Tkool Electronics

An 8 ohms speaker is connected with the pin5 of the IC through a 220uF capacitor used as a filter.

MAX2323

An 8 ohms speaker is connected with the pin5 of the IC through a 220uF capacitor used as a filter.

BC327 manufactured in different hFE classification that can be differentiate with the code number written after the transistor number.The transistor features 800mA collector current hence it can be used to drive variety of loads in an electronic application.

MAX2323

today we will discuss about its pinout configuration.It can be used as a switch to drive loads upto 800mA which includes high power relays.ICs and other parts of a circuit.

MAX2323

With -5V emitter-base voltage this transistor can also be used as the output of microcontrollers to drive load of upto 800mA which can easily drive motors.Bc490 and BC328 (The pinout configuration of the alternative or substitute transistors shown here many be different from the BC327.

MAX2323

technical specs and other details.

always use a suitable base resistor with the transistor.LM324isaoperationalamplifier(OP-AMP)thatrequireabatteryorsingle-polaritysupply.ThisblogmainlyintroduceLM324aboutitspinout,features,parameters,applicationsandotherinformationincludingwhereandhowtousethisdevice.ThisVedioIntroduces5SimpleLM324DIYElectronicProjectsCatalogLM324DescriptionLM324DocumentsandMediaLM324PinConfigurationandFunctionsLM324BasicParametersLM324FeaturesLM324ApplicationsWhereandHowtoUseLM324?LM324FunctionalBlockDiagramLM324ECCNUNSPSCLM324ManufacturerLM324RangeLM324AlternativeModelsComponentDatasheetFAQOrderingQuantityLM324DescriptionComparedtothestandardoperationalamplifiertype,LM324hasseveralobviousadvantagesinsingle-supplyapplications.Thisquad-operationalamplifierissuitableforsinglepowersupplywithawiderangeofpowersupplyvoltageanddualpowersupplymode.Undertherecommendedworkingconditions,thepowersupplyandcurrentareindependentofthesupplyvoltage.Itsscopeofuseincludessensoramplifiers,DCgainmodulesandallotherapplicationswhereoperationalamplifierscanbepoweredbyasinglepowersupply.LM324DocumentsandMediaFeaturedProductLM324324AQuadrupleOperationalAmplifiersLM324PinConfigurationandFunctionsLM324opamphas14pinsasCDIP,PDIP,SOICandTSSOP.Thedatasheetprovidedaboveisforyourreference,sothatyoucanunderstandthephysicaldimensionsofallpackagesinmoredetail.Theconfigurationofall14pinsandthefunctionofeachpinareasfollows:Thefunctionofall14pinsofLM324opampareasfollows:PINSDetails1Out1-Output1Obtainoutputof1stOP-AMP2Input1-invertingInputApplyinvertinginputvoltageto1stOP-AMP3Input1-non-InvertingInputApplynon-invertinginputvoltageto1stOP-AMP4VccConnectsupplyvoltage.5Input2-non-InvertingInputApplynon-invertinginputvoltageto2ndOP-AMP6Input2-invertingInputApplyinvertinginputvoltageto2ndOP-AMP7Out2-Output2Obtainoutputof2ndOP-AMP8Out3-Output3Obtainoutputof3rdOP-AMP9Input3-invertingInputApplyinvertinginputvoltageto3rdOP-AMP10Input3-non-InvertingInputApplynon-invertinginputvoltageto3rdOP-AMP11Vee,GNDConnectgroundforsinglevoltageoperationorthesecondasVeefordualpowersupplyoperation12Input4-non-InvertingInputApplynon-invertinginputvoltageto4thOP-AMP13Input4-invertingInputApplyinvertinginputvoltageto4thOP-AMP14Out4-Output4Obtainanoutputof4thOP-AMPLM324BasicParametersNumberofchannels4Totalsupplyvoltage(Max)(+5V=5,+/-5V=10)32Totalsupplyvoltage(Min)(+5V=5,+/-5V=10)3Rail-to-railIntoV-GBW(Typ)1.2MHzSlewrate(Typ)0.5V/usVos(offsetvoltage@25C)(Max)7mVIqperchannel(Typ)0.175mAVnat1kHz(Typ)35nV/rtHzRatingCatalogOperatingtemperaturerange0℃to70℃FeaturesStandardAmpsInputbiascurrent(Max)250000pACMRR(Typ)80dBOutputcurrent(Typ)40mAArchitectureBipolarLM324FeaturesWidesupplyrangesSinglesupply:3Vto32VDualsupplies:1.5Vto16VLowsupply-currentdrainindependentofsupplyvoltage:0.8mAtypicalCommon-modeinputvoltagerangeincludesground,allowingdirectsensingneargroundDifferentialinputvoltagerangeequaltomaximum-ratedsupplyvoltage:32V2kVESDprotectionLowinputbiasandoffsetparametersInputoffsetvoltage:3mVtypicalAversions:2mVtypicalInputoffsetcurrent:2nAtypicalInputbiascurrent:20nAtypicalAversions:15nAtypicalOpen-loopdifferentialvoltageamplification:100V/mVtypicalInternalfrequencycompensationLM324ApplicationsTransduceramplifiersDCamplificationblocksAlltheconventionaloperational-amplifiercircuitsthatnowcanbemoreeasilyimplementedinsingle-supply-voltagesystems.WhereandHowtoUseLM324?LM324canbeoperatedbyasinglepowersource.Twopowersuppliescanalsobeused.Theterminalsorthepinsusedarepin④and⑪.ThissinglesupplyortwopowersupplieswillmakeallfourOP-AMPsoperative.For1stOP-AMP,invertinginputisappliedatpin②andnon-invertingatpin③.TheoutputofthefirstOP-AMPisobtainedatpin①.For2ndOP-AMP,invertinginputisappliedatpin⑥andnon-invertingatpin⑤.TheoutputofsecondOP-AMPisobtainedatpin⑦.For3rdOP-AMP,invertinginputisappliedatpin⑨andnon-invertingatpin⑩.TheoutputofthirdOP-AMPisobtainedatpin⑧.For4thOP-AMP,invertinginputisappliedatpin⑬andnon-invertingatpin⑫.TheoutputoffourthOP-AMPisobtainedatpin⑭.LM324FunctionalBlockDiagramLM324ECCNUNSPSCDescriptionValueECCNCodeEAR99HTSCode8542.39.00.01LM324ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.LM324RangeDevicesBoardsDeveloperToolsARMPROCESSORSAUTOMOTIVEPRODUCTSIDENTIFICATIONSECURITYKinetisCortex-MMicrocontrollersIn-VehicleNetworkNFCLPCCortex-MMicrocontrollersMicrocontrollersandProcessorsRFIDLM324AlternativeModelsAD620LM4871LM709LM201ComponentDatasheetLM324DatasheetFAQWhatislm324?LM324isaQuadop-ampICintegratedwithfourop-ampspoweredbyacommonpowersupply.Thedifferentialinputvoltagerangecanbeequaltothatofpowersupplyvoltage....Generally,op-ampscanperformmathematicaloperations.Whichisthedifferencebetweenlm324andlm339?TheLM324hasacomplementaryoutputwhiletheLM339isopencollector.Inthecomplementaryoutput,currentcanflowineitherdirectionasrequired(eithersourceorsink)whiletheopencollectoroutputcanonlysinkcurrent.Whatisopampusefor?OperationalamplifiersarelineardevicesthathaveallthepropertiesrequiredfornearlyidealDCamplificationandarethereforeusedextensivelyinsignalconditioning,filteringortoperformmathematicaloperationssuchasadd,subtract,integrationanddifferentiation.Howdoesanopampwork?Whatislm324usedfor?LM324ICApplicationsTheapplicationsofICLM324includethefollowing.ByusingthisIC,theconventionalop-ampapplicationscanbeimplementedverysimply.ThisICcanbeusedasoscillators,rectifiers,amplifiers,comparatorsetc.Afterreadingtheblog,haveyoubetterunderstandLM324opamp?IfyouarealsointerestedinhowtousetheLM324ICtosimulateandgeneratefunctionsignals,youmaywishtobrowserighthererightnow!Finally,ifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutLM324,pleasedonothesitatetoleaveamessageinthecommentsectionbelow!

Atmega168isalow-power8-bitCMOSmicrocontrollerbasedonanenhancedAVRRISCstructure.Duetoitsadvancedinstructionsetandsingleclockcycleinstructionexecutiontime,Atmega168sdatathroughputrateisashighas1MIPS/MHz,whichcanalleviatethecontradictionbetweensystempowerconsumptionandprocessingspeed.Atmega168isamicrocontroller.ThisblogcoversAtmega168microcontrolleradvantages,applications,features,packageandotherinformation.CatalogATmega168ApplicationsATmega168FeaturesATmega168AdvantageATmega168PackageATmega168ParametersATmega168ManufacturerATmega168DocumentsATmega168BlockDiagramComponentDatasheetFAQATmega168ApplicationsItiswidelyusedinstudentsprojectsUsedinembeddedandroboticssystemIndustrialAutomationHomeSecuritySystemForthedesigningofquadcoptersATmega168FeaturesAdvancedRISCArchitecture131PowerfulInstructionsMostSingleClockCycleExecution32x8GeneralPurposeWorkingRegistersFullyStaticOperationUpto20MIPSThroughputat20MHzOn-chip2-cycleMultiplierHighEnduranceNon-volatileMemorySegments4K/8K/16KBytesofIn-SystemSelf-ProgrammableFlashprogramMemory256/512/512BytesEEPROM512/1K/1KBytesInternalSRAMWrite/EraseCycles:10,000Flash/100,000EEPROMDataRetention:20yearsat85C/100yearsat25C(1)OptionalBootCodeSectionwithIndependentLockBitsIn-SystemProgrammingbyOn-chipBootProgramTrueRead-While-WriteOperationProgrammingLockforSoftwareSecurityAtmelQTouchLibrarySupportCapacitiveTouchButtons,SlidersandWheelsQTouchandQMatrixAcquisitionUpto64sensechannelsPeripheralFeaturesTwo8-bitTimer/CounterswithSeparatePrescalerandCompareModeOne16-bitTimer/CounterwithSeparatePrescaler,CompareMode,andCaptureModeRealTimeCounterwithSeparateOscillatorSixPWMChannels8-channel10-bitADCinTQFPandQFN/MLFpackageTemperatureMeasurement6-channel10-bitADCinPDIPPackageTemperatureMeasurementTwoMaster/SlaveSPISerialInterfaceOneProgrammableSerialUSARTOneByte-oriented2-wireSerialInterface(PhilipsI2Ccompatible)ProgrammableWatchdogTimerwithSeparateOn-chipOscillatorOneOn-chipAnalogComparatorInterruptandWake-uponPinChangeSpecialMicrocontrollerFeaturesPower-onResetandProgrammableBrown-outDetectionInternalCalibratedOscillatorExternalandInternalInterruptSourcesSixSleepModes:Idle,ADCNoiseReduction,Power-save,Power-down,Standby,andExtendedStandbyI/OandPackages23ProgrammableI/OLines28-pinPDIP,32-leadTQFP,28-padQFN/MLFand32-padQFN/MLFOperatingVoltage:2.7-5.5VforATmega48/88/1681.8-5.5VforATmega48V/88V/168VTemperatureRange:-40Cto85CSpeedGrade:ATmega48/88/168:0-10MHz@2.7V-5.5V,0-20MHz@4.5V-5.5VATmega48V/88V/168V:0-4MHz@1.8V-5.5V,0-10MHz@2.7V-5.5VPowerConsumptionat1MHz,1.8V,25CActiveMode:0.3mAPower-downMode:0.1APower-saveMode:0.8A(Including32kHzRTC)ATmega168AdvantageThehigh-performance,low-powerMicrochipAVRRISC-basedCMOS8-bitmicrocontrollercombines16KBISPflashmemorywithread-while-writecapabilities,512BEEPROM,1KBSRAM,23generalpurposeI/Olines,32generalpurposeworkingregisters,threeflexibletimer/counterswithcomparemodes,internalandexternalinterrupts,serialprogrammableUSART,byte-orientedtwo-wireserialinterface,SPIserialport,6-channel/10-bitA/Dconverter(8-channelinTQFPandQFNpackages),programmablewatchdogtimerwithinternaloscillator,andfivesoftwareselectablepowersavingmodes.Byexecutingpowerfulinstructionsinasingleclockcycle,thedeviceachievesthroughputsapproaching1MIPSperMHz,balancingpowerconsumptionandprocessingspeed.ATmega168Package28P328-lead,0.300Wide,PlasticDualInlinePackage(PDIP)32M1-A32-pad,5x5x1.0body,LeadPitch0.50mmQuadFlatNo-Lead/MicroLeadFramePackage(QFN/MLF)32A32-lead,Thin(1.0mm)PlasticQuadFlatPackage(TQFP)32A32M1-A28P3ATmega168ParametersProgramMemoryTypeFlashProgramMemorySize(KB)16CPUSpeed(MIPS/DMIPS)20SRAM(B)1,024DataEEPROM/HEF(bytes)512DigitalCommunicationPeripherals1-UART,2-SPI,1-I2CCapture/Compare/PWMPeripherals1InputCapture,1CCP,6PWMTimers2x8-bit,1x16-bitNumberofComparators1TemperatureRange(C)-40to150OperatingVoltageRange(V)1.8to5.5PinCount32ATmega168ManufacturerMicrochipTechnologyInc.isapublicly-listedAmericancorporationthatisamanufacturerofmicrocontroller,mixed-signal,analogandFlash-IPintegratedcircuits.Itsproductsincludemicrocontrollers(PIC,dsPIC,AVRandSAM),SerialEEPROMdevices,SerialSRAMdevices,embeddedsecuritydevices,radiofrequency(RF)devices,thermal,powerandbatterymanagementanalogdevices,aswellaslinear,interfaceandwirelesssolutions.ATmega168DocumentsBoardDesignFilesATmega168IBISModelReferenceManualsAVRInstructionSetManualATmega168BlockDiagramComponentDatasheetATmega168DatasheetFAQWhatisATmega168?ATmega168isan8-bitAVRmicrocontrollerthatcomesinthreepackagesnamedasPDIP,MLF,andTQFP,wherethefirsttwocontain28pinsoneachmodulewhileothercomeswith32-pininterface.WhatisMeantbyAVR?StandsforAudio/VideoReceiver.AnAVR,oftencalledareceiver,isthecentralroutingandprocessingcomponentinahometheater.Itcanreceivesignalsfromconnectedcomponentsandroutethemtodifferentdevices.WhatistheDifferenceBetweenATMega168andATmega328?Thedifferencesbetweenthe328andthe168areprettyminorandyoushouldseenodifferencesexceptforhavingdoubletheprogrammingspace.HowManyDigitalPinsonATmega168?TheArduinoDuemilanove(2009)isamicrocontrollerboardbasedontheATmega168(datasheet)orATmega328(datasheet).Ithas14digitalinput/outputpins(ofwhich6canbeusedasPWMoutputs),6analoginputs,a16MHzcrystaloscillator,aUSBconnection,apowerjack,anICSPheader,andaresetbutton.HowdoyouprogramAVR?Forexample,toprogramtheflashmemoryofanAVRMCU,ConnecttheAVRMCUtoaprogrammingtool.OpenAtmelStudioandnavigatetoTools-DeviceProgrammingdialogbox.Selecttheprogrammingtool,deviceandtheprogramminginterface.ReadtheDeviceIDtoverifytheconnectionsbetweenthetoolandthedevice.HowManyRegistersinATmega168?TheAVRismostlyan8-bitprocessor,with32general8-bitregisters.TheProgramCounter(PC)registeriswider,16or22bitsdependingontheprogram-memorysizeofthedevice.HowtoBurnArduinoBootloaderonATmega168?1.UploadtheArduinoISPsketchontoyourArduinoboard....2.WireuptheArduinoboardandmicrocontrollerasshowninthediagramtotheright.3.SelectArduinoDuemilanoveorNanow/ATmega328fromtheToolsBoardmenu....4.SelectArduinoasISPfromToolsProgrammer.5.RunToolsBurnBootloader.TheACS712isafullyintegrated,halleffect-basedlinearcurrentsensorwith2.1kVRMSvoltageisolationandaintegratedlow-resistancecurrentconductor.Technicaltermsaside,itssimplyputforthasacurrentsensorthatusesitsconductortocalculateandmeasuretheamountofcurrentapplied.Intheblogtoday,wearegoingtodiscussACS712currentsensorfromitspinout,features,alternativedevicetoitsapplicationcircuits,workingprinciple,andCADmodelsandsoon,thecomponentdatasheetisatthebottomofthepageasalways.HowtouseAllegroACS712AC/DCCurrentSensorwithArduinoCatalogACS712GeneralDescriptionACS712PinoutandFunctionsACS712FeaturesandBenefitsACS712FunctionalBlockDiagramACS712CADModelsACS712TypicalApplicationCircuitsHowdoesACS712WorkACS712PackageACS712AlternativesACS712ManufacturerComponentDatasheetACS712GeneralDescriptionTheAllegroACS712provideseconomicalandprecisesolutionsforACorDCcurrentsensinginindustrial,commercial,andcommunicationssystems.Thedevicepackageallowsforeasyimplementationbythecustomer.Typicalapplicationsincludemotorcontrol,loaddetectionandmanagement,switched-modepowersupplies,andovercurrentfaultprotection.Thedeviceconsistsofaprecise,low-offset,linearHallsensorcircuitwithacopperconductionpathlocatednearthesurfaceofthedie.AppliedcurrentflowingthroughthiscopperconductionpathgeneratesamagneticfieldwhichissensedbytheintegratedHallICandconvertedintoaproportionalvoltage.DeviceaccuracyisoptimizedthroughthecloseproximityofthemagneticsignaltotheHalltransducer.Aprecise,proportionalvoltageisprovidedbythelow-offset,chopper-stabilizedBiCMOSHallIC,whichisprogrammedforaccuracyafterpackaging.Theoutputofthedevicehasapositiveslope(VIOUT(Q))whenanincreasingcurrentflowsthroughtheprimarycopperconductionpath(frompins1and2,topins3and4),whichisthepathusedforcurrentsensing.Theinternalresistanceofthisconductivepathis1.2mtypical,providinglowpowerloss.Thethicknessofthecopperconductorallowssurvivalofthedeviceatupto5overcurrentconditions.TheterminalsoftheconductivepathareelectricallyisolatedfromthesensorICleads(pins5through8).ThisallowstheACS712currentsensorICtobeusedinapplicationsrequiringelectricalisolationwithouttheuseofopto-isolatorsorothercostlyisolationtechniques.TheACS712isprovidedinasmall,surfacemountSOIC8package.Theleadframeisplatedwith100%mattetin,whichiscompatiblewithstandardlead(Pb)freeprintedcircuitboardassemblyprocesses.Internally,thedeviceisPb-free,exceptforflip-chiphigh-temperaturePb-basedsolderballs,currentlyexemptfromRoHS.Thedeviceisfullycalibratedpriortoshipmentfromthefactory.ACS712PinoutandFunctionsACS712FeaturesandBenefitsLow-noiseanalogsignalpathDevicebandwidthissetviathenewFILTERpin5soutputrisetimeinresponsetostepinputcurrent80kHzbandwidthTotaloutputerror1.5%atTA=25CSmallfootprint,low-profileSOIC8package2minternalconductorresistance1kVRMSminimumisolationvoltagefrompins1-4topins5-80V,singlesupplyoperation66to185mV/AoutputsensitivityOutputvoltageproportionaltoACorDCcurrentsFactory-trimmedforaccuracyExtremelystableoutputoffsetvoltageNearlyzeromagnetichysteresisRatiometricoutputfromsupplyvoltageACS712FunctionalBlockDiagramACS712CADModelsPartSymbolFootprint3DModelACS712TypicalApplicationCircuitsApplicationCircuit1TheACS712outputsananalogsignal,VOUT.thatvarieslinearlywiththeuni-orbi-directionalACorDCprimarysampledcurrent,IP,withintherangespecified.CFisrecommendedfornoisemanagement,withvaluesthatdependontheapplication.ApplicationCircuit2PeakDetectingCircuitApplicationCircuit3Thisconfigurationincreasesgainto610mV/A(testedusingtheACS712ELC-05A).ApplicationCircuit4RectifiedOutput.3.3VscalingandrectificationapplicationforA-to-Dconverters.ReplacescurrenttransformersolutionswithsimplerACScircuit.C1isafunctionoftheloadresistanceandfilteringdesired.R1canbeomittedifthefullrangeisdesired.ApplicationCircuit510AOvercurrentFaultLatch.FaultthresholdsetbyR1andR2.Thiscircuitlatchesanovercurrentfaultandholdsituntilthe5Vrailispowereddown.HowdoesACS712WorkNowthatwevehadanideaofwhattheACS712iscapableof,welltakealookatitsworkingprinciple.Well,whenitcomestohowacurrentsensorworks,itcaneitherbedonethroughdirectorindirectsensing.FortheACS712,itusesindirectsensing.Forcurrentsensorsthatworkbydirectsensing,ohmslawisbeingappliedtomeasurethedropinvoltagewhenflowingcurrentisdetected.HereshowtheACS712work(Simplified):CurrentflowsthroughtheonboardhallsensorcircuitinitsICThehalleffectsensordetectstheincomingcurrentthroughitsmagneticfieldgenerationOncedetected,thehalleffectsensorgeneratesavoltageproportionaltoitsmagneticfieldthatsthenusedtomeasuretheamountofcurrentACS712PackageACS712AlternativesGrove10ADCCurrentSensor(ACS725)ACS725WithsomeusersoftheACS712notrecommendingitasyourcurrentsensoroptionduetoitslowsensitivityandbadlinearity,wevecomeforthtoprovideouralternativerecommendation:theGrove10ADCCurrentSensorthatsbasedonACS725!BasedontheACS725,thisDCcurrentsensormoduleisaneconomicalandprecisesolutiontoyourcurrentsensingneedswithcapabilitiesofmeasuringupto10AofDCcurrentwithabasesensitivityof264mV/A!WhendrawingcomparisonstotheACS712,theGrove10ADCCurrentSensor(ACS725)hasthefollowingperformanceadvantages:Higher-bandwith;120KHzcomparedto80kHzoftheACS712Highersensitivity;264mV/Acomparedto66185mV/AoftheACS712Grove-interface;Easyplug-and-playpairingwithyourArduino/RaspberryPiBoardinsteadofhavingtosolderandusebreadboardsGrove5ADC/ACCurrentSensor(ACS70331)ACS70331(3DModel)IfyourelookingforacurrentsensorthatsupportsbothACandDCyetretainingperformanceadvantagesovertheACS712,theaboveGrove5ADC/ACCurrentSensor(ACS70331)isyourpick!BasedonAllegroshighsensitivitycurrentsensorIC;ACS70331EESATR-005B3,itssuitablefor5Acurrentsensingapplications,alongsideitsbasesensitivtyof200mV/A!Itsfeaturesinclude:1MHzbandwidthwithresponsetime550nsLownoise:8mA(rms)at1MHz1.1mprimaryconductorresistanceresultsinlowpowerlossHighDCPSRRenablesusewithlowaccuracypowersuppliesorbatteries(3to4.5Voperation)ACS712ManufacturerAllegroMicroSystemsisredefiningthefutureofpowerandsensingtechnologies.Fromgreenenergytoadvancedmobilityandmotioncontrolsystems,theirteamispassionateaboutdevelopingintelligentsolutionsthatmovetheworldforwardandgiveourcustomersacompetitiveedge.Withglobalengineering,manufacturingandsupport,Allegroisatrustedpartnertobothlargeenterprisesandregionalmarketleadersworldwide.ComponentDatasheetACS712Datasheet

CD4011isamemberoftheCD40xxCMOSICseries.CD4011isa2inputNANDgateIC.ItisaquadrableNANDgateintegratedcircuitthatmeansitconsistsof4NANDgatesinasingleunit.ItisbasedonCMOSlogic.AllinputsandoutputsaredesignedaccordingtotheCMOSlogicvoltagelevel.TheCD4011ICcontainsfourindependentNANDgates.ThedevicesperformtheBooleanfunctionY=ABorY=A+Binpositivelogic.ThisICisusedinAVReceivers,PortableAudioDocks,andBlu-RayPlayers.CatalogCD4011PinoutCD4011FunctionalBlockDiagramCD4011ParametersCD4011FeaturesCD4011TestCircuitsCD4011PackageWheretoUseCD4011NANDGateHowtoUseCD4011NANDGateCD4011ApplicationsCD4011ManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQCD4011PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1,2,5,6,8,9,12,13NANDGateInputpinsFirstInputpinfortheNANDgate3,4,10,11NANDGateOutputpinsOutputpinfortheNANDgate7GroundConnecttothegroundofthecircuit.14Vcc(Vdd)UsedtopowertheIC.Typically+5VisusedCD4011FunctionalBlockDiagramAsyoucanseeintheblockdiagrambelow,CD4011consistsofNMOSandPMOStransistorsandlogicforthishighoperationNANDgateisbasedonNOTandNORgates.CD4011ParametersTechnologyFamilyCD4000VCC(Min)(V)3VCC(Max)(V)18Channels(#)4Inputsperchannel2IOL(Max)(mA)6.8IOH(Max)(mA)-6.8InputtypeStandardCMOSOutputtypePush-PullFeaturesStandardSpeed(tpd50ns)Datarate(Max)(Mbps)8RatingCatalogOperatingtemperaturerange(C)-55to125CD4011FeaturesPropagationdelaytime=60ns(typ.)atCL=50pF,VDD=10VBufferedinputsandoutputsStandardizedsymmetricaloutputcharacteristicsMaximuminputcurrentof1Aat18Vover-fullpackagetemperaturerange;100nAat18Vand25C100%testedforquiescentcurrentat20V5-V,10-V,and15-VparametricratingsNoisemargin(overfullpackagetemperaturerange:1VatVDD=5V2VatVDD=10V2.5atVDD=15VMeetsallrequirementsofJEDECTentativeStandardNo.13B,StandardSpecificationsforDescriptionofBSeriesCMOSDevicesCD4011TestCircuitsQuiescent-device-currentTestCircuitInput-voltageTestCircuitInput-currentTestCircuitCD4011PackagePDIP(N)14181mm19.3x9.4SOIC(D)1452mm8.65x6SOP(NS)1480mm10.2x7.8TSSOP(PW)1432mm5x6.4WheretoUseCD4011NANDGateCD4011isa2-input4NANDgateICandusedinmanyelectroniccircuits.CD4011usedforperformingtheLogicNANDfunction.Whenyouwanttouseitasalogicinverter,NANDgatesinthischipcanbereconfiguredtomakethemNOTgate.Itcanalsobeusedinapplicationswherehigh-speedNANDoutputisrequiredasthischipcanprovideoutputinlessthan60ns.Tomakehigh-speedoperation,wealwaysneedacircuitwithlowtransitiontime.Inshort,itistherecommendedlogicgateforhigh-frequencysystems.HowtoUseCD4011NANDGateAswehavealreadydiscussedindetailaboutthepinoutandpinconfigurationofCD40118-bitNANDIC,ithasfourNANDgates.Tounderstanditsworking,letsfirstunderstandhowNANDgateworks.ThetableshownheredemonstratesthelogicalfunctionoftheNANDgate.INPUTAINPUTBOUTPUTLOW(0)LOW(0)HIGH(1)LOW(0)HIGH(1)HIGH(1)HIGH(1)LOW(0)HIGH(1)HIGH(1)HIGH(1)LOW(0)Asyoucanseefromtheabovetable,theoutputofthelogicgateislowonlywhenbothinputsarelogicalhigh.Ithas12I/Opinsoutofwhich4pinsareoutputpinsand8areinputspins.TheinternalcircuitdiagramdepictstheI/Opinsclearly.CD4011ApplicationsDecodersMultiplexersLogicgatesAudioplayersAVbasedreceiversandtransmittersDigitallockssafetythermostatsCD4011ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsIncorporated(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanyheadquarteredinDallas,Texas,thatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.Itisoneofthetop10semiconductorcompaniesworldwidebasedonsalesvolume.Thecompanysfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountformorethan80%ofitsrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessingtechnologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Thecompanyholds45,000patentsworldwideasof2016.ComponentDatasheetCD4011DatasheetFAQWhatiscd4011?TheCD4011isaCMOSchipwithfourNANDgates.Becauseeachgatehastwoinputsandithas4gatesinside,itsusuallycalledaQuad2-InputNANDGate.ANANDgatecombinesthefunctionalityofANDandNOTgates.ItgivesaLOWoutputonlywhenallinputsareHIGH;otherwise,theoutputisLOW.WhichicisusedforNANDgate?Thestandard,4000series,CMOSICisthe4011,whichincludesfourindependent,two-input,NANDgates.WhatisthedifferencebetweenNANDandNORgate?TheNANDgateoperatesasanANDgatefollowedbyaNOTgate.Itactsinthemannerofthelogicaloperationandfollowedbynegation.Theoutputisfalseifbothinputsaretrue.Otherwise,theoutputistrue.TheNORgateisacombinationORgatefollowedbyaninverter.WhatisNANDstandfor?NotAndDefinition.NAND.NotAnd(electroniclogicgate)WhereisNANDused?NANDflashdevices,availablein128Mbto2Tbdensities,areusedtostoredataandcode.Low-densityNANDflashisidealforapplicationslikeSTBs,digitaltelevisions(DTVs),andDSCswhilehigh-densityNANDflashismostcommonlyusedindata-heavyapplicationslikeSSDs,tablets,andUSBdrives.HowdoesaNANDchipwork?NANDflashsavesdataasblocksandreliesonelectriccircuitstostoredata.WhenpowerisdetachedfromNANDflashmemory,ametal-oxidesemiconductorwillprovideanextrachargetothememorycell,keepingthedata.Themetal-oxidesemiconductortypicallyusedisafloating-gatetransistor(FGT).2N2907isbasicallyaPNPbipolarjunctiontransistor(BJT)whichismainlydesignedforswitchingandlowpowergeneralpurposeamplificationapplications.Ithasanabilitytooperateathighspeedandmoderatetemperature.Thisblogcovers2N2907Transistorpinout,datasheet,equivalent,features,andotherinformation.PNPNotGateusing2N2907BipolarJunctionTransistorBJTBJTSforBeginnerCatalog2N2907CADModel2N2907Pinout2N2907Circuit2N2907Applications2N2907Features2N2907Advantage2N2907Package2N2907Parameters2N2907Manufacturer2N2907Documents2N2907EnvironmentalandExportClassifications2N2907ComplementaryNPNTransistor2N2907Equivalents2N2907asAmplifier2N2907asSwitch2N2907PopularitybyRegion2N2907MarketPriceAnalysisComponentDatasheet2N2907CADModel2N2907Symbol2N2907Footprint2N2907PinoutPinNo.PinNameDescription1EmitterCurrentDrainsoutthroughemitter2BaseControlsthebiasingoftransistor3CollectorCurrentflowsinthroughcollector2N2907CircuitStorageandFallTimeTestCircuitDelayandRiseTimeTestCircuit2N2907ApplicationsDarlingtonPairMakingsirenordualLedorLampflasherVariousswitchingapplicationsLowpoweramplifications2N2907FeaturesTypeofpackagesTO-92TheseareLead(Pb)freedevicesHavingahighvalueofcurrent(maximum.600mA)Lowvoltagevalue(maximum.40V)MaximumCollectortoEmittervoltage(VCEO)is(40vmaximum.)Collector-to-Basevoltage(VCBO)is60voltEmitter-to-Basevoltage(VEBO)is5volt(normally)MaxvalueofCollectorcurrentis600mAPowerdissipationatambienttemperatureisabout400mWHavingDCcurrentgain(hfe)of100300(maximum)Temperatureofoperationstorageis-65to+150C2N2907Advantage2N907TransistorICIn2N2907transistors,NlayersiscomposedofsemiconductormaterialwhichexistsbetweenthetwolayersofPtypematerial.Nsiderepresentthebasesideandpolaritywillbenegativeatthebaseside.Psiderepresentstheemitterterminalandpolarityattheemittersidewillbepositive.Inordertoconduct,basemustbenegativewithrespecttoemitter.Andcollector-basejunctionwillalwaysbereversebiasedsopolaritymustbereversedatthecollectorside.Collectorismorenegativewithrespecttobaseterminal.Thistransistorisabipolardevice,soconductionwillbecarriedoutbybothchargecarriersi.e.holesandelectronsbutmajoritychargecarrierswillbeholesinthiscase.PNPandNPNtransistorsworkinasimilarfashionwithsomeexceptionsi.e.voltagepolaritiesandcurrentdirectionswillbereservedincaseofPNPtransistorsascomparedtoNPNtransistors.BaseisnegativeisPNPtransistorwhileitispositiveincaseofNPNtransistors.Thesetransistorsaretermedascurrentcontrolleddevicebecausesmallcurrentatthebasesideisusedtocontrollargecurrentatthecollectorandemitterside.Whenweapplyvoltageatthebasesideitgetsbiased,anditallowstheelectronstoflowfromemittertocollector.IncaseofPNPtransistor,currentwillflowfromemittertocollectorbutmajoritychargecarrierswillbeholeswhicharethencollectedbythecollector.2N2907Package2N2907ParametersCategoryDiscreteSemiconductorProductsTransistors-Bipolar(BJT)-SingleMfrONSemiconductorSeries-PackageBulkPartStatusObsoleteTransistorTypePNPVceSaturation(Max)@Ib,Ic1.6V@50mA,500mACurrent-CollectorCutoff(Max)-DCCurrentGain(hFE)(Min)@Ic,Vce100@150mA,10VFrequency-Transition-OperatingTemperature-MountingTypeThroughHolePackage/CaseTO-206AA,TO-18-3MetalCanSupplierDevicePackageTO-18Current-Collector(Ic)(Max)600mAVoltage-CollectorEmitterBreakdown(Max)40VPower-Max400mWBaseProductNumber2N29072N2907ManufacturerONSemiconductor(Nasdaq:ON)isdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ONSemiconductoroperatesaresponsive,reliable,world-classsupplychainandqualityprogram,andanetworkofmanufacturingfacilities,salesofficesanddesigncentersinkeymarketsthroughoutNorthAmerica,Europe,andtheAsiaPacificregions.2N2907DocumentsResourceTypeLinkCADModel2N2907bySnapEDAHTMLDatasheet2N/FTSO/PNNPNType(10p)2N2907EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsRoHSStatusRoHSnon-compliantMoistureSensitivityLevel(MSL)1(Unlimited)REACHStatusREACHUnaffectedECCNEAR99HTSUS8541.21.00952N2907ComplementaryNPNTransistorThecomplementaryNPNtransistortothe2N2907isthe2N2222.2N2907EquivalentsYoucanreplacethe2N2907withthe2N2907AorNTE159M.2N2907asAmplifierWhenuse2N2907asaamplifier,canbeoperatedintheactiveregion.Whenitsbaseisconnectedtogrounditwillallowhighcurrent(600mA)topassthroughcollectortoemitter,thatshowitamplifiesthecurrent.Therearethreeconfigurationusedinanamplifiercircuitarecommonemitter,commonbase,commoncollector.Thistransistorisusedwherelowpoweramplificationisneeded.Itcanalsoamplifiesthepowerandcurrent.Amplificationfactorusuallydeterminedintermofpower,forcalculatingthecurrentgainweusetheformula:Gain(hfe)=IC/IBWhere,ICisthecollectorcurrentandIBisthebasecurrentofthecircuit.2N2907asSwitchWhenuse2N2907asaswitch,canbeoperatedinsaturationregionandcut-offregion.InPNPtransistor,bydefaultitsinONstate,butnottobesaidperfectlyonuntilthebasepinisnotgrounded.IfweprovidegroundtothebasepinthenthetransistorwillbeinreversebiasedandsaidtobeturnON.IfsupplyisprovidedtothebasepinitstopsconductingcurrentbetweenemitterandcollectorandsaidtobeinOFFstate.Fortheprotectionoftransistoraresistanceaddedinserieswithit.Forfindingthevalueofthatresistoryoucanusetheformula:RB=VBE/IBWhere,thevalueofVBEwillbe5vforthistransistor.Themaximumvalueofprovidingbasecurrentis200mA.So,fromthatyoucanfindthevalueofresistancetobeaddedinserieswithit.2N2907PopularitybyRegion2N2907MarketPriceAnalysisComponentDatasheet2N2907Datasheet

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