Tkool Electronics

The maximum collector current of the transistor is 2A therefore for safety do not drive load of more than1.

XO57CRECNA14M7456-VISHAY

The maximum collector current of the transistor is 2A therefore for safety do not drive load of more than1.

Always store and operate it in temperature above -65 Celsius and below +150 Celsius.0Max Power Dissipation is: 360mWMax Storage Operating temperature Should Be: -65 to +150 CentigradeLow Noise High GainReplacement and Equivalent:2N4416.

XO57CRECNA14M7456-VISHAY

com/datasheet-pdf/view/110686/ONSEMI/2N3819/+011798VLLS.it can be used for amplification of different type of low level signals whether it will be an audio signal or other type of signals in electronics.Moreover it also features high gain at 100MHz which also makes it ideal to use in RF applications.

XO57CRECNA14M7456-VISHAY

When used as a switch it is capable of fast switching and can drive loads that falls under 10mA.It also provides high gain at 100MHz

XO57CRECNA14M7456-VISHAY

It also provides high gain at 100MHz.

When used as a switch it is capable of fast switching and can drive loads that falls under 10mAMCP3008isalowcost8-channel10-bitanalogtodigitalconverter.ThisblogcoversthedetailedinformationofMCP3008A/Dconverter,includingitspinout,parameter,features,whereandhowtouseitetc,RaspberryPisetuptutorialvideowillbeattacheddownbelowaswell.ThisisabasictutorialofhowtosetupanAnalogtoDigitalConverter(MCP3008)withtheRaspberryPi.CatalogMCP3008DescriptionMCP3008PinoutMCP3008FeaturesMCP3008ParameterMCP3008FunctionalBlockDiagramMCP3008EquivalentAlternativeWheretouseMCP3008HowtouseMCP3008MCP3008SimpleInterfacingExampleMCP3008ApplicationMCP3008PackageMCP3008ManufacturerComponentDatasheetMCP3008DescriptionMCP3008isa10-bitAnaloguetoDigitalconverterhavingeightsingle-endedinputchannels.Ithasa4-wireserialSPIcompatibleinterfacethatisusedtogetdigitaloutputforallchannels.Ithasanon-boardsampleandholdscircuitry.Itprovidesbothanaloganddigitalgroundconnectionswhichhelpinnoisereduction.Itisidealforuseinembeddedsystemsapplications.MCP3008isprogrammabletoprovidefourpseudo-differentialinputpairsoreightsingle-endedinputs.DifferentialNonlinearity(DNL)andIntegralNonlinearity(INL)arespecifiedat1LSB.CommunicationwiththedevicesisaccomplishedusingasimpleserialinterfacecompatiblewiththeSPIprotocol.Thedevicesarecapableofconversionratesofupto200ksps.MCP3008devicesoperateoverabroadvoltagerange(2.7V-5.5V).Low-currentdesignpermitsoperationwithtypicalstandbycurrentsofonly5nAandtypicalactivecurrentsof320A.TheMCP3004isofferedin14-pinPDIP,150milSOICandTSSOPpackages,whiletheMCP3008isofferedin16-pinPDIPandSOICpackages.MCP3008PinoutMCP3008MCP3008PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1-8CH0toCH7Thesearetheanaloginputsforchannel0tochannel7.Thesechannelscanbeconfiguredasfoursingle-endedinputsortwopseudo-differentialpairs.Inpseudo-differentialmode,eachchannelpairareprogrammedastheIN+andIN-inputsbysendingaserialcommandstring.9DGNDThisisthedigitalgroundpinwhichislinkedinternallytothedigitalcircuitryofchip.10CS`/SHDNItisaChipSelectpin.Thispinisusedtoinitiatecommunicationwiththedevicebyconnectingittolowlogiclevel.Ifitisalreadylow,thenitshouldbepulledtohighandthenlowforinitiatingcommunication.Whenitispulledtohighlogic,itwillendaconversion.11DinThisistheinputpinforserialdata.12DoutItistheserialdataoutputusedforSPIcommunication.Oneveryfallingedgeofclocksignal,datawillchange,andthisconverteddataisshiftedoutonthispin.13CLKItisaserialclocksignalusedtoinitiateaconversionandsendseachbitoutasconversiontakesplace14AGNDItistheanaloggroundpinwhichisconnectedinternallywithanalogcircuitry.Itisconnectedtothereferencevoltage.15VREFItisconnectedtothereferencevoltageandisusedtodeterminetherangeofanalogvoltage.16VDDItistheconnectionforapplyingapositivevoltagetothecircuit.MCP3008Features10-bitresolution1LSBmaxDNL1LSBmaxINL4(MCP3004)or8(MCP3008)inputchannelsAnaloginputsprogrammableassingle-endedorpseudodifferentialpairsOn-chipsampleandholdSPIserialinterface(modes0,0and1,1)Singlesupplyoperation:2.7V-5.5V200kspsmax.samplingrateatVDD=5V75kspsmax.samplingrateatVDD=2.7VLowpowerCMOStechnology5nAtypicalstandbycurrent,2Amax.500Amax.activecurrentat5VIndustrialtemprange:-40Cto+85CAvailableinPDIP,SOICandTSSOPpackagesMCP3008ParameterManufacturer:MicrochipTechnologySeries:-Packaging:TubePartStatus:ActivePackage/Case:16-DIP(0.3007.62mm)SupplierDevicePackage:16-PDIPMountingType:ThroughHoleBasePartNumber:MCP3008NumberofBits:10SamplingRate(PerSecond):200kNumberofInputs:48InputType:Pseudo-DifferentialSingleEndedDataInterface:SPIConfiguration:MUX-S/H-ADCRatio-S/H:ADCNumberofA/DConverters:1Architecture:SARReferenceType:ExternalVoltage-SupplyAnalog:2.7V~5.5VVoltage-SupplyDigital:2.7V~5.5VFeatures:-OperatingTemperature:-40C~85CMCP3008FunctionalBlockDiagramMCP3008EquivalentAlternativePCF8591,ADC0808,ADC0804,ADS11115WheretouseMCP3008TheMCP3008isan8-Channel10-bitADCIC,whichmeansitcanmeasure8differentanalogvoltageswitha10-bitresolution.Itmeasuresanalogvoltagefrom0to1023andsendstheresulttoamicrocontrollerormicroprocessorviaSPIcommunication.Itcanoperateonboth3.3Vand5V,soitcanbeusedwithboth5Vand3.3Vmicrocontrollers,suchastheRaspberryPi.ItemploystheSARmethodtoconvertanalogvoltagetodigitalvalue;itmightnotthefastestorthemostpreciseADConthemarket,butitisthecheapestandeasiesttouse.Somedevices,suchastheRaspberryPi,lackhardwareforanalogtodigitalconversionandthuscannotreadanaloginputs.Asaresult,acircuitisrequiredforthisconversion.TheMCP3008chipcanbeusedinsuchdevices.Forcommunication,thischipemploysanSPIinterface.TheRaspberryPirequiresonlyfourGPIOpins.Usingthischip,youcangetanadditional8analoginputs.Analogoutputsareusedbysensors.Asaresult,manydevicesrequireanADCconvertertoreadtheseoutputs.TheMCP3008iscapableofconvertinganalogsignalstodigitalsignals.So,ifyourelookingforanADCICwitharesolutionof10-bit(0-1023),8-channels,andareasonablespeed,thisICmightbeagoodfit.ItisverypopularwithRaspberryPibecauseitlacksanADCfeaturebydefault.HowtouseMCP3008Itismadeupofthewell-knownSARADCarchitecturetechnology,whichincludesabuilt-insampleandacapacitor.Onthefirstrisingedgeoftheclockcycle,thisarchitecturesampleswithasample/holdcapacitorfor1.5clockcycles.Followingthat,theADCgeneratesa10-bitdigitaloutputbasedonthechargevalueoftheS/Hcapacitor.BybringingtheCSlinelow,communicationwiththeMCP3008deviceisinitiated.Thefirstbitreceivedonthefirstclocksignal(whenCSislowandDINishigh)willbeastartbit.ThisisfollowedbytheSGL/DIFFbit,whichdetermineswhethertheconversionissingle-endedordifferential.Followingthat,thenextthreebits,D0,D1,andD2,areusedtoselectthechannel.Afterreceivingthestartbitonthefourthrisingedgeoftheclock,thesamplingofanaloginputswillbegin.Downbelowisthedetaileddiagram.MCP3008SimpleInterfacingExampleMCP3008ApplicationSensorInterfaceProcessControlDataAcquisitionBatteryOperatedSystemsMCP3008PackageMCP3008ManufacturerMicrochipTechnologyInc.isaleadingproviderofmicrocontrollerandanalogsemiconductors,providinglow-riskproductdevelopment,lowertotalsystemcostandfastertimetomarketforthousandsofdiversecustomerapplicationsworldwide.HeadquarteredinChandler,Arizona,Microchipoffersoutstandingtechnicalsupportalongwithdependabledeliveryandquality.ComponentDatasheetMCP3008ADConverterDatasheet

WhatisULN2803?TheULN2803isarelaydriver.TheULN2803isarelaydriverwithaDarlingtontransistorarraythatcanoperateathighvoltagesandcurrents.TheDarlingtonpairsareconnectedinaparallelconfigurationtoincreasecurrentcapability.ThecomponentcontainseightNPNDarlingtonpairswithhigh-voltageoutputsandcommon-cathodeclampdiodesthataredirectlyrelatedtoswitchinginductiveloads.EachDarlingtonpairhasacollector-currentratingofaround500mA.ThisblogprovidesyouwithabasicoverviewoftheULN2803transistor,includingitspindescriptions,functionsandspecifications,alternativeproducts,etc.,tohelpyouquicklyunderstandwhatULN2803is.Wewillbegladtofindthatthisblogcanbeusefulforpeoplelovingelectroniccomponents.CatalogULN2803PinoutULN2803CircuitULN2803ApplicationsULN2803FeaturesULN2803AdvantageULN2803PackageULN2803ParametersULN2803EquivalentsWheretouseULN2803ULN2803ManufacturerHowisULN2803WorkingComponentDatasheetFAQULN2803PinoutPinNumberDescriptionBASECONNECTIONSforDARLINGTONARRAYs11B-Baseof1stTransistor22B-Baseof2ndTransistor33B-Baseof3rdTransistor44B-Baseof4thTransistor55B-Baseof5thTransistor66B-Baseof6thTransistor77B-Baseof7thTransistor88B-Baseof8thTransistorSHAREDTERMINALS9GND-EmitterofallTransistors10COM-Commoncathode(Negative)nodeforflybackdiodes.COLLECTORCONNECTIONSforDARLINGTONARRAYs118C-Collectorof8thTransistor127C-Collectorof7thTransistor136C-Collectorof6thTransistor145C-Collectorof5thTransistor154C-Collectorof4thTransistor163C-Collectorof3rdTransistor172C-Collectorof2ndTransistor181C-Collectorof1stTransistorULN2803CircuitULN2803Circuit1ULN2803Circuit2ULN2803ApplicationsULN2803iswidelyusedinthefollowingapplications:HammerdriversDisplaydriversLogicBuffersGasLEDdischargerLogicbuffersRelaydriversLampdriversLinedriversULN2803FeaturesThespecifications,aswellasfeaturesofULN2803,areasfollow:TheallowedmaximumvoltagebetweenemittercollectorforeachandeveryDarlingtontransistoris50volts.ThemaximumcurrentthatisallowedtoflowthroughthecollectorofeveryDarlingtonpairis500mA.BetweentheemitterandbaseoftheDarlingtonpair,themaximumvoltagethatisallowedis30volts.IneachDarlingtonpair,afly-backdiodeispresentandthemaximumcurrentthatisallowedtopassthroughthatis500mA.Therisetimeis130ns.Typically,thefalltimeis20micro-second.TheoperatingtemperatureofULN2803liesintherangeof-65C150C.Inordertooperatethischip,noadditionalpowerisneeded.ULN2803AdvantageULN2803ChipULN2803isahigh-voltage,high-currenttransistorarrayIC,especiallyformicrocontrollersthatneedtodrivehigh-powerloads.TheICconsistsofeightNPNDarlington-connectedtransistorsandacommonclampdiodetoswitchtheloadconnectedtotheoutput.ThisICiswidelyusedtodrivehighloads,suchaslamps,relays,motors,etc.Itsratedcurrentisusually50v/500mA.ULN2803PackageHerewetakeULN2803AasanexampletointroduceULN2803package.ULN2803ParametersDriversperpackage8Switchingvoltage(Max)(V)50Outputvoltage(Max)(V)50Peakoutputcurrent(mA)500Delaytime(Typ)(ns)130InputcompatibilityCMOS,TTLVol@lowestspeccurrent(Typ)(mV)900Iout/ch(Max)(mA)500Iout_off(Typ)(uA)50RatingCatalogULN2803EquivalentsTherearenoPIN-to-PINreplacementsforULN2803buttherearesimilarfunctioningICslikeULN2003,ULN2004.YoucanremodeleightDarligngtonTransistorsoreightMOSFETstosubstituteforULN2803.WheretouseULN2803TheULN2803chipcanbeusedinthefollowingcases:Tocontroltheinductiveloadsthosearemakinguseofthelogicobtainedbythecontrolunit.InULN2803,theDarlingtonarrayactasseparate8individualswitchesandthuscanbeturnedoffandonasdesired.EachsetoftheseDarlingtonpairiscapableofdrivinghighpowerloadsthatuselogicfromthecontrolunit.Ifyouarewillingtodrivemultipleloads,thenthischipcanbeusedasitiscapableofdrivingeightloadsatatime.However,theMOSFETs,aswellastransistorsthatarebeingusedinthischip,willsufficeandalsoplacingeightloadsatthesametimewillbeacumbersomejobbutthischipiswidelyusedinordertoreplacethebulkswitchingdevices.Thischipcanalsobeusedforprogrammableloadsharing.ifwearehavingonelowpowerloadaswellasonehighpowerloadthenmultiplearrayscanbeconnectedinparallelinordertodrivethehighpowerload.ULN2803ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.HowisULN2803WorkingTheULN2803ICconsistsofeightNPNDarlingtonpairwhichprovidesthepropercurrentamplificationrequiredbytheloads.WeallknowthatthetransistorsareusedtoamplifythecurrentbuthereDarlingtontransistorpairsareusedinsidetheICtomaketherequiredamplification.ADarligntonpairistwotransistorsthatactasasingletransistorprovidinghighcurrentgain.Inthispairthecurrentamplifiedbythefirsttransistorisfurtheramplifiedbythenexttransistorprovidinghighcurrenttotheoutputterminal.WhennobasevoltageisappliedthatwhenisnosignalisgiventotheinputpinsoftheIC,therewillbenobasecurrentandtransistorremainsinoffstate.Whenhighlogicisfedtotheinputboththetransistorsbegintoconductprovidingapathtogroundfortheexternalloadthattheoutputisconnected.Thuswhenaninputisappliedcorrespondingoutputpindropsdowntozerotherebyenablingtheloadconnectedtocompleteitspath.ComponentDatasheetULN2803ADatasheetFAQWhatisULN2803?ULN2803isahigh-voltageandhigh-currentDarlingtontransistorarrayandismainlyusedasarelaydriverwithanabilitytohandle8relaysatatime.Itcomeswithacollector-emittervoltagearound50Vandinputvoltageresidingat30V.WhatistheuseofULN2803indrivingarelay?Explanation:WeneedaULN2803fordrivingarelaybecausetherelaycoilrequires10mAormorecurrenttobeenergized.IfmicrocontrollerpinsarenotabletoprovidesufficientcurrenttodriverelaysthenweneedULN2803fordrivingrelays.HowdoyouuseULN2803?ULN2803isaHighvoltage,highcurrentTransistorArrayICusedespeciallywithMicrocontrollerswhereweneedtodrivehighpowerloads.ThicICconsistsofaeightNPNDarlingtonconnectedtransistorswithcommonClampdiodesforswitchingtheloadsconnectedtotheoutput.ThisisacomparisonarticleofNE5532anditssimilarmodels:OPA2134,TL072,andNE5534,youwilllearnwhatarethosecomponentsandwhatstheirdifferences,hopethisarticlereallyhelpsyouinaway.CatalogNE5532vsOPA2134NE5532vsTL072NE5532vsNE5534NE5532vsOPA2134NE5532andOPA2134DatasheetNE5532DatasheetOPA2134DatasheetNE5532BasicsNE5532isahigh-performancelow-noisedualoperationalamplifier(dualoperationalamplifier)integratedcircuit.Similartomanystandardopamps,butNE5532hasthefollowinguniquefeatures:betternoiseperformance,excellentoutputdrivecapability,relativelyhighsmallsignalbandwidth,largepowersupplyvoltagerange,andsoon.Therefore,NE5532isverysuitableforhigh-qualityandprofessionalaudioequipment,instruments,controlcircuitsandtelephonechannelamplifiers.Inaddition,NE5532hasawarmtoneandhighfidelitywhenusedforaudioamplification.Itisstilloneoftheessentialoperationalamplifiersinthehandsofmanyaudiophiles.OPA2134BasicsTheOPA2134isaultra-lowdistortion,low-noiseoperationalamplifierfullyspecifiedforaudioapplications.AtrueFETinputstageisincorporatedtoprovidesuperiorsoundqualityandspeedforexceptionalaudioperformance.This,incombinationwithhighoutputdrivecapabilityandexcellentDCperformance,allowsforuseinawidevarietyofdemandingapplications.Inaddition,theOPA2134hasawideoutputswing,towithin1Voftherails,allowingincreasedheadroomandmakingitidealforuseinanyaudiocircuit.PinoutComparisonNE5532PinoutOPA2134PinoutNE5532vsOPA2134TheNE5532isaBipolarInputopampandtheOPA2134isaFetInputopamp.AlthoughmanypeopleclaimNE5532asanoldcomponentandtrytofindanewonetotakeitsplace,buttheNE5532isstillgoodenoughformostapplications.Plentyofnewaudioequipmentstillusesoldop-ampssuchastheNE5532andTL072becauseanythingbetterisoverkillandnotcosteffective.IfyoucanuseabipolarOP,theNE5532isusuallythebetterchoicethanaJFETOPA2132/OPA2134.TheOPA2134ismoreabetterreplacementfortheTL072whenyouneedaFETtype.Thismaybethecasewithlowfrequencyfilters.TheOPAx132familyaretheslightlybetterversionforDCcriticalapplications.NE5532vsTL072NE5532andTL072DatasheetNE5532DatasheetTL072DatasheetTL072BasicsTheOPA2134isaultra-lowdistortion,low-noiseoperationalamplifierfullyspecifiedforaudioapplications.AtrueFETinputstageisincorporatedtoprovidesuperiorsoundqualityandspeedforexceptionalaudioperformance.This,incombinationwithhighoutputdrivecapabilityandexcellentDCperformance,allowsforuseinawidevarietyofdemandingapplications.Inaddition,theOPA2134hasawideoutputswing,towithin1Voftherails,allowingincreasedheadroomandmakingitidealforuseinanyaudiocircuit.PinoutComparisonNE5532PinoutTL072PinoutNE5532vsTL072TL072isalsoaverypopularopamp,whichoftenusedtocomparewithNE5532,tryingtoknowwhichoneofthemisquieter.Well,theNE5532sbipolartransistorinputsdrawinputcurrentandarenotthesameastheTL072sJFETinputs,whichhavenoinputcurrent.Asaresult,ifthesourceimpedanceisextremelylow(specifiedat20ohms),theNE5532isthreetimesquieter.However,whenthesourceimpedanceisaround18.5kohms,theyhaveequalnoiselevelsbecausetheinputcurrentnoiseaddstotheNE5532sinputvoltagenoise.TheTL072isquieterwhenthesourceimpedanceisgreaterthanabout18.5k.ANE5532isfrequentlyseenasaphonographcartridge,tapehead,ormicrophonepreampwithamassiveinputcouplingcapacitorthattakesnearlyforevertocharge.Thelargeinputcapslowimpedancekeepstheinputcurrentnoisetoaminimum.TheNE5532,whichhasbipolartransistorsonitsinput,haspopcornnoisebelow30Hz,whereastheTL072hasmuchless.TheNE5532hasback-to-backprotectiondiodesonitsinputsthatcausemanycircuitstofail,anditconsumessignificantlymoresupplycurrentthanaTL072.NE5532vsNE5534NE5532andNE5534DatasheetNE5532DatasheetNE5534DatasheetNE5534BasicsTheNE5534deviceisahigh-performanceoperationalamplifiercombiningexcellentdcandaccharacteristics.Someofthefeaturesincludeverylownoise,highoutput-drivecapability,highunity-gainandmaximum-output-swingbandwidths,lowdistortion,andhighslewrate.Itiscompensatedinternallyforagainequaltoorgreaterthanthree.OptimizationofthefrequencyresponseforvariousapplicationscanbeobtainedbyuseofanexternalcompensationcapacitorbetweenCOMPandCOMP/BAL.Thedevicefeaturesinput-protectiondiodes,outputshort-circuitprotection,andoffset-voltagenullingcapabilitywithuseoftheBALANCEandCOMP/BALpins.FortheNE5534Adevice,amaximumlimitisspecifiedfortheequivalentinputnoisevoltage.PinoutComparisonNE5532PinoutNE5534PinoutNE5532vsNE5534Unlikemanyotherlow-costopamps,the5532existsonlyinadualform,availablein8-pinPDIP,SOandSOICpackages.Thesingle5534,aswellasthediscontinueddual5533,isnotfullycompensatedandisthusunstableatunitygain;the5534haslowernoisedensitythanthe5532butisotherwisesimilar.TheNE5532isadualpackageandthatcompensationcapisinternal.TheNE5534isasingleopamppackageandthatitmayrequireacompensationcapwhenusedinthecircuit.Theirpinoutdiagramaredifferentwhichmeanstheycannotbeusedinterchangeably.Theyalsodifferingainandinstability:NE5532isstabledowntogainof1.WhereNE5534isstabledowntogainof3only.

ThePCF8574isanI2Cbusto8-botparallelbusIOexpanderIC.ItprovidesGPIOexpansionformanymicrocontrollersinasimpleandcost-effectivemethod.TheinterfaceforthisICisI2C(orI2C)usingSDA(Data)andSCL(Clock)lines.So,ifyourmicrocontrollerhasalimitednumberofIOpinsandhasI2Ccapability,thenyoucanusethisICtoexpandtheIOpins.HereisavideoofPCF8574I2CGPIOExpanderTutorialCatalogPCF8574PinoutPCF8574CircuitPCF8574ApplicationPCF8574FeaturePCF8574AdvantagePCF8574PackagePCF8574ParametersPCF8574ManufacturerPCF8574DocumentsPCF8574FunctionalBlockDiagramComponentDatasheetFAQPCF8574PinoutPINTYPEDESCRIPTIONNAMERGTRGYDGVorPWDWorNA[0..2]2,3,46,7,96,7,91,2,3IAddressinputs0through2.ConnectdirectlytoVCCorground.Pullupresistorsarenotneeded.GND915158GroundINT141113OInterruptoutput.ConnecttoVCCthroughapullupresistor.NC-3,8,13,183,8,13,18-DonotconnectP[0..7]5,6,7,8,10,11,12,1310,11,12,14,16,17,19,2010,11,12,14,16,17,19,204,5,6,7,9,10,11,12I/OP-portinput/output.Push-pulldesignstructure.SCL152214ISerialclockline.ConnecttoVCCthroughapullupresistorSDA164415I/OSerialdataline.ConnecttoVCCthroughapullupresistor.VCC15516VoltagesupplyPCF8574CircuitPCF8574four-keyfour-LEDcontrolcircuitPCF8574Application1.TelecomShelters:FilterUnits2.Servers3.Routers(TelecomSwitchingEquipment)4.PersonalComputers5.PersonalElectronics6.IndustrialAutomation7.ProductswithGPIO-LimitedProcessorsPCF8574Feature1.LowStandby-CurrentConsumptionof10AMax2.I2CtoParallel-PortExpander3.Open-DrainInterruptOutput4.CompatiblewithMostMicrocontrollers5.LatchedOutputswithHigh-CurrentDriveCapabilityforDirectlyDrivingLEDs6.Latch-UpPerformanceExceeds100mAPerJESD78,ClassIIPCF8574AdvantagePCF85748-bitinput/output(I/O)expanderThis8-bitinput/output(I/O)expanderforthetwo-linebidirectionalbus(I2C)isdesignedfor2.5-Vto6-VVCCoperation.ThePCF8574deviceprovidesgeneral-purposeremoteI/OexpansionformostmicrocontrollerfamiliesbywayoftheI2Cinterface[serialclock(SCL),serialdata(SDA)].Thedevicefeaturesan8-bitquasi-bidirectionalI/Oport(P0P7),includinglatchedoutputswithhigh-currentdrivecapabilityfordirectlydrivingLEDs.Eachquasi-bidirectionalI/Ocanbeusedasaninputoroutputwithouttheuseofadata-directioncontrolsignal.Atpoweron,theI/Osarehigh.Inthismode,onlyacurrentsourcetoVCCisactive.PCF8574PackagePARTNUMBERPACKAGE(PIN)BODYSIZE(NOM)PCF8574TVSOP(20)5.00mm4.40mmSOIC(16)10.30mm7.50mmPDIP(16)19.30mm6.35mmTSSOP(20)6.50mm4.40mmQFN(16)3.00mm3.00mmVQFN(20)4.50mm3.50mmPCF8574ParametersNumberofI/Os8FeaturesInterruptpinSupplyvoltage(Min)(V)2.5Supplyvoltage(Max)(V)6Addresses8RatingCatalogFrequency(Max)(kHz)100Operatingtemperaturerange(C)-40to85PCF8574ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.PCF8574DocumentsPCF8574andPCF8574AApplicationClipAug.18,2004ImprovingSystemInterruptManagementUsingthePCF8574andPCF8574AI/OExpandeJul.27,2001PCF8574FunctionalBlockDiagramSimplifiedBlockDiagramofDeviceSimplifiedSchematicDiagramofEachP-PortInput/OutputComponentDatasheetPCF8574DatasheetFAQWhatisPCF8574A?ThePCF8574isasiliconCMOScircuit.ItprovidesgeneralpurposeremoteI/Oexpansionformostmicrocontrollerfamiliesviathetwo-linebidirectionalbus(I2C).Thedeviceconsistsofan8-bitquasi-bidirectionalportandanI2C-businterface.WhatisI2CIOExpander?TheI/OexpanderaddsadditionalGPIOports.Thesecanbeusedasbothinputs,andoutputsateither3.3Vor5V....I2Cisatwowirebus,theconnectionsarecalledSDA(SerialData)andSCL(SerialClock).L293Disaquadruplehigh-currenthalf-Hdriver.ThisblogcoversL293Dmotordriverpinout,datasheet,equivalents,featuresandotherinformationonhowtouseandwheretousethisdevice.ThisvideoshowshowtorunasteppermotorwithArduinoandL293D.CatalogL293DIntroductionL293DPinConfigurationandFunctionsL293DFeaturesWheretouseL293DICHowtouseanL293DMotorDriverICL293DApplicationsL293DTypicalApplicationL293DEquivalentsL293DLayoutExampleL293DManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrderingQuantityL293DIntroductionL293Disdesignedtodriveawidearrayofinductiveloadssuchasrelays,solenoids,DCandbipolarsteppingmotors,aswellasotherhigh-currentandhigh-voltageloads.AllinputsareTTLcompatibleandtolerantupto7V.Eachoutputisacompletetotem-poledrivecircuit,withaDarlingtontransistorsinkandapseudo-Darlingtonsource.Driversareenabledinpairs,withdrivers1and2enabledby1,2ENanddrivers3and4enabledby3,4EN.Whenanenableinputishigh,theassociateddriversareenabled,andtheiroutputsareactiveandinphasewiththeirinputs.Whentheenableinputislow,thosedriversaredisabled,andtheiroutputsareoffandinthehigh-impedancestate.Withtheproperdatainputs,eachpairofdriversformsafull-H(orbridge)reversibledrivesuitableforsolenoidormotorapplications.Theexternalhigh-speedoutputclampdiodesoftheL293Dareintegratedtoreducesystemcomplexityandoverallsystemsize.AVCC1terminal,separatefromVCC2,isprovidedforthelogicinputstominimizedevicepowerdissipation.TheL293Discharacterizedforoperationfrom0Cto70C.L293DPinConfigurationandFunctionsThedatasheetbelowissetforyourbetterunderstandingofthe16pinsofthepackages,thedetailsofall16pinsandthefunctionofeachpinareasfollows:L293DL293DPinoutPinoutfunctions:PINNAMENO.TYPEDESCRIPTION1,2EN1IEnabledriverchannels1and2(activehighinput)1:4A2,7,10,15IDriverinputs,noninverting1:4Y3,6,11,14ODriveroutputs3,4EN9IEnabledriverchannels3and4(activehighinput)GROUND4,5,12,13Devicegroundandheatsinkpin.Connecttoprinted-circuit-boardgroundplanewithmultiplesolidviasVCC1165-VsupplyforinternallogictranslationVCC28PowerVCCfordrivers4.5Vto36VL293DFeaturesWideSupply-VoltageRange:4.5Vto36VSeparateInput-LogicSupplyInternalESDProtectionHigh-Noise-ImmunityInputsOutputCurrent1APerChannel(600mAforL293D)PeakOutputCurrent2APerChannel(1.2AforL293D)OutputClampDiodesforInductiveTransientSuppression(L293D)WheretouseL293DICTheL293Disapopular16-PinMotorDriverIC.Asthenamesuggestsitismainlyusedtodrivemotors.AsingleL293DICiscapableofrunningtwoDCmotorsatthesametime;alsothedirectionofthesetwomotorscanbecontrolledindependently.Soifyouhavemotorswhichhaveanoperatingvoltagelessthan36Vandoperatingcurrentlessthan600mA,whicharetobecontrolledbydigitalcircuitslikeOp-Amp,555timers,digitalgatesorevenMicronrollerslikeArduino,PIC,ARM,etc.thisICwillbetherightchoiceforyou.HowtouseanL293DMotorDriverICUsingthisL293DmotordriverICisverysimple.TheICworksontheprincipleoftheHalfH-Bridge,letusnotgotoodeepintowhatH-Bridgemeans,butfornow,justknowthatHbridgeisasetupwhichisusedtorunmotorsbothinclockwiseandanti-clockwisedirection.AssaidearlierthisICiscapableofrunningtwomotorsattheanydirectionatthesametime,thecircuittoachievethesameisshownbelow.AlltheGroundpinsshouldbegrounded.TherearetwopowerpinsforthisIC,oneistheVss(Vcc1)whichprovidesthevoltagefortheICtowork,thismustbeconnectedto+5V.TheotherisVs(Vcc2)whichprovidesthevoltageforthemotorstorun,basedonthespecificationofyourmotoryoucanconnectthispintoanywherebetween4.5Vto36V,hereIhaveconnectedto+12V.TheEnablepins(Enable1,2andEnable3,4)areusedtoEnableInputpinsforthemotor1andthemotor2respectively.Sinceinmostcaseswewillbeusingboththemotors,boththepinsareheldhighbydefaultbyconnectingto+5Vsupply.TheinputpinsInput1,2areusedtocontrolthemotor1andInputpins3,4areusedtocontrolthemotor2.Theinputpinsareconnectedtoanydigitalcircuitormicrocontrollertocontrolthespeedanddirectionofthemotor.Youcantoggletheinputpinsbasedonthefollowingtabletocontrolyourmotor.Input1=HIGH(5v)Output1=HIGHMotor1rotatesinClockwiseDirectionInput2=LOW(0v)Output2=LOWInput3=HIGH(5v)Output1=HIGHMotor2rotatesinClockwiseDirectionInput4=LOW(0v)Output2=LOWInput1=LOW(0v)Output1=LOWMotor1rotatesinAnti-ClockwiseDirectionInput2=HIGH(5v)Output2=HIGHInput3=LOW(0v)Output1=LOWMotor2rotatesinAnti-ClockwiseDirectionInput4=HIGH(5v)Output2=HIGHInput1=HIGH(5v)Output1=HIGHMotor1staysstillInput2=HIGH(5v)Output2=HIGHInput3=HIGH(5v)Output1=LOWMotor2staysstillInput4=HIGH(5v)Output2=HIGHL293DApplicationsStepperMotorDriversDCMotorDriversLatchingRelayDriversL293DTypicalApplicationAtypicalapplicationfortheL293deviceisdrivingatwo-phasemotor.Belowisanexampleschematicdisplayinghowtoproperlyconnectatwo-phasemotortotheL293device.Providea5-VsupplytoVCC1andvalidlogicinputlevelstodataandenableinputs.VCC2mustbeconnectedtoapowersupplycapableofsupplyingtheneededcurrentandvoltagedemandfortheloadsconnectedtotheoutputs.L293DEquivalentsL293DLayoutExampleL293DManufacturerTexasInstrumentsIncorporated(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanyheadquarteredinDallas,Texas,thatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.Itisoneofthetop10semiconductorcompaniesworldwidebasedonsalesvolume.Thecompanysfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountformorethan80%ofitsrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessingtechnologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Thecompanyholds45,000patentsworldwideasof2016.ComponentDatasheetL293DDatasheetFAQWhatisl293d?L293DICisadualH-bridgemotordriverIC.OneH-bridgeiscapabletodriveadcmotorinbidirection.L293DICisacurrentenhancingICastheoutputfromthesensorisnotabletodrivemotorsitselfsoL293Disusedforthispurpose.Whichisbetterl293dvsl298n?L293DDriversOperatesat4.5Vto36VwhereasL298NcanbeOperatesatupto46V.Maximum600mAcurrentcanbedrawnthroughbothchannelsofL293DwhereasL298NMotorDrivercandrawupto2Afrombothchannels.WhatistheuseofEnablepininl293d?L293DhasanenablefacilitywhichhelpsyouenabletheICoutputpins.Ifanenablepinissettologichigh,thenstateoftheinputsmatchesthestateoftheoutputs.Ifyoupullthislow,thentheoutputswillbeturnedoffregardlessoftheinputstates.HowmanyDCmotorscanbecontrolledbyanICl293d?TheL293Disa16-pinMotorDriverICwhichcancontroluptotwoDCmotorssimultaneously,inanydirection.HowdoIconnectmyArduinotol293d?Connect5VtoEnable1,Vss,andVsontheL293D.Connectdigitaloutputpins(wereusing6and7)toinput1andinput2ontheL293D.ConnectyourArduinosGNDtobothGNDpinsonthesamesideoftheL293D.Finally,connectoutput1andoutput2oftheL293Dtoyourmotorpins.WhatisHbridgeinl293d?AnH-BridgeCircuit.AnHbridgeisanelectroniccircuitthatallowsavoltagetobeappliedacrossaloadinanydirection.H-bridgecircuitsarefrequentlyusedinroboticsandmanyotherapplicationstoallowDCmotorstorunforwardbackward.WhatisthefunctionofHbridge?AnH-bridgeisanelectroniccircuitthatswitchesthepolarityofavoltageappliedtoaload.ThesecircuitsareoftenusedinroboticsandotherapplicationstoallowDCmotorstorunforwardsorbackwards.Whatisl293dmotordrivershield?L293DshieldisadriverboardbasedonL293IC,whichcandrive4DCmotorsand2stepperorServomotorsatthesametime.Eachchannelofthismodulehasthemaximumcurrentof1.2Aanddoesntworkifthevoltageismorethan25vorlessthan4.5v.HowdoIusethel293dmotordrivermodule?Connect5VtoEnable1,Vss,andVsontheL293D.Connectdigitaloutputpins(wereusing6and7)toinput1andinput2ontheL293D.ConnectyourArduinosGNDtobothGNDpinsonthesamesideoftheL293D.

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