Tkool Electronics

accidentally connecting supply in reverse polarity may result in internally damaging the circuit of the IC.

VS-60APU02-N3-VISHAY

accidentally connecting supply in reverse polarity may result in internally damaging the circuit of the IC.

BC5492N5089 Transistor Explained / Description:2N5089 is a TO-92 package BJT transistor manufactured by many electronic components manufacturers.But 2N5089 transistor is also having a low noise feature and the noise figure is 2.

VS-60APU02-N3-VISHAY

 Applications:Sensor CircuitsRadio CircuitsAudio RecordersVoice RecordersAudio PreamplifiersAudio AmplifiersAudio Amplifier StagesMiscellaneous signal amplificationRF Circuits Under 50MHzSwitching Loads Under 100mAHow to Safely Long Run in a Circuit:To get long term performance form a component it is always suggested to use it atleat 20% below its maximum ratings.Additionally it can also be used in RF applications under 50MHz.The maximum load this transistor can handle is 100mA but as 20% rule you can use for maximum 80mA and the maximum collector-emitter voltage is 25V so you should drive load under 20V and always store or use in temperature above -65 centigrade and below +150 centigrade.

VS-60APU02-N3-VISHAY

Normally when we amplify a low gain signal with a general purpose transistor that is not low noise type then that transistor also amplifies the noise with the signal due to which at the output of the transistor we receive the signal mixed with a lot of noise.In this post we are going to discuss about 2N5089 transistor pinout.

VS-60APU02-N3-VISHAY

com/pdf-down/2/N/5/2N5089_FairchildSemiconductor.

0 dB due to which at the output of 2N5089 you will get the signal with low noise.The4N35isanoptocouplerintegratedcircuitinwhichaninfraredemittingdiodedrivesaphototransistor.Thisblogdescribesthepins,datasheet,equivalence,etc.ofthe4N35optocoupler.Introductionto4N35HowtotestitCatalog4N35CADModel4N35Pinout4N35Parameters4N35Features4N35Applications4N35ProductCompliance4N35Documents4N35AgencyApprovals4N35Package4N35Advantage4N35Equivalents4N35EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsHowToUse4N35HowtoSafelyLongRun4N35inaCircuit4N35ManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQ4N35CADModel4N35symbols4N35Footprint4N353D4N35PinoutPinNumberPinNamePinDescription1AnodeIRLEDAnode/PositivePin2CathodeIRLEDCathode/NegativePin3NCNotConnectedPin4BaseBasePinofthePhotoTransistor5CollectorCollectorPinofthePhotoTransistor6EmitterEmitterPinofthePhotoTransistor4N35ParametersAdditionalFeatureULAPPROVEDBrandVishaySemiconductorsColl-EmtrBkdnVoltage-Min70VConfiguration1ChannelConfigurationSINGLECurrentTransferRatio50%CurrentTransferRatio-Min40%CurrentTransferRatio-Nom50%DarkCurrent-Max50nAECCNCodeEAR99ForwardCurrent-Max0.06AForwardVoltage-Max1.5VHeight3.81mmHTSCode8541.40.80.00If-ForwardCurrent60mAIsolationVoltage5000VrmsIsolationVoltage-Max5300VLength8.7mmManufacturerVishaySemiconductorsManufacturerPartNumber4N35-X000MaximumCollectorCurrent100mAMaximumCollectorEmitterSaturationVoltage0.3VMaximumCollectorEmitterVoltage30VMaximumOperatingTemperature+100CMountingFeatureTHROUGHHOLEMOUNTMountingStyleThroughHoleNumberofChannels1ChannelNumberofElements1On-StateCurrent-Max0.05AOperatingTemperature-Max100COperatingTemperature-Min-55COptoelectronicDeviceTypeTRANSISTOROUTPUTOPTOCOUPLEROutputTypeNPNPhototransistorPackage/CaseDIP-6PackagingTubePartLifeCycleCodeActivePowerDissipation-Max0.15WProductCategoryTransistorOutputOptocouplersReachComplianceCodeUnknownRiskRank2.21SubcategoryOptocouplersSubcategoryOptocoupler-TransistorOutputsSurfaceMountNOUnitWeight0.012346ozVf-ForwardVoltage1.5VVr-ReverseVoltage6VWidth6.5mm4N35FeaturesIsolationtestvoltage5000VRMSInterfaceswithcommonlogicfamiliesInput-outputcouplingcapacitance0.5pFIndustrystandarddual-in-line6pinpackageComplianttoRoHSdirective2002/95/ECandinaccordancetoWEEE2002/96/EC4N35ApplicationsIsolationincircuitsMicrocontrollersoutputtocontroldevicesPowersuppliesandchargersDigitalapplicationcircuitsTelecommunicationApplications/CircuitsACIsolationCircuitsACDetectorCircuits4N35ProductComplianceUSHTS8541408000CAHTS8541400091CNHTS8541409000KRHTS8541409029MXHTS85414001TARIC8541409090ECCNEAR994N35DocumentsCertificatesREACHCertificate(PDF)PCNProductChangeNotification(PDF)FeaturedProductPCBDesignToolsHTMLDatasheet4N35/36/37EDA/CADModels4N35bySnapEDA4N35AgencyApprovalsUnderwriterslaboratoryfileno.E52744BSI:EN60065:2002,EN60950:2000FIMKO;EN60065,EN60335,EN60950certificateno.251564N35Package4N35PackageDimensionsinmillimeters4N35Advantage4N35isgeneralpurposeandwidelyusedoptocouplerorwecansayitoptoisolatorphotocoupleritisavailablein6pindipandSMDpackages.ThedevicecontainstwopartsoneisanIRLEDandtheotherpartisthephototransistor.TheworkingofthedeviceissimplewhenpowerisappliedtotheIRLEDwhichactivatestheLED,theIRlightisdetectedbythephototransistorandasaresultthetransistorbecomesaturatedorswitchedON.TherearetwobaseoftheinternalphototransistorfromwhichitcanbecontrolledoneisthephotodetectionorIRlightdetectionandotherisconnectedwiththepin6ofthedevice,thereforeitcanbecontrolledbytwoproceduresatthesametime.Themaxcollector-emittervoltageofthephototransistoris30Vandmaxcollector-emittercurrentis150mA.Howeverthecollector-emittersaturationvoltageisfrom0.14to0.3.Normallythesaturationvoltageoftransistoris0.6or0.7voltsbut0.3voltsisanidealsaturationvoltageforapplicationswherelowvoltagesaturationisrequired.AsregardingtheIRLEDcharacteristicsthemaxforwardcurrentis60milliampereandmaxpowerdissipationis120milliwatt.Pin3islabeledwithNCwhichmeansthepin3havenotconnectionwiththeinternalcircuitry.4N35EquivalentsPartNumberDescriptionManufacturer4N36-X000OptocouplerDC-IN1-CHTransistorWithBaseDC-OUT6-PinPDIPVishaySemiconductors4N37-X000OptocouplerDC-IN1-CHTransistorWithBaseDC-OUT6-PinPDIPVishaySemiconductors4N35-X000OptocouplerDC-IN1-CHTransistorWithBaseDC-OUT6-PinPDIPVishaySemiconductors4N35EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsAttributeDescriptionRoHSStatusROHS3CompliantMoistureSensitivityLevel(MSL)1(Unlimited)WhereToUse4N354N35optocouplercanbeusedforvarietyofgeneralpurposerequirementsinelectroniccircuits.Forexampleyoucanuseitinelectroniccircuitstosavethecircuits,ICsandothercomponentsfromvoltagesurgeorvoltagespikeswhichdamagesthecomponents.Otherthanthisitcanalsobeusedforisolationinelectroniccircuits.YoucanalsousetodetectvoltageinACandDCcircuits,attheoutputofmicrocontrollerChips,controllinghighpowertransistors,highvoltagedevicesetc.HowToUse4N35Using4N35optocouplerisveryeasy,asdiscussedabovethedevicecontainstwopartsorcomponentsanIRLEDandaPhototransistor,theLEDAnodepincanbeconnectedwiththeoutputofthedeviceyouareoperatingorworkingon(forexampleanyICorMicrocontroller)andthecathodepinoftheLEDshouldbeconnectedwiththegroundofthatdevice,thisLEDshouldbehandledsameasyouhandleanyotherLEDforexampleyouhavetouseacurrentlimitingresistortoo.WhentheoutputofthedevicegoeshightheLEDwillbecomeswitchedONandtheIRlightwithbedetectedbythephototransistormakingitsaturatedorswitchedONhencethecollectorandemitterpinswillbecomeshortedandasaresultanywireconnectedwiththepin4and5willbeconnectedwitheachother.TheinternalphototransistorcanalsobecontrolledlikeanormalBJTtransistor,thepin6isconnectedwiththebaseofthetransistorandyoucanalsousepin6tocontrolthetransistor.HowtoSafelyLongRun4N35inaCircuit4N35OptocouplerICForlongtermstabilityandperformanceofthisdeviceitisrecommendedthattheusershouldnotoperatethedeviceaboveitsmaxratings.Donotapplyoroperateloadof150mAthroughthisdevice.UsingacurrentlimitingresistorwithIRLEDisalwaysrecommended.Donotoperatethedeviceintemperatureabove-55centigradeandbelow+100centigradeandalwaysstoreabove-55centigradeandbelow+150centigrade.4N35ManufacturerVishaySemiconductorsincludestheformerVishayTelefunkenproductlines,theformerGeneralSemiconductorproductlines,theinfraredcomponentproductlinesacquiredfromInfineonTechnologies,andselectedproductlinesacquiredfromInternationalRectifier(excludingplanarhigh-voltageMOSFETs).TheVishaySemiconductorsproductportfolioincludesrectifiers,fast-recoverydiodes,high-powerdiodesandthyristors,small-signaldiodes,Zenerandsuppressordiodes,RFtransistors,optoelectronics,powermodules(acombinationofpowerdiodes,thyristors,MOSFETs,andIGBTs),andautomotivemodulesandassemblies.Vishayistheworldsnumberonemanufacturerofrectifiers,glassdiodes,andinfraredcomponents.ComponentDatasheet4N35xDatasheetFAQWhatisOptocouplerUsedfor?Anoptoisolator(alsocalledanoptocoupler,photocoupler,oropticalisolator)isanelectroniccomponentthattransferselectricalsignalsbetweentwoisolatedcircuitsbyusinglight.Optoisolatorspreventhighvoltagesfromaffectingthesystemreceivingthesignal.WhatistheuseofOptocoupler4N35?Whatanoptocouplerdoesistobreaktheconnectionbetweensignalsourceandsignalreceiver,soastostopelectricalinterference.Inotherwords,itisusedtopreventinterferencefromexternalelectricalsignals.4N35canbeusedinAVconversionaudiocircuits.WhatisOptocouplerinPLC?AnOptocoupler,isanelectroniccomponentsthatinterconnectstwoseparateelectricalcircuitsbymeansofalightsensitiveopticalinterface.HowtoUseOptocouplerforIsolation?Anoptocouplerachievesthisisolationbytakingsignalsthatitreceivesatitsinputandtransferringthesignalsusinglighttoitsoutput.Theoptocouplertranslatesthesignalonitsinputintoaninfraredlightbeamusinganinfraredlightemittingdiode(LED).Whatis4N35Optocoupler?The4N35isanoptocouplerforgeneralpurposeapplication.ItconsistsofgalliumarsenideinfraredLEDandasiliconNPNphototransistor.Whatanoptocouplerdoesistobreaktheconnectionbetweensignalsourceandsignalreceiver,soastostopelectricalinterference.HowDoyouConnect4N35ControlBoard?Connectpin2ofthe4N35topin7ofthecontrolboard,andpin1toa1Kcurrentlimitingresistorandthento5V.Connectpin4toGNDoftheUno,andpin5tothecathodeoftheLED.ThenhooktheanodeoftheLEDto5Vafterconnectingwitha220Ohmresistor.

IRF540NisanN-ChannelMosfet.ThisblogcoversIRF540NMOSFETpinout,datasheet,equivalent,featuresandotherinformationonhowtouseandwheretousethisdevice.Top5ElectronicsProjectsusingIRF540|irf540topcircuitsCatalogIRF540NPinoutIRF540NCircuitIRF540NApplicationsIRF540NFeaturesIRF540NAdvantageIRF540NPackageRF540NParametersIRF540NManufacturerIRF540NDocumentsWheretouseIRF540NHowtouseIRF540NHowtoConnectIRF540NComponentDatasheetFAQOrderingQuantityIRF540NPinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1SourceCurrentflowsoutthroughSource2GateControlsthebiasingoftheMOSFET3DrainCurrentflowsinthroughDrainIRF540NCircuitIRF540NPeakDiodeRecoverydv/dtTestCircuitIRF540NGateChargeTestCircuitIRF540NUnclampedInductiveTestCircuitIRF540NApplicationsSwitchinghighpowerdevicesControlspeedofmotorsLEDdimmersorflashersHighSpeedswitchingapplicationsConvertersorInvertercircuitsIRF540NFeaturesSophisticated,cutting-edgeprocessingtechnologyused.Extremelylowresistanceacrossloadpath.Flexibledv/dtplot.Operatingtemperaturetolerancecapacityashighas175degreesCelsius.Fastswitchingcapability.Fullyresistantagainstavalancheorpeaksurgecurrents.IRF540NAdvantageIRF540NMOSFETTheIRF540NisanadvancedHEXFETN-channelpowerMOSFET,fromInternationalRectifier.Thedeviceisextremelyversatilewithitscurrent,voltageswitchingcapabilities,andthusbecomesidealfornumerouselectronicapplications.BelowwebrieflyintroduceyouseveraladvantagesofIRF540N:PlanarcellstructureforwideSOAOptimizedforbroadestavailabilityfromdistributionpartnersProductqualificationaccordingtoJEDECstandardSiliconoptimizedforapplicationsswitchingbelow100kHzIndustrystandardthrough-holepowerpackageHigh-currentcarryingcapabilitypackage(upto195A,die-sizedependent)Capableofbeingwave-solderedIRF540NPackageTO-220ABPackageOutlineTO-220ABPartMarkingInformationRF540NParametersAdditionalFeatureAVALANCHERATED,HIGHRELIABILITYAvalancheEnergyRating(Eas)185mJCaseConnectionDRAINConfigurationSINGLEWITHBUILT-INDIODEDrainCurrent-Max(ID)33ADrain-sourceOnResistance-Max0.044DSBreakdownVoltage-Min100VECCNCodeEAR99FETTechnologyMETAL-OXIDESEMICONDUCTORJEDEC-95CodeTO-220ABJESD-30CodeR-PSFM-T3ManufacturerINFINEONTECHNOLOGIESAGManufacturerInfineonTechnologiesAGNumberofElements1NumberofTerminals3OperatingModeENHANCEMENTMODEOperatingTemperature-Max175CPackageBodyMaterialPLASTIC/EPOXYPackageDescriptionTO-220AB,3PINPackageShapeRECTANGULARPackageStyleFLANGEMOUNTPartLifeCycleCodeActivePeakReflowTemperature(Cel)NOTSPECIFIEDPolarity/ChannelTypeN-CHANNELPowerDissipationAmbient-Max94WPulsedDrainCurrent-Max(IDM)110AQualificationStatusNotQualifiedReachComplianceCodeCompliantRiskRank5.28RohsCodeNoSamacsysDescriptionMOSFETTransistor,N-Channel,TO-220ABSurfaceMountNOTerminalFormTHROUGH-HOLETerminalPositionSINGLETime@PeakReflowTemperature-Max(s)NOTSPECIFIEDTransistorApplicationSWITCHINGTransistorElementMaterialSILICONIRF540NManufacturerInfineonTechnologiesAGisaGermansemiconductormanufacturerfoundedin1999,whenthesemiconductoroperationsoftheformerparentcompanySiemensAGwerespunoff.Infineonhasabout47,400employeesandisoneofthetenlargestsemiconductormanufacturersworldwide.Itismarketleaderinautomotiveandpowersemiconductors.Infiscalyear2019,thecompanyachievedsalesof8.0billion.InfineonboughtCypressinApril2020.IRF540NDocumentsApplicationNotesMOSFETlinearmodeoperationandSOApowerMOSFETsMOSFETsomekeyfactsaboutavalancheMOSFETdetailedMOSFETbehavioralanalysisProductQualificationReportIRF540NProductSelectionGuideMOSFETOptiMOSandStrongIRFETWheretouseIRF540NTheIRF540NisanN-ChannelMOSFET.Thismosfetcandriveloadsupto23Aandcansupportpeakcurrentupto110A.Italsohasathresholdvoltageof4V,whichmeansitcaneasilydrivenbylowvoltageslike5V.HenceitismostlyusedwithArduinoandothermicrocontrollersforlogicswitching.SpeedcontrolofmotorsandLightdimmersarealsopossiblewiththisMosfetsinceithasgoodswitchingcharacteristics.SoifyouarelookingforaMosfettoswitchapplicationsthatconsumehighcurrentwithsomelogicleveldevicesthenthisMosfetwillbeaperfectchoiceforyou.HowtouseIRF540NUnliketransistorsMOSFETsarevoltagecontrolleddevices.Meaning,theycanbeturnedonorturnedoffbysupplyingtherequiredGatethresholdvoltage(VGS).IRF540NisanN-channelMOSFET,sotheDrainandSourcepinswillbeleftopenwhenthereisnovoltageappliedtothegatepin.Whenagatevoltageisappliedthesepinsgetsclosed.ThebelowcircuitshowshowthismosfetbehaveswhentheGatevoltageisapplied(5V)andnotapplied(0V).SincethisanN-ChannelMOSFETtheloadthathastobeswitched(inthiscaseamotor)shouldalwaysbeconnectedabovethedrainpin.HowtouseIRF540N?WhenyouturnonaMOSFETbysupplyingtherequiredvoltagetothegatepin,itwillremainonunlessyousupply0Vtothegate.Toavoidthisproblemweshouldalwaysuseapull-downresistor(R1),hereIhaveusedavalueof10k.InapplicationslikecontrollingthespeedofmotorordimmingalightwewoulduseaPWMsignalforfastswitching,duringthisscenariotheMOSFETsgatecapacitancewillcreateareversecurrentduetoparasiticeffect.Totacklethisweshoulduseacurrentlimitingcapacitor,Ihaveausedavalueof470here.HowtoConnectIRF540NItsquitesimple,andmustbedoneasexplainedinthefollowingpoints:Thesourceshouldbepreferablyconnectedtothegroundorthenegativelineofthesupply.Thedrainshouldbeconnectedtothepositiveterminalofthesupplyviatheloadwhichneedstobeoperatedbythedevice.Finally,thegatewhichisthetriggerleadofthedeviceshouldbeconnectedtothetriggerpointofthecircuit,thistriggerinputshouldbepreferablya+5VsupplyfromaCMOSlogicsource.Ifthetriggerinputisnotalogicsourcemakesurethegateispermanentlyconnectedtogroundviaahighvalueresistor.Whenthedeviceisbeingusedforswitchinginductiveloadslikeatransformeroramotor,aflybackdiodeshouldbenormallyconnectedacrosstheload,withthecathodeofthediodeconnectedtothepositivesideoftheload.However,theIRF540Nhasabuiltinavalancheprotectivediode,thereforetypicallyanexternaldiodemaynotberequired;itmaybeincorporatedincaseyouwishtoprovideextrasafetytothedevice.Correctionstotheaboveexplanationsiswelcome.ComponentDatasheetIRF540NDatasheetFAQWhatisIRF540N?TheIRF540NisanadvancedHEXFETN-channelpowerMOSFET,fromInternationalRectifier.Thedeviceisextremelyversatilewithitscurrent,voltageswitchingcapabilities,andthusbecomesidealfornumerouselectronicapplications.WhyDoWeRequireIRF540N?TheIRF540NisanN-ChannelMOSFET.ThisMOSFETcandriveloadsupto23Aandcansupportpeakcurrentupto110A.Italsohasathresholdvoltageof4V,whichmeansitcaneasilydrivenbylowvoltageslike5V.HenceitismostlyusedwithArduinoandothermicrocontrollersforlogicswitching.CanIUseMOSFETIRF540NasanArduinoSwitch?ArduinousingMOSFETIRF540NasaswitchforamotorNothatmakesnooddsatall.Thefirstproblemisthatyouhavenotsetpin12tobeanoutputinthesetupfunction.Sothatpinisanimputandyouarejustturningonandofftheinternalpullupresistor.HowDoesIRF540NWork?ThissectionofthetutorialwillelaborateaboutthebasicworkingprincipleonwhichIRF540works.IRF540worksonasimpleprinciple.Ithasthreekindsofterminalse.g.Drain,GateandSource.WhenweapplyanyofthepulseatitsGateterminal,itsGateandDraingetsshorti.e.theymakeacommonconnectionwitheachother.HowDoYouUsePChannelMOSFET?ToturnonaP-ChannelEnhancement-typeMOSFET,applyapositivevoltageVStothesourceoftheMOSFETandapplyanegativevoltagetothegateterminaloftheMOSFET(thegatemustbesufficientlymorenegativethanthethresholdvoltageacrossthedrain-sourceregion(VGDS).DescriptionBC547isaBipolarJunctionTransistor(abbreviatedasBJT).ItisanNPNtransistorandhasthreeterminalsnamedas:EmitterCollectorBaseCatalogDescriptionBC547PinoutBC547DatasheetandDownloadsBC547ParametersBC547TransistorAdvantageBC547ApplicationsBC547TransistorFeaturesBC547EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsBC547WorkingPrincipleBC547PackageInformationWhereandHowtoUseBC547HowtoSafelyLongRunBC547inaCircuitHowtoProtectBC547TransistorBC547PNPComplementaryBC547ReplacementandEquivalentBC547SMDEquivalentBC547asSwitchBC547asAmplifierCircuitsUsingBC547TransistorsFAQOrderingQuantityBC547PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1CollectorCurrentflowsinthroughcollector2BaseControlsthebiasingoftransistor3EmitterCurrentDrainsoutthroughemitterBC547DatasheetandDownloadsResourceTypelinkDatasheetsBC847SeriesHTMLDatasheetBC847SeriesBC547ParametersBaseProductNumberBC54BrandNXPSemiconductorsCategoryDiscreteSemiconductorProductsTransistors-Bipolar(BJT)-SingleCollector-BaseVoltageVCBO50VCollector-EmitterVoltageVCEOMax45VConfigurationSingleCurrent-Collector(Ic)(Max)100mACurrent-CollectorCutoff(Max)15nA(ICBO)DCCurrentGain(hFE)(Min)@Ic,Vce200@2mA,5VEmitter-BaseVoltageVEBO6VFrequencyTransition100MHzHeight5.2mmLength4.8mmMaximumDCCollectorCurrent0.1AMaximumOperatingTemperature+150CMinimumOperatingTemperature-65CMountingTypeThroughHoleOperatingTemperature150C(TJ)Part#AliasesBC547,116PartStatusObsoletePowerMax500mWProductCategoryBipolarTransistorsBJTProductTypeBJTs-BipolarTransistorsSeries-SubcategoryTransistorsTechnologySiTransistorPolarityNPNVceSaturation(Max)@Ib,Ic400mV@5mA,100mAVoltage-CollectorEmitterBreakdown(Max)45VWidth4.2mmBC547TransistorAdvantageBC547isaNPNtransistorhencethecollectorandemitterwillbeleftopen(Reversebiased)whenthebasepinisheldatgroundandwillbeclosed(Forwardbiased)whenasignalisprovidedtobasepin.BC547hasagainvalueof110to800,thisvaluedeterminestheamplificationcapacityofthetransistor.ThemaximumamountofcurrentthatcouldflowthroughtheCollectorpinis100mA,hencewecannotconnectloadsthatconsumemorethan100mAusingthistransistor.Tobiasatransistorwehavetosupplycurrenttobasepin,thiscurrent(IB)shouldbelimitedto5mA.Whenthistransistorisfullybiasedthenitcanallowamaximumof100mAtoflowacrossthecollectorandemitter.ThisstageiscalledSaturationRegionandthetypicalvoltageallowedacrosstheCollector-Emitter(VCE)orBase-Emitter(VBE)couldbe200and900mVrespectively.Whenbasecurrentisremovedthetransistorbecomesfullyoff,thisstageiscalledastheCut-offRegionandtheBaseEmittervoltagecouldbearound660mV.BC547ApplicationsAlotofapplicationsassociatedwithBC547,afewofthemainapplicationsaregivenbelow.SensorCircuitsAudioPreampcircuitsAudioAmplifierStagesSwitchingLoadsunder100mATransistorDarlingtonPairsRadioFrequencyCircuitsBC547TransistorFeaturesPackage-Type:TO-92Bi-PolarNPNTransistorDCCurrentGain(HFC)is800maximumMaxCollectorcurrent(IC)is100mAEmitterBaseVoltage(VEBO)is6VMaxCollector-BaseVoltage(VCB):50VBaseCurrent(IB)is5mAmaximumBC547EnvironmentalandExportClassificationsAttributeDescriptionRoHSStatusROHS3CompliantMoistureSensitivityLevel(MSL)1(Unlimited)BC547WorkingPrincipleWhentheinputvoltageisappliedatitsterminal,someamountofcurrentstartstoflowfrombasetotheemitterandcontrolsthecurrentatcollector.Thevoltagebetweenthebaseandtheemitter(VBE),isnegativeattheemitterandpositiveatthebaseterminalforitsNPNconstruction.Thepolarityofvoltagesappliedforeachjunctionisshowninthefigurebelow.BC547PackageInformationSOT23(TO-236AB)SOT323(SC-70)SOT416(SC-75)SOT883(SC-101)WhereandHowtoUseBC547TheBC547isawidelyusedtransistoranditcanbeusedinanygeneralpurposeapplication,itcanalsobeusedasasubstituteandreplacementtomanytransistors,thereforeitcanbeusedinvarietyofelectroniccircuitsforexampleswitchsmallloadonverylowinputvoltageandcurrentandalsoinamplificationofsmallaudioandothersignals.Themaxtransitionfrequencyofthetransistoris300MHzsoitwillalsoperformwellinRFcircuitsunder300MHzfrequency.HowtoSafelyLongRunBC547inaCircuitForlongruninacircuititisimportanttonotincreaseloadmorethan100mAonit,anddonotexceedthevoltageacrossthistransistorto45VDC.Alwaysuseasuitablebaseresistortoproviderequiredcurrentforsaturation.Donotuseorstoreitintemperatureabove+150centigradeandbelow-65centigrade.Alwaysconfirmthecollectoremitterandbasepinsbeforeplacingincircuit.Ifaccidentlyplacedwronginacircuitthancheckitsperformanceagainbecauseplacingwrongpinssometimesburnstheinternalcircuitryofthetransistorormakeitweak.HowtoProtectBC547TransistorForthelonglifeofbc547donotincreaseloadmorethan100mAonit,anddonotexceedthevoltageacrossthistransistorto45VDC.Alwaysusearelevantbaseresistortoprovidetherequiredcurrentforsaturationbecausemorecurrentonbasecandamagethetransistor.Thetemperaturedoesnotabove+150centigradeandbelow-65centigrade.Alwaysconfirmthecollector-emitterandbasepinsbeforeplacingtheminthecircuit.Ifaccidentallyplacedwronginacircuitthencheckitsperformanceagainbecausewronginputcandecreaseitsefficiency.BC547PNPComplementaryThecomplementofBC547isPNPBC557,BC558.BC547ReplacementandEquivalentYoucanreplacebc547withbc548,Bc549,2N2222,2N3904,2N4401,BC337.ThePinconfigurationofsometransistorsisdifferentfromBC547socheckpinconfigurationbeforereplacinginacircuit.BC547SMDEquivalentTheSMDoftheBC547isavailableastheBC847,BC847W,BC850,andBC850W.BC547asSwitchWhenatransistorisusedasaswitchitisoperatedintheSaturationandCut-OffRegionasexplainedabove.AsdiscussedatransistorwillactasanOpenswitchduringForwardBiasandasaClosedswitchduringReverseBias,thisbiasingcanbeachievedbysupplyingtherequiredamountofcurrenttothebasepin.Asmentionedthebiasingcurrentshouldmaximumof5mA.Anythingmorethan5mAwillkilltheTransistor;hencearesistorisalwaysaddedinserieswithbasepin.Thevalueofthisresistor(RB)canbecalculatedusingbelowformulae.RB=VBE/IBWhere,thevalueofVBEshouldbe5VforBC547andtheBasecurrent(IBdependsontheCollectorcurrent(IC).ThevalueofIBshouldnotexceedmA.BC547asAmplifierATransistorsactsasanAmplifierwhenoperatinginActiveRegion.Itcanamplifypower,voltageandcurrentatdifferentconfigurations.SomeoftheconfigurationsusedinamplifiercircuitsareCommonemitteramplifierCommoncollectoramplifierCommonbaseamplifierOftheabovetypescommonemittertypeisthepopularandmostlyusedconfiguration.WhenusesasanAmplifiertheDCcurrentgainoftheTransistorcanbecalculatedbyusingthebelowformulaeDCCurrentGain=CollectorCurrent(IC)/BaseCurrent(IB)CircuitsUsingBC547TransistorsFirstofall,Wewanttoshowyouhowcanyouusebc547transistorsinprojects.Wearegoingtoshowyouasimpletouchonthecircuitbyusing547.Thiswillclearyourconceptoftheworkingoftransistorbc547,bc548bc549,andothertransistorsthesameasthis.Thissimplecircuitclearshowsthatwhenyoutouchthepointsshowninthecircuit.Asmallamountof+currentflowsthroughthefigurefrom+tobaseandthissmallcurrentturnsonthetransistor.FAQWhybc547transistorisused?TheBC547isawidelyusedtransistoranditcanbeusedinanygeneralpurposeapplication,itcanalsobeusedasasubstituteandreplacementtomanytransistors,thereforeitcanbeusedinvarietyofelectroniccircuitsforexampleswitchsmallloadonverylowinputvoltageandcurrentandalsoinamplification.Whatisabc547?Atransistorisbasicallyanelectricallycontrolledswitch....TheBC547isaNPNtransistormeaningwhenpowerisappliedtothebase(controlpin)itwillflowfromthecollectortotheemitter.TypicallyNPNtransistorsareusedtoswitchgroundonadevice,meaning,theyareplacedaftertheloadinacircuit.Whatisthedifferencebetweenbc547andbc548?BC547andBC548areessentiallythesamebutBC547hasahigherbreakdownvoltagewhereasBC548haslownoise.ThesearethemostgeneralpurposeNPNsilicontransistorsandchangingonewiththeotherdoesnotnoticably(orotherwise)affectthecircuit.CanIusebc547insteadof2n2222?Yes,youcanuseIftheloadhasnotmorethan100macurrentload.BC547transistorhascapacitytohandleCollectorcurrent(Ic)loadnotmorethan100ma....PinconfigurationofBC547isalsodifferentascomparedwith2N2222.Pinconfigurationofbothtransistorisreverse(middlepinofbothareBase).Howdoyouknowifatransistorisworking?HookthepositiveleadfromthemultimetertothetotheBASE(B)ofthetransistor.HookthenegativemeterleadtotheEMITTER(E)ofthetransistor.ForangoodNPNtransistor,themetershouldshowavoltagedropbetween0.45Vand0.9V.IfyouaretestingPNPtransistor,youshouldseeOL(OverLimit).WhatdoesBindicateintransistorbc547?HookthepositiveleadfromthemultimetertothetotheBASE(B)ofthetransistor.HookthenegativemeterleadtotheEMITTER(E)ofthetransistor.ForangoodNPNtransistor,themetershouldshowavoltagedropbetween0.45Vand0.9V.IfyouaretestingPNPtransistor,youshouldseeOL(OverLimit).HowdoIusebc547?PlaceTransistoronabreadboard.ConnectEmittertothegroundofthebattery.AddLED330OhmResistortoCollectorofBC547.Connect1kResistorandSwitchtoBaseoftransistor.Powerupthecircuitwith9VBattery.WhatisNPNandPNPtransistor?ThemaindifferencebetweenthetwotypesoftransistorsisthatholesarethemoreimportantcarriersforPNPtransistors,whereaselectronsaretheimportantcarriersforNPNtransistors....InotherwordsforaPNPtransistor,theEmitterismorepositivewithrespecttotheBaseandalsowithrespecttotheCollector.WhatarethesimplecircuitsofBC547?

ATtiny85is8-pinMicrocontroller.ThisblogcoversATtiny85Microcontrollerpinout,datasheet,equivalent,featuresandotherinformationonhowtousethisdevice.ArduinoTutorialATtiny85explainedin4minutes!CatalogATtiny85PinoutATtiny85ApplicationsATtiny85FeaturesATtiny85AdvantageATtiny85CircuitATtiny85PackageATtiny85BlockDiagramATtiny85ParametersATtiny85ManufacturerATtiny85DocumentsATtiny85ProductCompliancesATtiny85EquivalentsATtiny85AlternativesHowtouseATtiny85HowtoSafelyLongRunATtiny85inCircuitFAQOrderingQuantityATtiny85PinoutATtiny85ApplicationsIndustrialmachinerycontrollingsystemsSolarapplicationsIOTbasedapplicationsPowersupplyandchargerbasedapplicationsWeathersensorsystemsWirelesscommunicationapplicationsSecuritybasedapplicationsMedicalhealthequipmentAutomobilerelatedapplicationsATtiny85FeaturesHighperformancedesignLowpowerconsumptioninoperatingmodeon1.8voltscurrentconsumptionisonly300uAonpowerdownmodecurrentconsumptionisonly0.1uAon1.8V.TotalnumberofAnalogInputpinsare6Contains8kilobytesofflashmemoryContains512bytesofSRAMContains512bytesofEEPROM32RegistersMinimummaximumtemperature-40degreecentigradeto105degreecentigradeAdvanceRISCLockprogramfunctionalityforprogrammingcodesecurityContainstotaltwo8-bittimersorcountersonewithcomparemodeandotherishighspeed.TotalnumberofI/Opinsare6UniversalSerialinterfaceonpin5,6and7.ContainsUSI(UniversalSerialInterface)4channels10bitADCWatchdogprogrammableTimerMinimumandmaximumoperatingvoltagefrom1.8VDCto5.5VDCATtiny85CircuitATtiny85AdvantageATtiny85isasmallsize8pinMicrocontroller.Itisanadvancemicrocontrollerwithmanygoodfeaturesinitssmallsize.Itisanotherfamousmicrocontrollerin8pinssmallsizemicrocontrollers.Itcomeswithalotoffeatureswhichmakesitanidealsmallsizemicrocontrollertouseindifferentelectronicapplications.The8kilobytesflashmemory,512bytesEEPROMand512bytesSRAMandmanyothergoodfeaturesmakesitarobustsmallsizemicrocontrollertorunvarietyofprogramcodes.ATtiny85MicrocontrollerInotherwordswecanalsosayitasmallarduinobutwithlimitedIOpins,smallflashmemory,EEPROMandSRAMascomparetotheATmega328pbutifyourcodeissmallandyouwantasmalleralternativetoArduinoboardorATmega328pmicrocontrollerthenthischipcanbeused.DespiteoflessnumberofI/Opinsthethreepinscanbeusedasanalogpinstogettheinputfromsensors.TherearealsotwootheralternativesofATtiny85whichareATtiny25andATtiny45.ButtheamountofFlash,SRAMandEEPROMaredifferentinallofthem.ATtiny85Package8P38S220M1ATtiny85BlockDiagramATtiny85ParametersProgramMemoryTypeFlashProgramMemorySize(KB)8CPUSpeed(MIPS/DMIPS)20DataEEPROM/HEF(bytes)512DigitalCommunicationPeripherals1-SPI,1-I2CCapture/Compare/PWMPeripherals5PWMTimers2x8-bitNumberofComparators1TemperatureRange(C)-40to85OperatingVoltageRange(V)1.8to5.5PinCount8ATtiny85ManufacturerMicrochipTechnologyInc.isaleadingproviderofmicrocontrollerandanalogsemiconductors,providinglow-riskproductdevelopment,lowertotalsystemcostandfastertimetomarketforthousandsofdiversecustomerapplicationsworldwide.HeadquarteredinChandler,Arizona,Microchipoffersoutstandingtechnicalsupportalongwithdependabledeliveryandquality.ATtiny85DocumentsAppendixB-ATtiny25/45/85AutomotiveSpecificationat1.8VDatasheetATtiny25/45/85-CompleteDatasheetATtiny25/45/85-SummaryDatasheetATtiny25/45/85Automotive-CompleteDatasheetATtiny85ProductCompliancesUSHTS8542310001CNHTS8542319000TARIC8542319000ATtiny85EquivalentsTheATtiny85canbereplacewithATtiny25andATtiny45buttheamountofFlashmemory,EEPROMandSRAMaredifferentinboththealternatives.ATtiny85AlternativesATtiny25,ATtiny45,ATtiny25V,ATtiny45V,ATtiny85VHowtouseATtiny85ATtiny85workslikeanyothermicrocontroller.Ifstatedinonesentence,allthatmicrocontrollersdoisexecutetheapplicationprogramsavedinitsmemory.Sointhecaseofcontrollersalltheretodoiswriteapplicationprogram.Withoutprogrammingcontrollersimplystaysidle.StepbystepprocedureforprogrammingATtiny85isexplainedbelow:Firstlistthetaskstobedonebythedesigningapplication.Writedownthefunctionstobeexecutedbycontrollertocompleterequiredtasks.DeveloptheprogramcodeforthefunctionsinIDEsoftware.Afterwritingtheprogramcompileittoeliminateerrors.MaketheIDEgenerateHEXfileforthewrittenprogramaftercompiling.ThisHEXfilecontainsthemachinecodewhichshouldbesavedinmicrocontrollerflashmemory.Choosetheprogrammingdevice(usuallySPIprogrammermadeforAVRmicrocontrollers)whichestablishescommunicationbetweenPCandATTINY85.YoucanalsoprogramthemicrocontrollerusingUARTInterface.ProgrammingATTINY85canalsobedonebyusingARDUINOboards.Runtheprogrammersoftwareandchoosetheappropriatehexfile.BurntheHEXfileofwrittenprograminATTINY85flashmemoryusingthisprogram.Afterdisconnectingtheprogrammerconnecttheappropriateperipheralsforthecontrollerandgetthesystemstarted.Oncepowered,theATtiny85executesthemachinecodesavedinitsmemorytocreatetheprogrammedresponse.HowtoSafelyLongRunATtiny85inCircuitTogetgoodperformanceforalongtimeorifyouwanttoruntheATtiny85formanyyearsinyourapplicationorprojectitshouldbeknownthatmicrocontrollersareverysensitivedevicesandtheusermusttakecarewhenworkingwiththem.Donotexceedthesupplyvoltagefrom5.5V.Alwayscheckthevoltagesourceoutputfromanaccuratedigitalmillimeterbeforeconnectingittothemicrocontroller.TheDCcurrentonperI/Opinshouldnotbeincreasedfrom40mAandtheDCcurrentonpositivesupplyandgroundpinsshouldnotbeincreasedfrom200mA.Checkthepolarityofpinsbeforeapplyingpowerandifyouaresolderingitoncircuitboardcheckandcleanallthepinsforshortcircuitbeforeapplyingthepower.UseICsockettoplacetheIConbreadboardoroncircuit.ICsocketalsosavestheICfromtheheatgeneratedfromthesolderingironwhilesoldering.Theminimumstoragetemperatureis-65centigradeandmaximumis+150centigrade.Howevertheminimumandmaximumtemperatureforoperatingthechipisfrom-55centigradeto+125centigrade.ComponentDatasheetATTINY85DatasheetFAQWhatcanATtiny85beusedfor?ATtiny85comeswithaserialperipheralinterface(SPI)thatismainlyusedforcommunicationbetweenthemicrocontrollerandotherperipheraldevicessuchasSDcards,sensors,andshiftregisters.HowdoIProgrammyATtiny85?1.GointoyourArduinoIDEunderToolsBoard.2.SelecttheoptionunderthatsaysATtiny25/45/85.3.UnderTools,selectProcessor:ATtiny85andtheClock:Internal1MHz....4.ChangetheProgrammersettingtoUSBtinyISP.5.Whenyourereadytoupload,plugtheATtiny85intothededicatedsocket.DoesATtiny85NeedCrystal?ATtinymicroprocessorscanuseaninternalRCoscillatororanexternalcrystaloscillator.Externalcrystaloscillatorsaremoreaccurate,butrequiretwopins.Fortheselowpincountdevicesitcanbebeneficialtousetheinternaloscillator.WhatisDigisparkATtiny85?TheDigisparkisanAttiny85basedmicrocontrollerdevelopmentboardsimilartotheArduinoline,onlycheaper,smaller,andabitlesspowerful....TheDigisparkisshippedfullyassembledexceptforthetwoincludedandeasytosolderheaders.HowdoIPowerATtiny85?ThismeansthatyoucanpoweritfromUSB,atinybutton-cellbattery,orsomethinginbetweensuchasaLiPo.TheATtiny85(littleblacksquare)andascreencanberunonacoincell.WhenpoweredfromaUSBbus(5v),andrunningataclockspeedof1MHz,theATtiny85willconsumelessthan2mA.HowDoYouUseTinyAVRProgrammer?TheTinyAVRProgrammerplugsdirectlyintoyourUSBportandprovidesaprogrammingsocketfortheATTiny45and85.JustslotanATTinyintothesocket,plugtheprogrammerintoyourUSBportandstartuptheArduinoIDE.HowDoIProgramATtiny85withUSBasp?HowtoProgramandBootloadATtiny85WithUSBaspStep1:DownloadsandMaterials.ThefirststeptoprogramyourATtiny85istodownloadthenecessaryfilestoachievethis....Step2:UsingtheATtinyCoreFiles.Firstyouneedtoextractthefilesfromwithinthezipfile....Step3:ConnectingthePins....Step4:UploadingYourSketch....HowdoIProgramMyRaspberryPiATtiny85?Step1:SetuptheRaspberryPi.AttheterminalofthePi:...Step2:ElectricalConnections.ConnectuptheATtiny85totheRaspberryPiGPIO(wirecoloursfromthepicturearegivenforreference):...Step3:TestAvrdudeConnection....Step4:ProgramtheATtiny85.Intodaysblog,IllintroduceLM431systematicallyfrompinout,features,toitsmanufacturer,datasheetandsoon.TheLM431isa3-terminaladjustableshuntregulatorwithensuredtemperaturestabilityovertheentiretemperaturerangeofoperation.Theoutputvoltagemaybesetatanylevelgreaterthan2.5V(VREF)upto36Vmerelybyselectingtwoexternalresistorsthatactasavoltagedividednetwork.DuetothesharpturnoncharacteristicsthisdeviceisanexcellentreplacementformanyZenerdiodeapplications.TheLM431isavailableinspace-savingSOIC-8,SOT-23,andTO-92packages.LM431adjprecisionzenershuntregulatorcomponentwiredaslow9VbatteryindicatorcircuitCatalogLM431PinConfigurationandFunctionLM431FeaturesLM431AlternativesLM431FunctionalEquivalentsLM431PackageOutlineLM431ApplicationsHowtoUseLM431LM431ManufacturerComponentDatasheetOrderingQuantityLM431PinConfigurationandFunctionLM431FeaturesAverageTemperatureCoefficientof50ppm/CTemperatureCompensatedforOperationOvertheFullTemperatureRangeProgrammableOutputVoltageFastTurnonResponseLow-OutputNoiseLow-DynamicOutputImpedanceAvailableinSpace-SavingSOIC-8,SOT-23,andTO-92PackagesLM431AlternativesLM432,NJM2820,NJM2821,NJM2822,ZXRE060LM431FunctionalEquivalentsPartNumberDescriptionManufacturerLM431BIZPOWERCIRCUITS1-OUTPUTTWOTERMVOLTAGEREFERENCE,2.495V,PBCY3,PLASTIC,TO-92,3PINTexasInstrumentsLM431AIZXAPOWERCIRCUITSTwoTerminalVoltageReference,1Output,2.5V,Trim/Adjustable,PBCY3,TO-92,3PINRochesterElectronicsLLCLM431BIZXAPOWERCIRCUITSTwoTerminalVoltageReference,1Output,2.495V,Trim/Adjustable,PBCY3,TO-92,3PINRochesterElectronicsLLCLM431BCZXAPOWERCIRCUITSAdjustable/2.5V,1%ToleranceShuntRegulator,3LD,TO92,MOLDED0.200INLINESPACINGLDFORM,2000/AMMOFairchildSemiconductorCorporationLM431ACZPOWERCIRCUITSIC1-OUTPUTTWOTERMVOLTAGEREFERENCE,2.495V,PBCY3,PLASTIC,TO-92,3PIN,VoltageReferenceNationalSemiconductorCorporationLM431AIZPOWERCIRCUITSAdjustable/2.5V,2%ToleranceShuntRegulator,3LD,TO92,JEDECTO-92COMPLIANTSTRAIGHTLEADCONFIGURATION(OLDTO92AM3),10000/BULKFairchildSemiconductorCorporationLM431AIZ/NOPBPOWERCIRCUITS2%,1%,or0.5%accuracy,adjustableprecisionZenershuntregulator3-TO-92-40to85TexasInstrumentsLM431CCZPOWERCIRCUITSIC1-OUTPUTTWOTERMVOLTAGEREFERENCE,2.5V,PBCY3,PLASTIC,TO-92,3PIN,VoltageReferenceNationalSemiconductorCorporationLM431ACZ/NOPBPOWERCIRCUITS2%,1%,or0.5%accuracy,adjustableprecisionZenershuntregulator3-TO-920to70TexasInstrumentsLM431CIZ/LFT1POWERCIRCUITSAdjustablePrecisionZenerShuntRegulator3-TO-92TexasInstrumentsLM431PackageOutlineSOIC-8LM431(SOIC-8Package)SOT-23LM431(SOT-23Package)TO-92LM431(TO-92Package)LM431ApplicationsAdjustableVoltageorCurrentLinearandSwitchingPowerSuppliesVoltageMonitoringCurrentSourseandSinkCircuitsCircuitsRequiringPrecisionReferencesZenerDiodeReplacementsHowtoUseLM431?BeforegoingforapplicationcircuitofLM431,letusfirstunderstandtheinternalworkingofthedeviceandforthatconsiderthefunctionaldiagramofthedeviceasshownbelow.IntheLM431functionaldiagram,wehavethreemaindevicesnamelyOp-amp,NPNtransistorand+2.5Vvoltagesource.Basedontheworkingoftheop-amp,theoutputvoltageVo/pwillbepositiveonlywhenVref+2.5Vbecausethevoltageatinvertingterminaloftheop-ampis+2.5V.Nowletusconsiderasimpleapplicationcircuitforthedeviceasshownbelow:Herereferencevoltage(Vref)isthevoltageatthenon-invertingterminaloftheop-ampandthisvoltagedetermineswhethertheop-ampoutputspositivevoltageornot.AlsoVrefisthevoltageatthemidpointvoltagedividernetworkformedbythetworesistorsR2andR3.BasedontheconceptofvoltagedivisionwehaveVref=Vo(R3/R2+R3).ByexchangingtermswehaveVo=Vref(R2+R3/R3)=Vref(1+R2/R3)=2.5(1+R2/R3).Basedontheequationyoucanadjusttworesistorvaluesinthecircuittogetthedesiredoutputvoltage.WorkingPrincipleoftheCircuit:Theop-ampherekeepscomparingthevoltageatnon-invertingterminalwhichisVref(whichisdirectlyrelatedtooutputvoltage)with+2.5V(thevoltageconnectedtoinvertingterminalbydefault)anddependingontheresulttheop-amptriggersthetransistortodrawcurrentfromthesourceV1.Whenevertheoutputcrossesthethreshold(thresholdisvaluedeterminedbyR2andR3value)theop-ampgetfeedbackviaVrefanditdrivesthetransistorON.WhenthetransistorturnsONthedevicedrawscurrentandbecauseofthiscurrentdrawingavoltagedropappearsacrossR1resistorwhichisinserieswithvoltagesourceV1.Becauseofthisdrop,wehaveVo=V1(R1)*(Ic).HereIcisthecurrentdrawnbythetransistor.Also,thecurrentdrawbyop-ampandresistornetworkisneglectedforeasyexplanation.Theop-ampturnsONtransistoruptoapointwhereitscurrentdrawingleadstoloweringVo(byR1voltagedrop)fromV1toVref(1+R2/R3).Sointhefinalresult,Vowillalwaysbeadjustedtofloatnearthemeasuredvaluebyop-ampsetup(orLM431).Inasimilarway,wecansetupotherapplicationcircuits.LM431ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsIncorporated(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanyheadquarteredinDallas,Texas,thatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.Itisoneofthetop10semiconductorcompaniesworldwidebasedonsalesvolume.Thecompanysfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountformorethan80%ofitsrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessingtechnologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Thecompanyholds45,000patentsworldwideasof2016.ComponentDatasheetLM431Datasheet

访客,请您发表评论:

Powered By Tkool Electronics

Copyright Your WebSite.sitemap