCIRCUITSFixedPositiveStandardRegulator,5VPSFM3,TO-220,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporationLM7805TypicalApplicationsDownbelowisatypicalapplicationcircuitoftheLM7805IC,whichLM7805workas+5Vvoltageregulator.Wejustneedtwocapacitorsofvale33ufand0.1uftogetthisICworking.Theinputcapacitor0.33uFisaceramiccapacitorthatdealswithinputinductanceproblemandtheoutputcapacitor0.1uFisalsoaceramiccapacitorthataddstothestabilityofthecircuit.Thesecapacitorsshouldbeplacedclosetotheterminalsforthemtoworkeffectively.Alsotheyshouldbeofceramictype,sinceceramiccapacitorsarefasterthanelectrolytic.LM7805canalsoactasanadjustableoutputvoltageregulator,meaningyoucanalsocontroltheoutputvoltageforyourdesiredvalueusingthebelowcircuit.Here,theinputvoltagecanbeanywherebetween9V-25V,andtheoutputvoltagecanbeadjustedusingthevalueofresistanceR1andR2.Thevaluecanbecalculatedusingthebelowformulae.Where,Vxx=5,IQ=5*10-3LM7805PackageTO-263PackageTO-220PackageFormoreLM7805packages,pleasecheckthedatasheetatthebottomofthepage.HowtoSafelyLongRunLM7805inaCircuitLM7805isusedbymanyelectronicshobbyistsandtinkerersintheirprojectsduetoitslowcost,easytouseandlowexternalcomponents.TheIChasmanybuiltinfeatureswhichmakeitidealtouseinvarietyofelectronicapplicationslikethe1.5Aoutputcurrent,overloadprotectionfunction,overheatprotection,lowquiescentcurrentetc.So,howtomakeitworksafelyandpersistantlywhenitwasusedinacircuit?Forstableandlongtermperformanceconsideration,LM7805issuggestedtonotoperateloadmorethan1.5A,andmakesurealwaysuseasuitableheatsinkwithit,alwayscheckpinoutbeforeusinginyourapplication,anddonotoperateintemperaturebelow0degreeCelsiusandabove+125degreeCelsius,whatsmore,alwaysstoreitintemperatureabove-65degreeCelsiusandbelow+150degreeCelsius.LM7805ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsIncorporated(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanyheadquarteredinDallas,Texas,thatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.Itisoneofthetop10semiconductorcompaniesworldwidebasedonsalesvolume.Thecompanysfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountformorethan80%ofitsrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessingtechnologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Thecompanyholds45,000patentsworldwideasof2016.ComponentDatasheetLM7805Datasheet

1.5SMC33CA-E3/57T-VISHAY

TIP31Cisabipolarpowertransistorwhichdesignedforuseingeneralpurposeamplifierandswitchingapplications.Thisblogmainlyintroducepinout,equivalents,applicationsandotherdetailedinformationaboutTIP31C.DownbelowisavideoshowshowtouseTIP31Ctomakeanaudioamplifier.UsingTIP31CMakingPowerfulAudioAmplifierCatalogTIP31CPinConfigurationandFunctionsTIP31CFeaturesTIP31CApplicationsTIP31CPackageWheretoUseTIP31CHowtoUseTIP31CTIP31CFunctionalEquivalentsTIP31CPopularitybyRegionTIP31CMarketPriceAnalysisTIP31CManufacturerComponentDatasheetOrderingQuantityTIP31CPinConfigurationandFunctionsLikeanyothertransistorithasthreepinsnamelyEMITTER,BASEandCOLLECTOR.ThepinconfigurationofTIP31Cisgivenbelow.PinNumberPinNameDescription1Base(B)NormallyusedasTRIGGERtoturnONtheTRANSISTOR.2Collector(C)NormallyconnectedtoLOAD3Emitter(E)NormallyconnectedtoGROUNDTIP31CFeaturesNewenhancedseriesHighswitchingspeedhFEimprovedlinearityhFEGroupingTIP31CApplicationsDCmotorspeedcontrolLightingsystemsPWMapplicationsRelaydriversSwitchmodepowersupplyAudioAmplifiersSignalAmplifiersTIP31CPackageWheretoUseTIP31CTIP31Ccanbeusedinthesituationsbelow:Situation1:Whenyouwantasimpleswitchingdeviceformediumpowerloads.TIP31CisoneofthebasicTRANSISTORSouttherewhichareeasilyavailableandcheap.Withelectricalcharacteristicssuitingmanyapplicationsitisfairlypopular.Sothecomponentisbestsuitedwhenchoosingarandomswitchingdevice.Situation2:Whenyouwantamplifyasignal.TheamplifyingfactorofTIP31Cisfairlygoodandtheimportantthingisgainisalmostlinear.SothesecharacteristicsmakeTIP31Coneofbestcontenderforamplifyingapplications.Situation3:TIP31Ccanbecontrolledbymicrocontrollerpulsesbecauseofitsgainandhighspeedresponse.Soitcanbeusedinhighspeedswitchingapplications.HowtoUseTIP31CTIP31Ccanbeusedlikeanyotherpowertransistor.HerewearegoingtouseTIP31Cincommonemitterconfigurationtounderstanditsworking.InthecircuitaboveweareusingTIP31Casasimpleswitchingdevice.AsshowinfigureweareusingasmallDCMOTORastheLOAD.TheTRIGGERforturningONtheTRANSISTORisprovidedbyCONTROLUNIT(NOTMICROCONTROLLERasMICROCONTROLLERcannotdeliver300mA).Thecontrolunitprovides+5VpulsestobaseofTRANSISTOR.TheCONTROLUNITGROUNDmustbeconnectedtoTRANSISTOREMITTERcompulsorily.The10ΩresistorisprovidedforlimitingthecurrentthroughBASE.ThisBASEcurrentlimitingresistorisimportant.Couldbechosenaccuratelybycalculating:MaximumcurrentthroughBASE=1AmpChooseBASEcurrent=0.9AmpMaximumVoltageacrossBASEandEMITTER=5VoltChooseVbe=4.5VoltageacrossresistorR=CONTROLUNITVOLTAGEOUTPUT4.5=XXVResistorR=XX/0.9=YYΩ.PutYYΩresistanceinserieswithbaseasshownincircuit.UndernormalconditionstheTRANSISTORwillbeOFFasthesewillbenoBASEcurrent.WhentheCONTROLUNITvoltagepulsesreachesBASEthencurrentflowsthroughBASEofTRANSISTOR.WithBASEcurrentflow,TRANSISTORgetsturnedON.WiththattherewillbeCOLLECTORcurrentwhichflowsthroughMOTOR.SotheMOTORrotates.TheMOTORwillbekeeprotatinguntiltherewillbeBASEcurrent.WhentheCONTROLUNIToutputgoesLOWtheBASEcurrentbecomesZERO.TheTRANSISTORgetsturnedOFFwhentheBASEcurrentbecomesZERO.SotheCOLLECTORcurrentalsobecomesZERO,bringingMOTORtoSTOP.ThiswaywecanuseTIP31Casaswitchingdevice.Thecircuitusedaboveisasimpletestingcircuitandisnotanapplicationcircuit.UsingitwithoutarrangementslikeHEAKSINK,FLYBACKDIODEetc,willdamagethedevice.ForusingtheTIP31Casanamplifieroneneedstoconsidercurrentgaincharacteristics.SowewillintroducetheCURRENTGAINgraphofTIP31Cforbetterunderstanding.ThetypicalDCGAINgraphofTIP31Cisgivenbelow.FromgraphtheGAINisalmost100whenCOLLECTORcurrentis1000mAor1A.AndGAINdropsto60whenCOLLECTORcurrentis2000mAor2A.WhenCOLLECTORcurrentgoesbeyond2AtheGAINisalmostlinear.ThisparametervalueisimportantforAPLIFIERS.Bytakingtheserangesintoconsiderationwecanmakeappropriatearrangementsforbetterperformance.TIP31CFunctionalEquivalentsTIP31CPopularitybyRegionTIP31CMarketPriceAnalysisTIP31CManufacturerFairchildSemiconductorInternational,Inc.wasanAmericansemiconductorcompanybasedinSanJose,California.Foundedin1957asadivisionofFairchildCameraandInstrument,itbecameapioneerinthemanufacturingoftransistorsandofintegratedcircuits.TheCompanyoffersloadswitches,transistors,sensors,drivers,transceivers,andautomotiveproducts.InSeptember2016,FairchildwasacquiredbyONSemiconductor.ComponentDatasheetTIP31CDatasheetInmanyapplicationsMOSFETsconfiguredashigh-sideswitchesandmanytimes,itisconfiguredashigh-sideandlow-sideswitch.Insuchapplicationshigh-lowsideMOSFETdriversareused.IR2110isthemostpopularhighandlowsidedriverIC.TheIR2110isahighvoltage,high-speedpowerMOSFETandIGBTdriverswithindependenthighandlowsidereferencedoutputchannels.ProprietaryHVICandlatchimmuneCMOStechnologiesenableruggedizedmonolithicconstruction.LogicinputsarecompatiblewithstandardCMOSorLSTTLoutput,downto3.3Vlogic.Theoutputdriversfeatureahighpulsecurrentbufferstagedesignedforminimumdrivercross-conduction.Propagationdelaysarematchedtosimplifyuseinhigh-frequencyapplications.ThefloatingchannelcanbeusedtodriveanN-channelpowerMOSFETorIGBTinthehighsideconfigurationwhichoperatesupto500or600volts.DownbelowisavideoabpouthowtouseIR2110MOSFETtocontrolacarlight.SimpledemonstrationofconnectingtheIR2110toamosfetandcontrola12Vcarlight.CatalogIR2110PinConfigurationandFunctionsIR2110FunctionalBlockDiagramIR2110ParametersIR2110FeaturesIR2110PackageOutlineHowtoUseIR2110IR2110FunctionalEquivalentsIR2110ApplicationsIR2110PopularitybyRegionIR2110ManufacturerComponentDatasheetOrderingQuantityIR2110PinConfigurationandFunctionsPinFunctions:IR2110FunctionalBlockDiagramIR2110ParametersParametersIR2110Channels2.0ConfigurationHigh-sideandlow-sideInputVccminmax10.0V20.0VIsolationTypeFunctionallevelshiftOutputCurrent(Source)min2.5A2.0AOutputCurrent(Sink)min2.5A2.0ATurnOffPropagationDelaymax94.0ns125.0nsTurnOnPropagationDelaymax120.0ns150.0nsUVLOInput(On)8.5VUVLOInput(Off)8.2VUVLOOutput(On)8.6VUVLOOutput(Off)8.2VVoltageClass500.0VIR2110FeaturesFloatingchanneldesignedforbootstrapoperationFullyoperationalto+500VFullyoperationalto+600Vversionavailable(IR2113)dV/dtimmuneGatedrivesupplyrangefrom10to20VUndervoltagelockoutforbothchannels3.3VlogiccompatibleSeparatelogicsupplyrangefrom3.3Vto20VLogicandpowerground+/-5VoffsetCMOSSchmitt-triggeredinputswithpull-downCyclebycycleedge-triggeredshutdownlogicMatchedpropagationdelayforbothchannelsOutputsinphasewithinputsIR2110PackageOutline14LeadPDIP16LeadSOICHowtoUseIR2110ApplicationcircuitfordrivingMOSFETsinbothhighandlowsideconfigurationsusingIR2110isgivenbelow.ThefloatingchannelusedtodrivetheN-channelpowerMOSFETorIGBTinthehighsideconfigurationthatoperatesupto500volts.HOandLOareLowsidegatedriveoutputandHighsidegatedrivingoutputpins.IR2110FunctionalEquivalentsPartNumberDescriptionManufacturerIR2110DRIVERSANDINTERFACESHalfBridgeBasedMOSFETDriver,2.5A,CMOS,PDIP14,PLASTIC,MS-001AC,DIP-14InfineonTechnologiesAGHIP2500IPDRIVERSANDINTERFACESHalfBridgeBasedMOSFETDriver,2.3A,CMOS,PDIP14RochesterElectronicsLLCIR2110L4DRIVERSANDINTERFACESHalfBridgeBasedMOSFETDriver,2A,CMOS,MO-036AB,14PINInternationalRectifierIR2110PBFDRIVERSANDINTERFACESHalfBridgeBasedMOSFETDriver,2.5A,CMOS,PDIP14,LEADFREE,PLASTIC,MS-001AC,DIP-14InfineonTechnologiesAGIR2110-1PBFDRIVERSANDINTERFACESHalfBridgeBasedMOSFETDriver,2.5A,CMOS,PDIP13,LEADFREE,PLASTIC,MS-001AC,DIP-14/13InternationalRectifierIR2110-1DRIVERSANDINTERFACESHalfBridgeBasedMOSFETDriver,2.5A,CMOS,PDIP13,PLASTIC,DIP-14/13InternationalRectifierIR2110ApplicationsDCmotordriverACMotorSpeedcontrolHalf,fullandthree-phasebridgePuresinewaveinverterSoftstarterforthree-phaseinductionmotorIR2110PopularitybyRegionIR2110ManufacturerInfineonTechnologiesmakessemiconductors,microcontrollers,sensors,switches,andotherdevicesthatmanagepower,energy,security,andotherfunctionsincars,phone,appliances,andmachinery.ThecompanysproductsareNo.1or2intheirmarketsforautomotive,industrialpowercontrol,powermanagement,anddigitalsecurityapplications.AutomotiveisInfineonsbiggestmarket,accountingforabout45%ofsales.CustomersincludeBosch,Bombardier,Gemalto,andOsram.ComponentDatasheetIR2110Datasheet

1.5SMC33CA-E3/57T-VISHAY

LM386isaAudioAmplifierIC.ThisblogcoversLM386AudioAmplifierpinout,datasheet,equivalent,features,andotherinformationonhowtouseandwheretousethisdevice.CatalogLM386ParametersLM386FeaturesLM386ApplicationsLM386PinoutLM386CircuitLM386PackageLM386AdvantageLM386EquivalentHowtoSafelyLongRunLM386inCircuitLM386ManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQLM386PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1,8GAINUsedtosetthegainoftheICbyconnectingtoaCapacitor2InvertingInput(IN-)TheInvertingPinofamplifierisnormallygrounded3Non-InvertingInput(IN+)TheNon-Invertingpinisprovidedwiththeaudiosignal4GroundThegroundpinisconnectedtothegroundofthesystem5VoutProvidesamplifiedaudiooutput,connectedtospeaker6Vss/VccConnectedtopower7BypassBypasspinisusedforconnectingadecouplingcapacitorLM386ParametersAudioinputtypeAnalogInputArchitectureClass-ABSpeakerchannels(Max)MonoPowerstagesupply(Max)(V)18Powerstagesupply(Min)(V)4Load(Min)(ohms)4Outputpower(W)0.325THD+N@1kHz(%)0.2Iq(Typ)(mA)4ControlinterfaceHardwareClosed/openloopClosedAnalogsupply(Min)(V)4Analogsupply(Max)(V)18PSRR(dB)50Operatingtemperaturerange(C)0to70LM386FeaturesLownoiseandlowdistortioncircuitrySmallSize(8pindippackage)Quiescentpowerisonly24mWona6VsupplyTheCurrentconsumptionisonly4mAinstandbymodeOperatedwithwidesupplyvoltagefrom4Vto18VExternalcircuitryrequiredonlyfewpartsMinimumtomaximumvoltagegainisfrom20to200AlsomanufacturedinVSSOPSOICpackages.MaxOutputofLM386N-4is1000mWon16VLM386ApplicationsSensorAudioamplifiersforradiosAmplifierforcomputers,mp3playersandothermusicplayingdevicesToysSensorCircuitsAudiofrequencysignalAmplificationsAudiopreamplifiersLM386CircuitCircuitDiagramLM386PackagePDIP(P)SOIC(D)VSSOP(DGK)LM386AdvantageLM386isawidelyusedaudioamplifierICmanufacturedin8pindip,VSSOP,SOICandotherpackages.TheICisbasicallydesignedforlowvoltagecommercialapplications,apartfromcommercialapplicationsitisalsoafamousICamongelectronichobbyistsandexperimenters.TheinternalgainoftheICissetto20butitcanbeadjustedbyconnectingaresistorandacapacitorinseriesbetweenthepinnumber1and8,bythisproceduretheusercanadjustthegainbetween20to200.Duetothesmallsize,lowquiescentcurrentandlowvoltagerequirementsthisICisidealtouseinwidevarietyofportablebatteryoperatedapplicationsanddevices.LM386EquivalentSomealternativeICsyoucanuseareLM380,TDA2822M,NJM2073andMC34119.TheICsmentionedherearenotaccuratereplacementofLM386becausetheirinternalandexternalcircuitryisdifferent,butifyouarelookingfor8pindipICswhichworkonsamevoltageandrequirelowexternalpartsandalsoprovidesameoutputthenyoucanlookfortheseICs.HowtoSafelyLongRunLM386inCircuitTogetlongtermandstableperformancefromLM386itisrecommendedtonotoperatetheICwithmorethan18VDC.Alwayschecktwicetheconnectioninthecircuittosavefromaccidentalshortcircuit,whitesolderingmakesurethattheICwillnotgetmorethanrecommendedsolderingheat.MakesuretoconnecttheICspowerconnectionsinrightpolarity,donotoperatetheICbelow0centigradeandabove+70centigradeandalwaysstoretheICabove-65centigradeandbelow+150centigrade.LM386ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.ComponentDatasheetLM386DatasheetFAQHowDoesanLM386Work?TheLM386integratedchipisalowpoweraudiofrequencyamplifier,whichuseslowlevelpowersupplylikebatteriesinelectroniccircuits.Itisdesignedas8pinminiDIPpackage.Thisprovidesvoltageamplificationof20.Byusingexternalpartsvoltagegaincanberaisedupto200.IsLM386anOpAmp?TheLM386isatypeofoperationalamplifier(Op-Amp)....Inanamplifiercircuit,theLM386takesanaudioinputsignalandincreasesitspotentialanywherefrom20to200times.Thatamplificationiswhatsknownasthevoltagegain.WhatisLM386IC?TheLM386isanintegratedcircuitcontainingalowvoltageaudiopoweramplifier.Itissuitableforbattery-powereddevicessuchasradios,guitaramplifiers,andhobbyelectronicsprojects.HowDoYouCalculateLM386Gain?VoltageGainAnalysis:Withoutanyexternalcomponents,ithasagainofGv=2x15K/(150+1350)=20(26dB).Withacapacitor(orshortcutting)betweenpins1and8,ithasagainofGv=2x15K/150=200(46dB).WhichICisUsedinAudioAmplifier?TheICLM386isalow-poweraudioamplifier,anditutilizeslowpowersupplylikebatteriesinelectricalandelectroniccircuits.ThisICisavailableinthepackageofmini8-pinDIP.WhatAreSomeProjectsthatUseLM386AudioAmplifierCircuit?LM386isanintegratedclassABampandisgoodforbeginnerssmallaudioamplifierapplicationsforexampleinaRFreceiver,smallStereosystem,cheaplowvoltageamplifieretcdrawbacksisthatitcannothandlemuchpowerandhencecreatesdistortionwhenyoucrankupthevolumetoomuch..SootherICsareusedinpractical.HowtoMakeanLM386AudioAmplifierCircuit?

2N4401isacommonlyusedNPNtransistorpossesssomeverygoodfeaturesinitssmallpackage.Thistransistordeviceisdesignedforuseasamediumpoweramplifierandswitchrequiringcollectorcurrentsupto500mA.Intodaysblog,wewilltalkaboutpinout,equivalent,datasheetandotherinformationabout2N4401,includingwhereandhowtousethisdevice.Catalog2N4401Pinout2N4401Features2N4401Applications2N4401PNPComplementary2N4401TestCircuit2N4401Package2N4401FunctionalEquivalentWheretoUse2N4401HowtoUse2N4401HowtoSafelyLongRun2N4401inaCircuit2N4401ManufacturerComponentDatasheet2N4401PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1EmitterCurrentDrainsoutthroughemitter,normallyconnectedtoground2BaseControlsthebiasingoftransistor,UsedtoturnONorOFFthetransistor3CollectorCurrentflowsinthroughcollector,normallyconnectedtoload2N4401FeaturesGeneralpurposeNPNTransistorHighDCCurrentGain(hFE),typically80whenIC=10mAContinuousCollectorcurrent(IC)is500mACollector-Emittervoltage(VCE)is40VCollector-Basevoltage(VCB)is60VEmitterBaseBreakdownVoltage(VBE)is6VTransitionFrequencyis100MHzAvailableinTo-92Package2N4401ApplicationsSensorCircuitsAudioPreamplifiersAudioAmplifierStagesSwitchingLoadsunder500mAMotorspeedcontrolDarlingtonPairsRFcircuitsunder250MHz2N4401PNPComplementaryPNPComplementaryof2N4401is2N44032N4401TestCircuit2N4401Package2N4401FunctionalEquivalentPartNumberDescriptionManufacturer2N4401RLRMTRANSISTORSSmallSignalBipolarTransistor,0.6AI(C),40VV(BR)CEO,1-Element,NPN,Silicon,TO-92MotorolaSemiconductorProducts2N4401GTRANSISTORS600mA,40V,NPN,Si,SMALLSIGNALTRANSISTOR,TO-92,LEADFREE,CASE29-11,TO-226AA,3PINRochesterElectronicsLLC2N4401TFR_NLTRANSISTORSSmallSignalBipolarTransistor,0.6AI(C),40VV(BR)CEO,1-Element,NPN,Silicon,TO-92,LEADFREE,TO-92,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporation2N4401RLRPTRANSISTORS600mA,40V,NPN,Si,SMALLSIGNALTRANSISTOR,TO-92,CASE29-11,TO-226AA,3PINRochesterElectronicsLLC2N4401TFRTRANSISTORS600mA,40V,NPN,Si,SMALLSIGNALTRANSISTOR,TO-92,LEADFREE,TO-92,3PINRochesterElectronicsLLC2N4401-APTRANSISTORSSmallSignalBipolarTransistor,40VV(BR)CEO,1-Element,NPN,Silicon,TO-92,ROHSCOMPLIANT,PLASTICPACKAGE-3MicroCommercialComponents2N4401J05ZTRANSISTORS600mA,40V,NPN,Si,SMALLSIGNALTRANSISTOR,TO-92,TO-92,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporation2N4401TARTRANSISTORSNPNBipolarJunctionTransistor,TO-92,2000-FNFLDONSemiconductor2N4401_J61ZTRANSISTORSSmallSignalBipolarTransistor,0.6AI(C),40VV(BR)CEO,1-Element,NPN,Silicon,TO-92,LEADFREE,TO-92,3PINFairchildSemiconductorCorporation2N4401RLRAGTRANSISTORS600mA,40V,NPN,Si,SMALLSIGNALTRANSISTOR,TO-92,LEADFREE,CASE29-11,TO-226AA,3PINRochesterElectronicsLLCWheretoUse2N4401The2N4401transistorisverymuchsimilartothecommonlyusedNPNtransistor2N2222.Buttherearetwoimportantfeaturesthatdifferentiatethe2N4401and2N222.2N4401canallowcollectorcurrentupto500mAonlyandalsohaspowerdissipationof652mW,whichcanbeusedtomediumloadscomparedwith2N2222,butitcandriveloadsmorethanBC547.SoifyoulookingforanNPNtransistorthatcouldswitchloadsorfordecentamplificationthen2N4401mighttherightchoiceforyourproject.HowtoUse2N4401Thistransistorlikeallcanbeusedeitherasaswitchorasanamplifier.TheBase-Emittervoltageofthistransistoris6V,soyoujusthavetosupplythisvoltageacrossthebaseandemitterofthetransistortoinduceabasecurrentintothetransistor.Thistransistorwillmakeitforwardbiasedandthusclosestheconnectionbetweencollectorandemitter.However,oneimportantthingtonoticeisthebaseresistora.k.acurrentlimitingresistor.Asthenamesuggeststhisresistorwilllimitthecurrentflowingthroughthetransistortopreventitfromdamaging.Thevalueforthisresistorcanbecalculatedusingtheformula:RB=VBE/IBTomakethingssimple,Ihaveshownasimplifiedcircuittomakeatransistorasswitch.Inactualcircuitmodificationsmightberequired.Ihaveusedabasevoltageof5Vandavalueof1Kascurrentlimitingresistor.Notethatthemotorheredrawsabout500mAfromthe12Vpowersource,sincethe2N4401hascollectorcurrentratingupto500mAthiscircuitispossiblehaditbeenaBC547thetransistorshouldhavebeenburnt.HowtoSafelyLongRun2N4401inaCircuitEverytransistorhaslimitations,crossingtheselimitationswillcausethedevicemalfunctioninyourelectroniccircuit,soitisalwaysrecommendedtousethetransistorsundertheirlimitationsdefinedbythemanufacturers.Tosafelyrunthetransistor,first,donotoperateitabove40V,anduseasuitablebaseresistortoproviderequiredbasecurrent,whatsmore,donotoperateloadabove500mAandalwaysstoreoroperatetemperaturesabove-55centigradeandbelow+150centigrade.2N4401ManufacturerONSemiconductorisdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ComponentDatasheet2N4401NPNTransistorDatasheetand some other passive components.

If you want to alternate the IC with other 8 pin dip comparator ICs in case it is used in a general application then you can also use other comparator ICs like LM393.and always store the IC in above -65 centigrade and below +150 centigrade.

The 20K variable resistor is used to set a required level of heat.It requires very low input current at its bias and offset.

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