Tkool Electronics

IntroductionTheLM2576seriesofmonolithicintegratedcircuitsprovidealltheactivefunctionsforastep-down(buck)switchingregulator.LM2576seriesarecapableofdrivinga3Aloadwithexcellentlineandloadregulation.Theregulatorsaresimpletousebecausetheyrequireaminimumnumberofexternalcomponentsandincludeinternalfrequencycompensationandafixed-frequencyoscillator.CatalogIntroductionCatalogIVoltageStabilizingCircuitIIBuckCircuitIIICurrentBoostCircuitFAQOrdering&QuantityIVoltageStabilizingCircuitThebasicvoltagestabilizingcircuitcomposedofLM2576onlyneedsfourperipheraldevices,anditscircuitisshowninFigure1.TheselectionofinductanceL1dependsontheoutputvoltage,maximuminputvoltageandmaximumloadcurrentofLM2576.First,theeletricvoltagemicrosecondconstant(ET)canbecalculatedaccordingtothefollowingformula:ET=(Vin-Vout)TImes;Vout/VinTImes;1000/f(1)VinisthemaximuminputvoltageofLM2576;VoutistheoutputvoltageofLM2576;fistheoperatingoscillationfrequencyvalueofLM2576(52khz).Figure1.VoltageStabilizingCircuitGenerally,theinputcapacitanceCininthecircuitshouldbegreaterthanorequalto100F.wheninstalling,itisrequiredtobeclosetotheinputpinoflm2576asfaraspossible,anditswithstandvoltagevalueshouldmatchthemaximuminputvoltagevalue.ThevalueoftheoutputcapacitorCout(unitF)shouldbecalculatedaccordingtothefollowingformula:C13300Vin/VoutTImes;L(2)VinisthemaximuminputvoltageofLM2576;VoutistheoutputvoltageofLM2576;L(unitH)isthevalueofinductanceL1.ThewithstandvoltagevalueofcapacitorCshouldbe1.5~2timesofratedoutputvoltage.For5Vvoltageoutput,itisrecommendedtousecapacitorwithvoltagewithstandvalueof16V.TheratedcurrentofdiodeD1shouldbe1.2timesofthemaximumloadcurrent.Consideringthestateofshortcircuitandload,theratedcurrentofthediodeshouldbegreaterthanthemaximumcurrentlimitofLM2576.Thereversevoltageofthediodeshouldbegreaterthan1.25timesofthemaximuminputvoltage.TheselectionofVinshouldconsidertheinputvoltagevalueofLM2576correspondingtothelowestACvoltagedrop(Vac-min)andtheminimuminputallowablevoltagevalueVminofLM2576.Therefore,Vincanbecalculatedaccordingtothefollowingformula:Vin(220Vmin/Vac-min)IftheminimumallowableACvoltagedropis30%(Vac-min=154V)andthevoltageoutputoftheLM2576is5V(Vmin=8V),whenVac=220V,theinputDCvoltageoftheLM2576shouldbegreaterthan11.5V,usually12V.IIBuckCircuitThebuckcircuitcomposedofLM2576isshowninFigure2.TheoutputvoltageisdividedandsampledbyR1andR2,andthensenttothepositiveinputendofthesubtractor.ThenegativeterminalisconnectedtoVSET.TheVSETsignalisthevoltagesignalgivenbythemicrocontroller.TheerrorsignalisobtainedbytheoutputsamplevoltagesubtractingtheD/Aconversionvoltage.Thenaddtheerrorsignaltothereferencevoltage(VREF)1.23V,andsendthisresulttothefeedbackterminalofLM2576.Figure2.BuckCircuitComparedwithtraditionaldirectfeedback,thefeedbackloopinthisdesignismorecomplicated.Thisdesignismainlyduetothefollowingconsiderations:First,itiseasytocontrolsinglechipmicrocomputer.AslongastheoutputvoltageofD/Aconversionischanged,thefeedbackloopworks,andtheoutputsamplingvoltageisautomaticallyapproachedtotheD/Aconversionvoltage.Thenthevoltageadjustmentprocesscomplete.Second,itcanmeetthedesignrequirementsofzerovoltageoutput.IfsimplyusethefeedbackpinoftheLM2576,theminimumoutputofthereferencecircuitgiveninthemanualcanonlyreach1.25V,soyouneedtoshiftthefeedbackvoltagetoaVREFreferencevoltagelevel.ThevoltagedividedbythefeedbackresistorisalsosenttotheDACofthemicrocontroller.IIICurrentBoostCircuit(a)Fixedoutputtype;(b)adjustableoutputtypeFigure3.CurrentBoostCircuitFAQWhereisLM2576used?LM2576isusuallyusedasavoltagestabilizingdevicewhentheinputandoutputvoltagedifferenceislargeandtheoutputcurrentisalsolarge.Becauseitisaswitchingregulator,ithasahigherconversionefficiencyandlowheatgenerationthanalinearregulator.WhatsthedifferencebetweenLM2576T-ADJandLM2576S-ADJ?LM2576T-ADJisthepackageofTO-220,LM2576S-ADJisthepackageofTO-263-5,thereisnodifferenceintheirfunctions.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM2940andLM2576?Whichcircuitaretheyapplicableto?LM2940isalow-dropoutlinearstabilizedintegratedcircuit.Thelinearstabilizedpowersupplyischaracterizedbyarelativelysimplecircuit,highprecision,andsmallripplecoefficient.Itissuitableforprecisionpowersupplieswithhighvoltagerequirements.ThedisadvantageisthattheefficiencyisverylowandtheoutputThecurrentisrelativelysmall(relativetotheswitchingpowersupply)LM2576isaswitchingpowersupplyintegratedcircuit.Switchingpowersupply,thecircuitismorecomplicated,buttheoutputcurrentislarge,theefficiencyishigh,thedisadvantageisthattheaccuracyislowerandtheripplecoefficientislarger.WhydoswitchingpowersupplychipsLM2576andLM2596havediodes,inductorsandcapacitorsbehindtheoutputpins?ThefunctionofthediodeandtheinductanceisthattheoutputcurrentcanbecontinuouswhentheLM25XXisintheoffstate,andthefunctionofthecapacitoristopreventtheoutputvoltagefromsuddenchangeswhentheLM25XXisturnedonandoff.Infact,itisfiltering.WhythehighertheswitchingfrequencyofLM2576andLM2596,thesmallertheoutputinductanceandcapacitancevalue?Quitesimply,thecapacitivereactanceofacapacitordecreasesasthefrequencyincreases,andtheinductanceofaninductorincreasesasthefrequencyincreases.Thatistosay,theeffectofusinganinductanceof33uHinthecaseof150Khzisbasicallythesameastheeffectofusinganinductanceof100uHinthecaseof52khz,andtheprincipleofcapacitanceisthesame.LM2596isanupgradedversionofLM2576.ButLM2576alsohastheadvantageoflessswitchinglossandlessinterference.

LM111

IntroductionTheLM2576seriesofmonolithicintegratedcircuitsprovidealltheactivefunctionsforastep-down(buck)switchingregulator.LM2576seriesarecapableofdrivinga3Aloadwithexcellentlineandloadregulation.Theregulatorsaresimpletousebecausetheyrequireaminimumnumberofexternalcomponentsandincludeinternalfrequencycompensationandafixed-frequencyoscillator.CatalogIntroductionCatalogIVoltageStabilizingCircuitIIBuckCircuitIIICurrentBoostCircuitFAQOrdering&QuantityIVoltageStabilizingCircuitThebasicvoltagestabilizingcircuitcomposedofLM2576onlyneedsfourperipheraldevices,anditscircuitisshowninFigure1.TheselectionofinductanceL1dependsontheoutputvoltage,maximuminputvoltageandmaximumloadcurrentofLM2576.First,theeletricvoltagemicrosecondconstant(ET)canbecalculatedaccordingtothefollowingformula:ET=(Vin-Vout)TImes;Vout/VinTImes;1000/f(1)VinisthemaximuminputvoltageofLM2576;VoutistheoutputvoltageofLM2576;fistheoperatingoscillationfrequencyvalueofLM2576(52khz).Figure1.VoltageStabilizingCircuitGenerally,theinputcapacitanceCininthecircuitshouldbegreaterthanorequalto100F.wheninstalling,itisrequiredtobeclosetotheinputpinoflm2576asfaraspossible,anditswithstandvoltagevalueshouldmatchthemaximuminputvoltagevalue.ThevalueoftheoutputcapacitorCout(unitF)shouldbecalculatedaccordingtothefollowingformula:C13300Vin/VoutTImes;L(2)VinisthemaximuminputvoltageofLM2576;VoutistheoutputvoltageofLM2576;L(unitH)isthevalueofinductanceL1.ThewithstandvoltagevalueofcapacitorCshouldbe1.5~2timesofratedoutputvoltage.For5Vvoltageoutput,itisrecommendedtousecapacitorwithvoltagewithstandvalueof16V.TheratedcurrentofdiodeD1shouldbe1.2timesofthemaximumloadcurrent.Consideringthestateofshortcircuitandload,theratedcurrentofthediodeshouldbegreaterthanthemaximumcurrentlimitofLM2576.Thereversevoltageofthediodeshouldbegreaterthan1.25timesofthemaximuminputvoltage.TheselectionofVinshouldconsidertheinputvoltagevalueofLM2576correspondingtothelowestACvoltagedrop(Vac-min)andtheminimuminputallowablevoltagevalueVminofLM2576.Therefore,Vincanbecalculatedaccordingtothefollowingformula:Vin(220Vmin/Vac-min)IftheminimumallowableACvoltagedropis30%(Vac-min=154V)andthevoltageoutputoftheLM2576is5V(Vmin=8V),whenVac=220V,theinputDCvoltageoftheLM2576shouldbegreaterthan11.5V,usually12V.IIBuckCircuitThebuckcircuitcomposedofLM2576isshowninFigure2.TheoutputvoltageisdividedandsampledbyR1andR2,andthensenttothepositiveinputendofthesubtractor.ThenegativeterminalisconnectedtoVSET.TheVSETsignalisthevoltagesignalgivenbythemicrocontroller.TheerrorsignalisobtainedbytheoutputsamplevoltagesubtractingtheD/Aconversionvoltage.Thenaddtheerrorsignaltothereferencevoltage(VREF)1.23V,andsendthisresulttothefeedbackterminalofLM2576.Figure2.BuckCircuitComparedwithtraditionaldirectfeedback,thefeedbackloopinthisdesignismorecomplicated.Thisdesignismainlyduetothefollowingconsiderations:First,itiseasytocontrolsinglechipmicrocomputer.AslongastheoutputvoltageofD/Aconversionischanged,thefeedbackloopworks,andtheoutputsamplingvoltageisautomaticallyapproachedtotheD/Aconversionvoltage.Thenthevoltageadjustmentprocesscomplete.Second,itcanmeetthedesignrequirementsofzerovoltageoutput.IfsimplyusethefeedbackpinoftheLM2576,theminimumoutputofthereferencecircuitgiveninthemanualcanonlyreach1.25V,soyouneedtoshiftthefeedbackvoltagetoaVREFreferencevoltagelevel.ThevoltagedividedbythefeedbackresistorisalsosenttotheDACofthemicrocontroller.IIICurrentBoostCircuit(a)Fixedoutputtype;(b)adjustableoutputtypeFigure3.CurrentBoostCircuitFAQWhereisLM2576used?LM2576isusuallyusedasavoltagestabilizingdevicewhentheinputandoutputvoltagedifferenceislargeandtheoutputcurrentisalsolarge.Becauseitisaswitchingregulator,ithasahigherconversionefficiencyandlowheatgenerationthanalinearregulator.WhatsthedifferencebetweenLM2576T-ADJandLM2576S-ADJ?LM2576T-ADJisthepackageofTO-220,LM2576S-ADJisthepackageofTO-263-5,thereisnodifferenceintheirfunctions.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM2940andLM2576?Whichcircuitaretheyapplicableto?LM2940isalow-dropoutlinearstabilizedintegratedcircuit.Thelinearstabilizedpowersupplyischaracterizedbyarelativelysimplecircuit,highprecision,andsmallripplecoefficient.Itissuitableforprecisionpowersupplieswithhighvoltagerequirements.ThedisadvantageisthattheefficiencyisverylowandtheoutputThecurrentisrelativelysmall(relativetotheswitchingpowersupply)LM2576isaswitchingpowersupplyintegratedcircuit.Switchingpowersupply,thecircuitismorecomplicated,buttheoutputcurrentislarge,theefficiencyishigh,thedisadvantageisthattheaccuracyislowerandtheripplecoefficientislarger.WhydoswitchingpowersupplychipsLM2576andLM2596havediodes,inductorsandcapacitorsbehindtheoutputpins?ThefunctionofthediodeandtheinductanceisthattheoutputcurrentcanbecontinuouswhentheLM25XXisintheoffstate,andthefunctionofthecapacitoristopreventtheoutputvoltagefromsuddenchangeswhentheLM25XXisturnedonandoff.Infact,itisfiltering.WhythehighertheswitchingfrequencyofLM2576andLM2596,thesmallertheoutputinductanceandcapacitancevalue?Quitesimply,thecapacitivereactanceofacapacitordecreasesasthefrequencyincreases,andtheinductanceofaninductorincreasesasthefrequencyincreases.Thatistosay,theeffectofusinganinductanceof33uHinthecaseof150Khzisbasicallythesameastheeffectofusinganinductanceof100uHinthecaseof52khz,andtheprincipleofcapacitanceisthesame.LM2596isanupgradedversionofLM2576.ButLM2576alsohastheadvantageoflessswitchinglossandlessinterference.

DescriptionLM339(Quaddifferentialcomparator)consistoffourindependentvoltagecomparators.Itisacommonintegratedcircuitandismainlyusedinhigh-voltagedigitallogicgatecircuits.UsingLM339caneasilyformvariousvoltagecomparatorcircuitsandoscillatorcircuits.CatalogDescriptionComponentDatasheetLM339PinoutBasicParametersFeaturesApplicationPinFunctionListCircuitDiagramPackageElectricalCharacteristicsInstructionsProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityComponentDatasheetComparatorDatasheetLM339DatasheetLM339PinoutLM339PinoutBasicParametersParameternameSymbolNumericalvalueunitsupplyvoltageVCC18or36VDifferentialmodeinputvoltageVID36VCommonmodeinputvoltageVI-0.3~VCCVPowerdissipationPd570mWWorkingenvironmenttemperatureTopr0to+70℃StoragetemperatureTstg-65to150℃FeaturesLowvoltageoffset,generally2mVThecommon-modevoltagerangeisverylarge,from0vtothepowersupplyvoltageminus1.5vTheinternalresistancelimittothesignalsourceisverywideSingleSupplyOperation:2-36VDualSupplyOperation:1V-18VThepotentialofoutputcanbeselectedflexiblyandconvenientlyLM339issimilartooperationalamplifierwithnon-adjustablegain.Eachcomparatorhastwoinputsandoneoutput.Oneofthetwoinputterminalsiscalledthenon-invertinginputterminal,whichisrepresentedby+,andtheotheriscalledtheinvertinginputterminal,whichisrepresentedby-.Whencomparingtwovoltages,addafixedvoltageasareferencevoltageatanyinputterminal,andaddasignalvoltagetobecomparedattheotherterminal.Whenthevoltageatthe+terminalishigherthanthe-terminal,theoutputtubewillcutoff.Whenthevoltageofthe-terminalishigherthanthe+terminal,theoutputtubeissaturated.Thevoltagedifferencebetweenthetwoinputterminalsisgreaterthan10mV,whichcanensurethattheoutputcanbereliablyswitchedfromonestatetoanotherstate.Therefore,itisidealtousetheLM339inweaksignaloccasions.TheoutputterminalofLM339isequivalenttoacrystaltransistorthatisnotconnectedtothecollectorresistor.Whenusing,theoutputterminaltothepositivepowersupplygenerallyneedstobeconnectedtoaresistor(calledpull-upresistor).Choosingpull-upresistorswithdifferentresistancevalueswillaffectthevalueofthehighpotentialattheoutput.Becausewhentheoutputtransistorisoff,itscollectorvoltagebasicallydependsonthevalueofthepull-upresistorandtheload.Inaddition,theoutputofeachcomparatorisallowedtobeconnectedtogether.ApplicationIndustrialAutomotiveInfotainmentandClustersBodyControlModulePowerSupervisionOscillatorsPeakDetectorsLogicVoltageTranslationPinFunctionListPinNumberPinfunctionSymbolPinNumberPinfunctionSymbol1Output2OUT28Invertinginput31N-(3)2Output1OUT19Forwardinput31N+(3)3PowerSupplyVCC+10Invertinginput41N-(4)4Invertinginput11N-(1)11Forwardinput41N+(4)5Positiveinput11N+(1)12PowerSupplyVcc6Invertinginput21N-(2)13Output4OUT47Forwardinput2OUT2(2)14Output3OUT3CircuitDiagramLM339CircuitDiagramPackageLM339PackageElectricalCharacteristicsVCC=5.0V,Tamb=25℃,unlessotherwisestatedParameternameSymbolTestconditionsMinimumTypicalMaximumunitInputoffsetvoltageVIOVCM=0toVCC-1.5VO(P)=1.4V,Rs=0-1.05.0mVInputoffsetcurrentIIO--550nAInputbiascurrentIb--65250nACommonmodeinputvoltageVIC-0-VCC-1.5VQuiescentCurrentICCVCC=+5V,noload-1.12.0mAVCC=+30V,noload-1.32.5mAVoltagegainAVVCC=15V,RL>15k-200-V/mVSinkcurrentIsinkVi(-)>1V,Vi(+)=0V,Vo(p)<1.5V616-mAOutputleakagecurrentIOLEVi(-)=0V,Vi(+)=1V,VO=5V-0.1-nAInstructionsTheLM339seriesarehighgain,widebandwidthdeviceswhich,likemostcomparators,caneasilyoscillateiftheoutputleadisinadvertentlyallowedtocapacitivelycoupletotheinputsviastraycapacitance.Thisshowsuponlyduringtheoutputvoltagetransitionintervalsasthecomparatorchangesstates.Powersupplybypassingisnotrequiredtosolvethisproblem.StandardPCboardlayoutishelpfulasitreducesstrayinput-outputcoupling.Reducingthisinputresistorsto10kreducesthefeedbacksignallevelsandfinally,addingevenasmallamount(1to10mv)ofpositivefeedback(hysteresis)causessucharapidtransitionthatoscillationsduetostrayfeedbackarenotpossible.SimplysocketingtheICandattachingresistorstothepinswillcauseinput-outputoscillationsduringthesmalltransitionintervalsunlesshysteresisisused.Iftheinputsignalisapulsewaveform,withrelativelyfastriseandfalltimes,hysteresisisnotrequired.Allpinsofanyunusedcomparatorsshouldbetiedtothenegativesupply.ThebiasnetworkofLM339establishesadraincurrentwhichisindependentofthemagnitudeofthepowersupplyvoltageovertherangeoffrom2Vto30V.Itisusuallyunnecessarytouseabypasscapacitoracrossthepowersupplyline.ThedifferentialinputvoltagemaybelargerthanV+withoutdamagingthedevice.Protectionshouldbeprovidedtopreventtheinputvoltagesfromgoingnegativemorethan-0.3VDC(at25℃).Aninputclampdiodecanbeusedasshownintheapplicationssection.TheoutputoftheLM339istheuncommittedcollectorofagrounded-emitterNPNoutputtransistor.ManycollectorscanbetiedtogethertoprovideanoutputORingfunction.Anoutputpull-upresistorcanbeconnectedtoanyavailablepowersupplyvoltagewithinthepermittedsupplyvoltagerangeandthereisnorestrictiononthisvoltageduetothemagnitudeofthevoltagewhichisappliedtotheV+terminaloftheLM1339package.TheoutputcanalsobeusedasasimpleSPSTswitchtoground(whenapull-upresistorisnotused).Theamountofcurrentwhichtheoutputdevicecansinkislimitedbythedriveavailable(whichisindependentofV+)andtheofthisdevice.Whenthemaximumcurrentlimitisreached(approximately16mA),theoutputtransistorwillcomeoutofsaturationandtheoutputvoltagewillriseveryrapidly.Theoutputsaturationvoltageislimitedbytheapproximately60RSAToftheoutputtransistor.Thelowoffsetvoltageoftheoutputtransistor(1mV)allowstheoutputtoclampessentiallytogroundlevelforsmallloadcurrents.ProductManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.FAQWhatisLM339?LM339isavoltagecomparatorICfromLMx39xseriesandismanufacturedbymanyindustries.Thedevicesconsistoffourindependentvoltagecomparatorsthataredesignedtooperatefromasinglepowersupply.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM324andLM339?TheLM324hasacomplementaryoutputwhiletheLM339isopencollector.Inthecomplementaryoutput,currentcanflowineitherdirectionasrequired(eithersourceorsink)whiletheopencollectoroutputcanonlysinkcurrent.HowdoesLM339comparatorwork?TheLM339isaquadopampcomparator.Acomparatorworksbyasimpleconcept.Eachopampofacomparatorhas2inputs,ainvertinginputandanoninvertinginput.Iftheinvertinginputvoltageisgreaterthanthenoninvertinginput,thentheoutputisdrawntoground.Whatiscomparatoric?Acomparatorisanelectroniccircuit,whichcomparesthetwoinputsthatareappliedtoitandproducesanoutput.Theoutputvalueofthecomparatorindicateswhichoftheinputsisgreaterorlesser.Pleasenotethatcomparatorfallsundernon-linearapplicationsofICs.WhatisthereplacementforLM339?LM311,LM324,LM397,LM139,LM239,LM2901Whatisacomparatorcircuit?Acomparatorcircuitcomparestwovoltagesandoutputseithera1(thevoltageattheplusside;VDDintheillustration)ora0(thevoltageatthenegativeside)toindicatewhichislarger.Comparatorsareoftenused,forexample,tocheckwhetheraninputhasreachedsomepredeterminedvalue.WhatistheuseofLM339?LM339isusedinapplicationswhereacomparisonbetweentwovoltagesignalsisrequired.Inadditionwithfourofthosecomparatorsonboardthedevicecancomparefourpairsofvoltagesignalsatatimewhichcomesinhandyinsomeapplications.DescriptionThe74HC595isanhighspeedCMOS8-BITSHIFTREGISTERS/OUTPUTLATCHES(3-STATE)fabricatedwithsilicongateC2MOStechnology.Thisdevicecontainsan8-bitserial-in,parallel-outshiftregisterthatfeedsan8-bitD-typestorageregister.Thestorageregisterhas83-STATEoutputs.Separateclocksareprovidedforboththeshiftregisterandthestorageregister.Theshiftregisterhasadirect-overridingclear,serialinput,andserialoutput(standard)pinsforcascading.Boththeshiftregisterandstorageregisterusepositive-edgetriggeredclocks.Ifbothclocksareconnectedtogether,theshiftregisterstatewillalwaysbeoneclockpulseaheadofthestorageregister.Allinputsareequippedwithprotectioncircuitsagainststaticdischargeandtransientexcessvoltage.TheShiftRegister:Explained[74HC595]CatalogDescriptionFeaturesApplicationPinoutLogicDiagramParametersComponentDatasheetPackageProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityFeaturesLowquiescentcurrent:80AmaximumLowinputcurrent:1Amaximum8-bitserial-in,parallel-outshiftregisterwithstorageWideoperatingvoltagerange:2V~6VShiftregisterhasdirectclearGuaranteedshiftfrequency:DCto30MHzPackage:SOP16ApplicationSerial-to-paralleldataconversionRemotecontrolholdingregisterPinoutPinNo.SymbolNameandFunction1,2,3,4,5,6,7,15QAtoQHDataoutput8GNDGround(0V)9QHSerialdataoutput10SCLRShiftregisterclearinput11SCKShiftregisterclockinput12RCKStorageregisterclockinput13GOutputenableinput14SISerialdatainput16VCCPositivesupplyvoltageLogicDiagramParametersBrandNameDiodesLow-powerconsumptionWhenTA=25℃,Icc=4A(MAX)LowquiescentcurrentMaximum80ALowinputcurrentMaximum1AWideoperatingvoltagerange2V-6VPackageDIP16/SOP16ComponentDatasheetDatasheet74HC595DatasheetPackageProductManufacturerDiodesIncorporatedisaleadingglobalmanufacturerandsupplierofhigh-qualityapplicationspecificstandardproductswithinthebroaddiscrete,logic,analog,andmixed-signalsemiconductormarkets.DiodescorporateheadquartersandAmericassalesofficearelocatedinPlano,Texas,andMilpitas,California.Diodesservetheconsumerelectronics,computing,communications,industrial,andautomotivemarkets.Diodesproductsincludediodes,rectifiers,transistors,MOSFETs,protectiondevices,function-specificarrays,singlegatelogic,amplifiersandcomparators,Hall-effectandtemperaturesensors,powermanagementdevices,includingLEDdrivers,AC-DCconvertersandcontrollers,DC-DCswitchingandlinearvoltageregulators,andvoltagereferencesalongwithspecialfunctiondevices,suchasUSBpowerswitches,loadswitches,voltagesupervisors,andmotorcontrollers.FAQWhatis74HC595?74HC595isashiftregisterwhichworksonSerialINParallelOUTprotocol.Itreceivesdataseriallyfromthemicrocontrollerandthensendsoutthisdatathroughparallelpins.Wecanincreaseouroutputpinsby8usingthesinglechip.Whatisa74hc595n?8-bitShiftRegister74HC595NAshiftregisterisachipyoucanusetocontrolmanyoutputs(8here)atthesametimewhileonlyusingafewpins(3here)ofyourArduino.Howdoesashiftregisterwork?Shiftregistersholdthedataintheirmemorywhichismovedorshiftedtotheirrequiredpositionsoneachclockpulse.Eachclockpulseshiftsthecontentsoftheregisteronebitpositiontoeithertheleftortheright.How74HC595ShiftRegiesterworks?The595hastworegisters(whichcanbethoughtofasmemorycontainers),eachwithjust8bitsofdata.ThefirstoneiscalledtheShiftRegister.TheShiftRegisterliesdeepwithintheICcircuits,quietlyacceptinginput.Howdoesan8bitshiftregisterwork?TheSN74HC595Nisasimple8-bitshiftregisterIC.Simplyput,thisshiftregisterisadevicethatallowsadditionalinputsoroutputstobeaddedtoamicrocontrollerbyconvertingdatabetweenparallelandserialformats.YourchosenmicroprocessorisabletocommunicatewiththeTheSN74HC595Nusingserialinformationthengathersoroutputsinformationinaparallel(multi-pin)format.Essentiallyittakes8bitsfromtheserialinputandthenoutputsthemto8pins.

LM111

DescriptionTheMMBT3904LT1GisaNPNsiliconBipolarTransistor,designedforuseinlinear,lowerpowersurfacemountandswitchingapplications.MMBT3904LT1GHowdoesatransistorwork?CatalogMMBT3904LT1GDescriptionMMBT3904LT1GPinoutMMBT3904LT1GFeaturesMMBT3904LT1GMarkingDiagramMMBT3904LT1GCADModelsMMBT3904LT1GFunctionalEquivalentsMMBT3904LT1GPackageOutlinesMMBT3904LT1GPopularitybyRegionMMBT3904LT1GMarketingPriceAnalysisMMBT3904LT1GManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityMMBT3904LT1GPinoutMMBT3904LT1GFeaturesTheseDevicesarePbFree,HalogenFree/BFRFreeandareRoHSCompliantSPrefixforAutomotiveandOtherApplicationsRequiringUniqueSiteandControlChangeRequirements;AECQ101QualifiedandPPAPCapableMMBT3904LT1GMarkingDiagramMMBT3904LT1GCADModelsPartSymbolFootprint3DModelMMBT3904LT1GFunctionalEquivalentsMMBT3904LT1GPackageOutlinesMMBT3904LT1GPopularitybyRegionMMBT3904LT1GMarketingPriceAnalysisMMBT3904LT1GManufacturerONSemiconductor(Nasdaq:ON)isdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ONSemiconductoroperatesaresponsive,reliable,world-classsupplychainandqualityprogram,andanetworkofmanufacturingfacilities,salesofficesanddesigncentersinkeymarketsthroughoutNorthAmerica,Europe,andtheAsiaPacificregions.ComponentDatasheetMMBT3904LT1GDatasheetFAQWhatisMMBT3904LT1G?TheMMBT3904LT1GisaNPNsiliconBipolarTransistor,designedforuseinlinear,lowerpowersurfacemountandswitchingapplications.Whatisatransistor?Atransistorisasemiconductordeviceusedtoamplifyorswitchelectronicsignalsandelectricalpower.Itiscomposedofsemiconductormaterialusuallywithatleastthreeterminalsforconnectiontoanexternalcircuit.WhatisPNPtransistor?APNPtransistorisabipolarjunctiontransistorconstructedbysandwichinganN-typesemiconductorbetweentwoP-typesemiconductors.APNPtransistorhasthreeterminalsaCollector(C),Emitter(E)andBase(B).ThePNPtransistorbehavesliketwoPNjunctionsdiodesconnectedbacktoback.Whatdoesatransistordo?Atransistor,alsoknownasaBJT(BipolarJunctionTransistor),isacurrentdrivensemiconductordevicewhichcanbeusedtocontroltheflowofelectriccurrentinwhichasmallamountofcurrentintheBaseleadcontrolsalargercurrentbetweentheCollectorandEmitter.Howmanytypesoftransistorarethere?Transistorsarebasicallyclassifiedintotwotypes;theyareBipolarJunctionTransistors(BJT)andFieldEffectTransistors(FET).TheBJTsareagainclassifiedintoNPNandPNPtransistors.TheFETtransistorsareclassifiedintoJFETandMOSFET.Whatistransistordiagram?DiagramAshowsanNPNtransistorwhichisoftenusedasatypeofswitch.Asmallcurrentorvoltageatthebaseallowsalargervoltagetoflowthroughtheothertwoleads(fromthecollectortotheemitter).ThecircuitshownindiagramBisbasedonanNPNtransistor.Whentheswitchispressedacurrentpassesthroughtheresistorintothebaseofthetransistor.Thetransistorthenallowscurrenttoflowfromthe+9voltstothe0vs,andthelampcomeson.Thetransistorhastoreceiveavoltageatitsbaseanduntilthishappensthelampdoesnotlight.Whatarethetwomainappilcationsoftransistor?Transistorsarecommonlyusedindigitalcircuitsaselectronicswitcheswhichcanbeeitherinanonoroffstate,bothforhigh-powerapplicationssuchasswitched-modepowersuppliesandforlow-powerapplicationssuchaslogicgates.DescriptionBC327isageneralpurposePNPtransistor,todaywewilldiscussaboutitspinoutconfiguration,equivalent,uses,packagedimensionsandmanyotherdetails.BC327UsingTransistorsBC327BC337toMakeaMiniPowerfulAudioAmplifierCatalogueDescriptionBC327IntroductionBC327PinConfigurationBC327MarkingDiagramBC327TechnicalSpecificationsBC327CADModelsBC327ApplicationsBC327PackageDimensionsBC327FunctionalEquivalentsBC327PopularitybyRegionWhereandHowtoUseBC327HowtoGetLongTermPerformancefromBC327BC327ManufacturerComponentDatasheetOrdering&QuantityBC327IntroductionBC327isageneralpurposePNPBJPtransistorthatcanbeusedforswitchingandamplificationpurposesinelectroniccircuits.Thetransistorfeatures800mAcollectorcurrenthenceitcanbeusedtodrivevarietyofloadsinanelectronicapplication.Themaxcollector-emittervoltageis-45Vthereforeitcaneasilyhandleloadvoltageunder45V.Apartfromthattransistoralsofeatures625mWcollectordissipationandDCcurrentgainofmaximum630thereforeitcanalsobeusedasanaudioamplifierorforanytypeofsignalamplification.BC327manufacturedindifferenthFEclassificationthatcanbedifferentiatewiththecodenumberwrittenafterthetransistornumber.Ifyoufindcode-16afterthetransistornumberthenthehFEwillbe100~250,ifthecodeis-25thenthehFEwillbe160~400andifthecodeis-40thenthehFEwillbe250~630.BC327PinConfigurationPinNumberPinNameDescription1CollectorCurrentflowsinthroughcollector,normallyconnectedtoload2BaseControlsthebiasingoftransistor,UsedtoturnONorOFFthetransistor3EmitterCurrentDrainsoutthroughemitter,normallyconnectedtogroundBC327MarkingDiagramBC327TechnicalSpecificationsPackageType:TO-92TransistorType:PNPMaxCollectorCurrent(IC):-800mAMaxCollector-EmitterVoltage(VCE):-45VMaxCollector-BaseVoltage(VCB):-50VMaxEmitter-BaseVoltage(VBE):-5VMaxCollectorDissipation(Pc):625MilliwattMaxTransitionFrequency(fT):100MHzMinimumMaximumDCCurrentGain(hFE):100to630MaxStorageOperatingtemperatureShouldbe:-55to+150CentigradeBC327CADModelsBC327PartSymbolBC327FootprintBC327ApplicationsOutputofMicrocontrollerstoDriveLoadsAnyTypeofSignalAmplificationAudioamplifierAudioAmpStagesDriveLoadsUnder800mABC327PackageDimensionsBC327FunctionalEquivalentsBC327PopularitybyRegionWhereandHowtoUseBC327LikeotheressentialgeneralpurposetransistorstheBC327isalsoamustofhavetransistorinyourlabbecauseitcanbeusedinwidevarietyofapplications.Itcanbeusedasaswitchtodriveloadsupto800mAwhichincludeshighpowerrelays,highpowertransistors,highpowerLEDs,ICsandotherpartsofacircuit.With-5Vemitter-basevoltagethistransistorcanalsobeusedastheoutputofmicrocontrollerstodriveloadofupto800mAwhichcaneasilydrivemotors,modules,sensorsetc.HowtoGetLongTermPerformancefromBC327Togetlongtermgoodperformancewiththistransistorinyourelectronicapplicationsitisrecommendedtonotdriveloadmorethan0.8Aor800mA,donotdriveloadormorethan-45V,alwaysuseasuitablebaseresistorwiththetransistor.Donotstoreoroperatethistransistorintemperaturebelow-55centigradeandabove+150centigradeandalwayscheckpinconfigurationbeforeplacinginthecircuit.BC327ManufacturerONSemiconductor(Nasdaq:ON)isdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ONSemiconductoroperatesaresponsive,reliable,world-classsupplychainandqualityprogram,andanetworkofmanufacturingfacilities,salesofficesanddesigncentersinkeymarketsthroughoutNorthAmerica,Europe,andtheAsiaPacificregions.ComponentDatasheetBC327DatasheetDescriptionIRFZ44NisaN-channelPowerMOSFETs,thisblogcoversIRFZ44NMOSFETpinout,datasheet,equivalent,featuresandotherinformationonhowtouseandwheretousethisdevice.CatalogDescriptionIRFZ44NCADModelIRFZ44NPinoutIRFZ44NCircuitIRFZ44NApplicationsIRFZ44NFeaturesIRFZ44NAdvantageIRFZ44NPackageIRFZ44NParametersIRFZ44NDocumentsIRFZ44NProductComplianceIRFZ44NAlternativesIRFZ44NEquivalentsWheretouseIRFZ44NIRLZ44NandIRFZ44NDifferenceHowtouseIRFZ44NHowtoSafelyLongRunIRFZ44NinCircuitsIRFZ44NManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityIRFZ44NCADModelIRFZ44NSymbolIRFZ44NFootprintIRFZ44NPinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1SourceCurrentflowsoutthroughSource2GateControlsthebiasingoftheMOSFET3DrainCurrentflowsinthroughDrainIRFZ44NCircuitSwitchingTimeTestCircuitUnclampedInductiveTestCircuitGateChargeTestCircuitPeakDiodeRecoverydv/dtTestCircuitIRFZ44NApplicationsBatteryChargersBatteryManagementSystemsSolarBatteryChargersApplicationsFastSwitchingApplicationsUninterruptiblePowerSuppliesMotorDriverCircuitsSolarUninterruptiblePowerSuppliesIRFZ44NFeaturesAdvancedProcessTechnologyUltraLowOn-ResistanceDynamicdv/dtRating175COperatingTemperatureFastSwitchingFullyAvalancheRatedLead-FreeIRFZ44NAdvantageIRFZ44NisawidelyusedMOSFETtransistordesignedtouseinvarietyofgeneralpurposeapplications.Thetransistorpossesseshighspeedswitchingcapabilitywhichmakesitidealtouseinapplicationswherehighspeedswitchingisacrucialrequirement.Thetransistoriscapabletodriveloadofupto49Aandthemaxloadvoltagecanbe55V.Howeverthepeakpulsecurrentcanbeupto160A.Theminimumthresholdvoltagerequiredforthistransistortomakeitinfullyopenstateis2Vto4V.Thistransistorcanalsobeusedasanaudioamplifierorinaudioamplifierstages;itiscapabletodelivermaximumaudiooutputof94W.IRFZ44NPackageTo-220ABPackageOutlineIRFZ44NParametersBrandInfineon/IRChannelModeEnhancementConfigurationSingleFallTime45nsForwardTransconductance-Min19SHeight15.65mmId-ContinuousDrainCurrent49ALength10mmManufacturerInfineonMaximumOperatingTemperature+175CMinimumOperatingTemperature-55CMountingStyleThroughHoleNumberofChannels1ChannelPackage/CaseTO-220-3Pd-PowerDissipation94WProductCategoryMOSFETProductTypeMOSFETRdsOn-Drain-SourceResistance17.5mOhmsRiseTime60nsSubcategoryMOSFETsTechnologySiTransistorPolarityN-ChannelTransistorType1N-ChannelTypeHEXFETPowerMOSFETTypicalTurn-OffDelayTime44nsTypicalTurn-OnDelayTime12nsUnitWeight0.211644ozVds-Drain-SourceBreakdownVoltage55VVgs-Gate-SourceVoltage-20V,+20VWidth4.4mmIRFZ44NDocumentsEOLEndofLifeNotification(PDF)ModelsIRFZ44NSymbolFootprintbySnapEDAProductCatalogsGateDriverSelectionGuide2019(PDF)SelectionGuide(PDF)IRFZ44NProductComplianceUSHTS8541290095TARIC8541100000ECCNEAR99IRFZ44NAlternativesIRF2807,IRFB3207,IRFB4710IRFZ44NEquivalentsIRFZ46N,STP55N06,2SK2376,BUK456-60H,STP50N06,2SK2312,2SK2376,BUZ102S,IRF1010AIRLZ44NandIRFZ44NDifferenceTheIRLZ44NandIRFZ44NMOSFETsareoftenconfusedamongeachotherandusedincorrectly.TheIRLZ44NisaLogiclevelMosfetwithaverylowgatethresholdvoltageof5V,meaningtheMOSFETcanbefullyturnedonwithjust5Vonitsgatepinwhichavoidstheneedforadrivercircuit.IRLZ44NTheIRFZ44NontheotherhandrequiresagatedrivercircuitiftheMOSFEThastobeturnedoncompletelyusingamicrocontrollerlikeArduino.Howeveritdoesturnonpartiallywithdirect5VformaI/Opin,buttheoutputdraincurrentwillbelimited.IRFZ44NWheretouseIRFZ44NTheIRFZ44Nisknownforitshighdraincurrentandfastswitchingspeed.AddingtothatitalsohasalowRdsvaluewhichwillhelpinincreasingtheefficiencyofswitchingcircuits.TheMOSFETwillstartturningonwithasmallgatevoltageof4V,butthedraincurrentwillbemaximumonlywhenagatevoltageof10Visapplied.IfthemosfethastobedrivendirectlyfromamicrocontrollerlikeArduinothentrythelogiclevelversionIRLZ44Nmosfet.HowtouseIRFZ44NUnliketransistorsMOSFETsarevoltagecontrolleddevices.Meaning,theycanbeturnedonorturnedoffbysupplyingtherequiredGatethresholdvoltage(VGS).IRFZ44NisanN-channelMOSFET,sotheDrainandSourcepinswillbeleftopenwhenthereisnovoltageappliedtothegatepin.Whenagatevoltageisappliedthesepinsgetsclosed.IfitisrequiredtobeswitchedwithArduino,thenasimpledrivecircuitusingatransistorwillworktoprovidetherequiredgatevoltagetotriggertheMOSFETtoopenfully.Forotherswitchingandamplifyingapplications,adedicatedMOFETDriverICisrequired.HowtoSafelyLongRunIRFZ44NinCircuitsTogetlongtermperformancewithIRFZ44Nitissuggestedtonotusethistransistoronitsmaximumratings.Usinganycomponentsonitsmaximumratingcancausestressonthecomponentandmaydamageorweakitsinsidecircuitrywhichresultinweakerperformance.Wealwayssuggestuseanycomponentatleat20%belowfrommaximumcapacityorspecifications.ThesamerulewillbeappliedforIRFZ44N.Themaximumdraincurrentis49amperesthereforedonotdriveloadofmorethan39amperes.Themaximumloadvoltageis55Vandforsafetydonotdriveloadofmorethan44V.TheGatetosourcevoltageshouldbeunder20Vandalwaysstoreoroperatethetransistorintemperatureabove-55centigradeandbelow+175centigrade.IRFZ44NManufacturerInfineonTechnologiesAGisaworldleaderinsemiconductorsolutionsthatmakelifeeasier,saferandgreener.MicroelectronicsfromInfineonisthekeytoabetterfuture.Inthe2019fiscalyear(ending30September),thecompanyreportedsalesofaround8billionwithabout41,400employeesworldwide.InfineonislistedontheFrankfurtStockExchange(tickersymbol:IFX)andintheUSAontheover-the-countermarketOTCQXInternationalPremier(tickersymbol:IFNNY).ComponentDatasheetIRFZ44NDatasheetFAQWhatisirfz44n?TheIRFZ44NisaN-channelMOSFETwithahighdraincurrentof49AandlowRdsvalueof17.5m.Italsohasalowthresholdvoltageof4VatwhichtheMOSFETwillstartconducting.Henceitiscommonlyusedwithmicrocontrollerstodrivewith5V.WhatarepowerMOSFETsusedfor?PowerMOSFETsarewidelyusedintransportationtechnology,whichincludeawiderangeofvehicles.Intheautomotiveindustry,powerMOSFETsarewidelyusedinautomotiveelectronics.PowerMOSFETs(includingDMOS,LDMOSandVMOS)arecommonlyusedforawiderangeofotherapplications.HowdoIuseirfz44n?IRFZ44NisanN-channelMOSFET,sotheDrainandSourcepinswillbeleftopenwhenthereisnovoltageappliedtothegatepin.Whenagatevoltageisappliedthesepinsgetsclosed.HowdoIturnonamosfetchannel?N-ChannelForanN-ChannelMOSFET,thesourceisconnectedtoground.ToturntheMOSFETon,weneedtoraisethevoltageonthegate.Toturnitoffweneedtoconnectthegatetoground.P-ChannelThesourceisconnectedtothepowerrail(Vcc).Whattodowithirfz44n?

LM111

74HC164DescriptionThe74HC164isan8-bitserial-in/parallel-outshiftregister.Thedevicefeaturestwoserialdatainputs(DSAandDSB),eightparalleldataoutputs(Q0toQ7).DataisenteredseriallythroughDSAorDSBandeitherinputcanbeusedasanactiveHIGHenablefordataentrythroughtheotherinput.DataisshiftedontheLOW-to-HIGHtransitionsoftheclock(CP)input.ALOWonthemasterresetinput(MR)clearstheregisterandforcesalloutputsLOW,independentlyofotherinputs.Inputsincludeclampdiodes.ThisenablestheuseofcurrentlimitingresistorstointerfaceinputstovoltagesinexcessofVCC.74HC164Catalog74HC164Description74HC164PinConfigurationandFunctions74HC164Features74HC164FunctionalBlockDiagram74HC164ApplicationsDifferencesBetween74HC164and74HC59574HC164PackageOutlineComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&Quantity74HC164PinConfigurationandFunctionsPinFunctions:74HC164FeaturesWidesupplyvoltagerangefrom2.0to6.0VCMOSlowpowerdissipationHighnoiseimmunityInputlevels:1.For74HC164:CMOSlevel2.For74HCT164:TTLlevelGatedserialdatainputsAsynchronousmasterresetComplieswithJEDECstandardsJESD8C(2.7Vto3.6V)JESD7A(2.0Vto6.0V)Latch-upperformanceexceeds100mAperJESD78ClassIILevelBESDprotection:1.HBMJESD22-A114Fexceeds2000V2.MMJESD22-A115-Aexceeds200VMultiplepackageoptionsSpecifiedfrom-40Cto+85Cand-40Cto+125C.74HC164FunctionalBlockDiagram74HC164ApplicationsProgramableLogicControllersAppliancesVideoDisplaySystemsOutputExpanderDifferencesBetween74HC164and74HC59574HC595Pinout74HC595PinFunctionsPinNo.SymbolNameandFunction1,2,3,4,5,6,7,15QAtoQHDataoutput8GNDGround(0V)9QHSerialdataoutput10SCLRShiftregisterclearinput11SCKShiftregisterclockinput12RCKStorageregisterclockinput13GOutputenableinput14SISerialdatainput16VCCPositivesupplyvoltage74HC595hasalatch,sotheoutputcanremainunchangedduringtheshift;74HC164hasnolatch,soitchangeseverytimeashiftclockisgenerated.Thisisthebiggestdifferencebetweenthetwo74HC595usesspecialQ7pintorealizemulti-chipcascade;74HC164directlyusesoutputpinQ7tocascade74HC595hasenableOE,whenOEisinvalid,theoutputpinishighimpedance;while74HC164hasnoenablepinTheresetof74HC595isfortheshiftregister.IfyouwanttoresettheLATCHregister,youmustloadtheshiftregistercontentintothelatchregisterontherisingedgeofST_CP;thatistosay:74HC595resetissynchronous,74HC164resetisasynchronous,Sotheresetof74HC164iseasier74HC164hasacorresponding74HC165parallel-to-serialchip.74HC164PackageOutlinePackageoutlineSOT108-1(SO14)PackageoutlineSOT337-1(SSOP14)PackageoutlineSOT402-1(TSSOP14)PackageoutlineSOT762-1(DHVQFN14)ComponentDatasheet74HC164DatasheetFAQHowdoesthe74HC164transmitdatainthemicrocontrollercircuit?Onepinofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerislikeafaucet,andthedataissentonebyone,thatis,likethewaterfromthefaucet,drippingdropbydrop.The74H164islikeasmallbowlreceivingwater.Itisjustfullafterreceiving8dropsofwater.Atthistime,itissenttothedigitaltube.Thesingle-chipmicrocomputermustsendan8-bit(ormore)data,ifitissentatthesametime,itisaparalleltransmission,ifitisabitbybit,itisaserialtransmission.Thedataofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerissenttothe74HC164bitbybit,whichisserial,andthe74HC164sendsthedatatothedigitaltubeatonce,whichisparallel.So74HC164playsarolefromserialtransmissiontoparalleltransmission.Whatisthedifferencebetween74HC164Dand74HC164NMCU?TheDin74HC164Drepresentsachippackage.TheNin74HC164Nmeansdualin-lineplasticpackaging.Whatisthedifferencebetween74HC164and74LS164,cantheybeusedtogether?74ls164isaTTLcircuit,thepowersupplyvoltageis5V,thehigh-leveloutputcurrentIohis-0.4MA,andthelow-leveloutputcurrentis8MA.74HC164isaCMOScircuit,thepowersupplyvoltageis2V~6V,theoutputdrivecurrentcanreachplusorminus20MA.Ifthepowersupplyvoltageyouuseis5Vandtheoutputdrivecurrentissuitablefor74ls164,theycanbeusedtogether.Whatdevicescan74hc164bereplacedwith?74HC164isaCMOSdevicewithapowersupplyvoltageof2V-6V.Itcanbedirectlyreplacedby74HCT164,40H164.Ifthepowersupplyvoltageis5Vandtheoutputdrivecurrentissmall,itcanalsobereplacedby74164,74LS164,74F164,74ALS164.Whichof74LS164and74HC164hashigherdrivingcapability?74LS164isaTTLdevicewithahigh-leveldrivingcapabilityofabout0.4mAandalow-leveldrivingcapabilityofabout8mA.74HC164isaCMOSdevice,withhigh-levelandlow-leveldrivecapabilityupto20mA.TheabovedatacomesfromDATASHEET.Butgenerallyspeaking,thehigh-leveloutputcapabilityofmanyCMOSdevicesisweak,smallerthanTTL,andthelow-leveldrivecapabilityisstronger.Can74hc164nbeusedtodrivethedigitaltube?Ofcourse,youcanusethe164chiptodrivethenixietube,whichismostlyusedinsituationswheretheIOportresourcesaretightandthedisplaydatarefreshofthenixietubeisslow.Whendesigningthecircuit,multiple164chipsareusedincascade,nomatterhowmanydigitaltubesaredriven,only2IOportsofthesingle-chipmicrocomputerareoccupied.ItcanbesaidthatitisthemostIOport-savingdrivingmethod,anditisstilldrivenstatically,withoutstrobeandbrightnessLowphenomenon.Thedisadvantageisthatmultiple164sareusedincascadeconnection,whichwillcausethesingle-chipmicrocomputertosendalargeamountofdisplaydata(1bytepernixietube)atonetimewhenrefreshingthedisplaydata.Duringthisprocess,thenixietubewillbeallon,althoughthedataissentTheprocessdurationisveryshort,butitstillaffectsthedisplayeffect.Itisrecommendedtoturnoffthedigitaltubewhenrefreshingthedata.AD603IntroductionTheAD603isalownoise,voltage-controlledamplifierforuseinRFandIFAGCsystems.Itprovidesaccurate,pin-selectablegainsof11dBto+31dBwithabandwidthof90MHzor+9dBto51+dBwithabandwidthof9MHz.Anyintermediategainrangemaybearrangedusingoneexternalresistor.Theinputreferrednoisespectraldensityisonly1.3nV/Hz,andpowerconsumptionis125mWattherecommended5Vsupplies.CatalogAD603IntroductionAD603FeaturesAD603PinConfigurationandFunctionsAD603FunctionalBlockDiagramAD603WorkingModesAD603FunctionalEquivalentsAD603PackageOutlineAD603TypicalApplicationAD603ApplicationsAD603ApplicationNoteComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityAD603FeaturesLinear-in-dBgaincontrolPin-programmablegainranges:11dBto+31dBwith90MHzbandwidth9dBto51dBwith9MHzbandwidthAnyintermediaterange,forexample,1dBto+41dBwith30MHzbandwidthBandwidthindependentofthevariablegain1.3nV/Hzinputnoisespectraldensity60.5dBtypicalgainaccuracyAD603PinConfigurationandFunctionsAD603FunctionalBlockDiagramFigure1AD603functionalblockdiagramItisnotdifficulttofindthatitisdifferentfromAD600inthat:thefixedgainamplifieritusescanchangethegainvalue.ThegainGFisdeterminedbytheconnectionformofVOUTandFDBK.WhenVOUTandFDBKareshort-circuited,GF=31.07dB;whenitisopen,GF=51.07dB;connectresistorREXTbetweenVOUTandFDBKtosetGFAnyvaluebetween31.07dB~51.07dB.However,thegainaccuracyinthismodeisreduced.Whentheexternalresistanceisabout2K,theerroristhelargest.IfanappropriateresistorisconnectedbetweenVOUTandCOMM,thegaincanbeincreased,upto60dB.AD603WorkingModesAD603hasthreeworkingmodes:Mode1:Short-circuitVOUTandFDBK,thisconnectioncanobtainthemaximumbandwidth-90MHz,andthegainrangeis-11.07dB~+31.07dB.AsshowninFigure2.Figure2ShortconnectionbetweenVOUTandFDBKMode2:ConnectaresistorREXTbetweenVOUTandFDBK,anda5.6pFcapacitorbetweenFDBKandCOMMasfrequencycompensation.Accordingtotherelationalexpressionoftheamplifier,selectingtheappropriateREXTvaluecanobtaindifferentgainrangevalues.WhenREXT=2.15Kohms,thegainrangeis:-1dB~+41dB.AsshowninFigure3.Figure3VOUTandFDBKaccessresistanceREXTMode3:OpenacircuitbetweenVOUTandFDBK,andconnectan18pFcapacitorbetweenVOUTandCOMMtoextendthefrequencyresponserange.Thismodeisahighgainmodewithagainrangeof8.93dB~51.07dBandabandwidthof9MHz.AsshowninFigure4.Figure4HighgainmodeIntheabovethreemodes,therelationshipbetweengainGFandcontrolvoltageVGisshowninFigure5.Figure5TherelationshipbetweengainGFandcontrolvoltageVGWhenVGisintherangeof-500mV~+500mVat40dB/V(thatis25mV/dB,whichisdifferentfromAD600s32mV/dB)forlineargaincontrol,therelationshipbetweengainG(dB)andVG(V)is:G=40VG+Goi(I=1,2,3),whereVG=VPOS-VNEG.G0iisthedifferentgainconstantsinthreemodes.Mode1:GOi=10dB;Mode2:GOi=10dB~30dB(determinedbytheexternalresistorREXT);Mode3:GOi=30dB.WhenthecontrolvoltageVGisoutside-500mV~+500mV,thegainGandVGnolongersatisfythelinearrelationship.WhenVG=-526mV,thegainisG=GF-42.14,whenVG=+526,thegainisG=GF.AD603TypicalApplicationFigure6AD603typicalapplicationcircuitFigure6isatwo-stageAD603amplifiercircuitwithautomaticgaincontrol.Inthefigure,Q1andR8formadetectortodetectchangesintheamplitudeoftheoutputsignal.TheautomaticgaincontrolvoltageVAGCisformedbyCAV,thedifferencebetweenthecurrentQ2andthecollectorcurrentofQ1flowingintothecapacitorCAV,anditsmagnitudechangeswiththeamplitudeoftheoutputsignalofA2,whichmakesitaddedtoA1andA2amplifier1.TheautomaticgaincontrolvoltageVAGCofthepinchangeswiththeoutputsignalamplitudechange,soastoachievethepurposeofautomaticallyadjustingtheamplifiergain.AD603FunctionalEquivalentsAD603PackageOutlineAD603ApplicationsRF/IFAGCamplifiersVideogaincontrolsA/DrangeextensionsSignalmeasurementsAD603ApplicationNote(1)Thepowersupplyvoltageshouldgenerallybeselectedas5V,andthemaximumshouldnotexceed7.5V.(2)Inthecaseof5Vpowersupply,theeffectivevalueoftheratedvoltageappliedtotheinputterminalVINPshouldbe1V,thepeakvalueis1.4V,andthemaximumshouldnotexceed2V.Ifyouwanttoexpandthemeasurementrange,youshouldaddalevelofattenuationinfrontofAD603.Inthisway,thetypicalvalueofthepeakoutputvoltagecanreach3.0V.Therefore,itisusuallynecessarytoaddafirstlevelofamplificationafterAD603toconnecttotheA/Dconverter.(3)Thevoltageappliedtothevoltagecontrolterminalmustbeverystable,otherwisethegainwillbeunstable,whichwillincreasethenoiseoftheamplifiedsignal.(4)Thesignalmustbedirectlyconnectedtopin4oftheamplifier,otherwisetheaccuracyoftheamplifierwillbereducedduetothelargeimpedance.ComponentDatasheetAD603DatasheetFAQWhatisAD603?AD603isalow-noise,voltage-controlledamplifierforradiofrequency(RF)andintermediatefrequency(IF)automaticgaincontrol(AGC)systems.Itprovidesprecisepin-selectablegain,withagainrangeof-11dBto+31dBat90MHzbandwidth,andagainrangeof+9dBto+51dBat9MHzbandwidth.Anyintermediategainrangecanbeobtainedwithanexternalresistor.Thenoisespectraldensityreferredtotheinputisonly1.3nV/Hz,andthepowerconsumptionis125mWwhenusingtherecommended5Vpowersupply.WhataretheproblemsthatneedtobepaidattentiontowhenusingAD603?Thevoltagecannotbetoohigh.Generally,thevoltageisplusorminus5V,andthemaximumvoltagecannotexceedplusorminus7.5V.Theoutputvoltagecannotexceed2V.Howtosolvetheself-oscillationproblemofAD603?Forhigh-frequencyoperationalamplifiers,thefollowingpointsarethebasicwaystosolveself-excitation.Thepowersupplyisstableandnoripple.Theelectricalconnectionwiresareasshortaspossible.Thead603circuitshouldbefarawayfromthepowercircuit,especiallyawayfromthetransformer.Thepowertransformerandthecircuitboardofad603shouldbeshieldedwithametalboxandgroundedifpossible.Onepointisveryimportant.Foropamps,toolargemagnificationcaneasilycauseself-excitation,soreducethemagnificationasmuchaspossibleandminimizethenumberofmagnificationlevels(generallynotgreaterthan4).Reverseamplificationcansuppressself-excitationinmulti-stageamplification.Ifyouwanttoconnecttothepoweramplifierandthenamplify,itisbesttousetwopowersupplies,andthecircuitshouldbeconnectedtothesameground.WhatisthedifferencebetweenAD603AQandAD603AR?Theirdifferencesareinmodel,Temperature,Package.AD603AQ-40Cto+85C8-LeadCERDIPAD603AR-40Cto+85C8-LeadSOIC_NAfterinputtinganACsignalandbeingamplifiedbyAD603,whydoestheoutputcontainaDCsignal?HowtoeliminatetheDCsignal?WhentheDCblockingcapacitorisnotused,thebiasvoltageoftheinputcircuitneedstobeadjustedforcompensation.IftheDCvoltageoftheACsignalisnotfixed,onlyaDCblockingcapacitorcanbeused,ortheaveragevaluecanbeusedtoeliminateitaftersamplingthenumber.

LM111

ADC0804DescriptionTherearemultiplekindsofAnalogtoDigitalConverters(ADC)whichareusedtoconvertthesignalformicroprocessorsorcontrollers.EveryADChasitsownspecificationandadvantagesonthebaseoftherequirement.HerewearegoingtodiscussADC0804ICwhichisknownasthelowvoltage8-bitAnalogtoDigitalConverter.ADC0804isalowvoltageICusetoconvertthelowvoltageanalogsignaltoan8-bitdigitalsignal.Itworkswith0-5Volts,has1Analoginputand8outputpins.ADC0804comeswithaninternalclockbuttoincreaseorchangetheclockthecyclewecouldusetheexternalclock.Alwayskeepinmindthatconversionspeedcannotbefasterthan110useitherweareusinganinternalclockorexternalclock.CatalogADC0804DescriptionADC0804PinConfigurationandFunctionsADC0804FunctionalBlockDiagramADC0804FeaturesWheretoUseADC0804HowtoUseADC0804ADC0804TypicalApplicationADC0804ApplicationsADC0804PhysicalDimensionsComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityADC0804PinConfigurationandFunctionsADC0804FunctionalBlockDiagramADC0804FeaturesEasytointerfacewithallMicroprocessorsorworksStand-alone.Single-channel8-bitADCmoduleOn-chipClockavailable,noneedforexternalOscillator(Clock)Digitaloutputvariousfrom0to255WhenVref=5V,forevery19.53mVofanalogvaluetherewillbetheriseofonebitonthedigitalside(Stepsize)Availablein20-pinPDIP,SOICpackagesWheretoUseADC0804TheADC0804isacommonlyusedADCmodule,forprojectswereanexternalADCisrequired.Itisa20-pinSinglechannel8-bitADCmodule.MeaningitcanmeasureoneADCvaluefrom0Vto5Vandtheprecisionwhenvoltagereference(Vrefpin9)is+5Vis19.53mV(Stepsize).Thatisforeveryincreaseof19.53mVoninputsidetherewillbeanincreaseof1bitattheoutputside.ThisICisveryIdealtousewithMicroprocessorslikeRaspberryPi,Beagleboneetc.OreventouseasastandaloneADCmodule.EveryADCmodulerequiresaclocktofunction;thisICcomeswithitsowninternalclocksoyoudonthavetoworryaboutit.Hence,ifyouarelookingforacompactADCmodulewithadecentresolutionof8-bitthenthisICisforyou.HowtoUseADC0804SincetheICcomeswithaninternalclockwedonotneedmanycomponentstomakeitwork.HowevertomaketheinternalclocktoworkwehavetouseanRCcircuit.TheICshouldbepoweredby+5Vandbothgroundpinsshouldbetiedtocircuitground.TodesigntheRCcircuitsimplyusearesistorofvalue10kandcapacitorof100pf(approx)andconnectthemtoCLKRandCLKINpinsasshowninthecircuitbelow.Thechipselect(CS)andRead(R)pinshouldalsobegrounded.TheVrefpinisleftfreebecausebydefaultwithoutanyconnectionitwillbeconnectedto+5V.ThedigitaloutputwillbeobtainedfromthepinsDB0toDB7andtheanalogvoltageshouldbeconnectedtoVin(+)pinasshowninthecircuit.Alsonotethatanotherendofthevoltagesource(sensor/module)shouldalsobegroundedtothecircuitfortheADCconversiontowork.Now,fortheADCConversiontostartwehaveomaketheWrite(WR)pintogohighmomentarythiscanbedoneconnectingthepintoI/OofMPUandtogglingithighbeforeeveryADCread.OnlyifthisisdonetheADCvalueontheoutputsidewillbeupdated.Intheabovecircuit,Ihaveusedapotentiometertofeedinavariablevoltageof0Vto5VtotheVinpinandthepresentVoltageisreadusingavoltmeter.Asyoucanseeintheimagethevoltagevalueis1.55Vandtheresultingbinaryvalueis01001111.LetusseehowthisbinaryvaluecanbeconvertedtoAnalogvalue,sincewewillneeditwhileprogramming/designing.BinaryValue=01001111ConvertingtoDecimal=(0*128)+(1*64)+(0*32)+(0*16)+(1*8)+(1*4)+(1*2)+(1*1)=79AnalogVoltage=DecimalValue*Stepsize=79*19.53mV=1.54VTheobtainedvalueis1.54Vandthemeasuredvoltageis1.55Vwhichareverymuchclose.SothisishowyouuseanADC0804IC.ADC0804TypicalApplicationADC0804ApplicationsTransducer-to-microprocessorinterfaceDigitalthermometerDigitally-controlledthermostatMicroprocessor-basedmonitoringandcontrolsystemsADC0804PhysicalDimensionsDual-In-LinePackage(J)OrderNumberADC0801LJ,ADC0802LJ,ADC0801LCJ,ADC0802LCJ,ADC0803LCJorADC0804LCJADC0802LJ/883or5962-9096601MRANSPackageNumberJ20ASOPackage(M)OrderNumberADC0802LCWM,ADC0803LCWMorADC0804LCWMNSPackageNumberM20BMoldedDual-In-LinePackage(N)OrderNumberADC0801LCN,ADC0802LCN,ADC0803LCN,ADC0804LCNorADC0805LCNNSPackageNumberN20AMoldedChipCarrierPackage(V)OrderNumberADC0802LCV,ADC0803LCVorADC0804LCVNSPackageNumberV20AComponentDatasheetADC0804DatasheetFAQWhatisadc0804?TheADC0804isacommonlyusedADCmodule,forprojectswereanexternalADCisrequired.Itisa20-pinSinglechannel8-bitADCmodule.MeaningitcanmeasureoneADCvaluefrom0Vto5Vandtheprecisionwhenvoltagereference(Vrefpin9)is+5Vis19.53mV(Stepsize).Whatisthedifferencebetweenadc0804andmax1112?ADC0804isusedforparallelADCandMAX1112isusedforserialADC.Whichpinoftheadc0804indicatestheendofconversion?PIN-5Interrupt(INTR)ThispinautomaticallygoeslowwhentheconversionisdonebyADC0804orwhenthedigitalequivalentofanaloginputisready.PIN-6Vin(+)connectinputanalogsensorpin/inputvoltagetothispin.WhatareADCandDAC?ADCstandsforAnalogtoDigitalConverter,whichconvertstheanalogsignalintothedigitalsignal.DACstandsforDigitaltoAnalogConverteranditconvertstheDigitalsignalintoananalogsignal.Whatistheresolutionof8bitADC?Forexample,anADCwitharesolutionof8bitscanencodeananaloginputtoonein256differentlevels(28=256).Thevaluescanrepresenttherangesfrom0to255(i.e.asunsignedintegers)orfrom128to127(i.e.assignedinteger),dependingontheapplication.

L298DescriptionTheL298isanintegratedmonolithiccircuitina15-leadMultiwattandPowerSO20packages.Itisahighvoltage,ahighcurrentdualfull-bridgedriverdesignedtoacceptstandardTTLlogiclevelsanddriveinductiveloadssuchasrelays,solenoids,DCandsteppingmotors.Twoenableinputsareprovidedtoenableordisablethedeviceindependentlyoftheinputsignals.Theyaremostlyused:whenitisneededtooperatedifferentloadslikemotorsandsolenoidetcwhereanH-BridgeisrequiredwhenhighpowermotordriverisrequiredwhenthecontrolunitcanonlyprovideTTLoutputswhencurrentcontrolandPWMoperablesingle-chipdeviceisneededCatalogL298DescriptionL298CircuitDiagramL298FeaturesandSpecificationsL298PinConfigurationsandFunctionsL298PackageOutlineandMechanicalDataWheretouseL298ICHowtouseL298ICL298ApplicationsL298ComparewithOtherMotorsProductManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityL298CircuitDiagramL298FeaturesandSpecificationsOperatingsupplyvoltageupto46vTotalDCcurrentupto4A25wratedpower2enablecontrolterminalstoenableordevicewithoutinputtingsignals.Abletodriveatwo-phasesteppermotor,four-phasesteppermotorortwoDCmotorsLowsaturationvoltageOvertemperatureprotectionLogical0inputvoltageupto1.5V(highnoiseimmunity)Operatingtemperature:-23Cto130CStorageTemperature:-40Cto150CL298PinConfigurationsandFunctionsPinoutFunctions:L298PackageOutlineandMechanicalDataL298(Multiwatt15V)L298(Multiwatt15H)L298(PowerSO20)WheretouseL298ICHereareafewareaswhereL298ispreferred:L298isbasicallyusedwhereH-BRIDGEisrequired.Whereahighpowermotordriverisrequired.Inthemarked,thereareH-bridgeslikeL293whichareusedforthelowpoweredapplicationwhileL298isspeciallydesignedforthehighpowerapplications.WherecurrentcontrolandPWMoperablesingle-chipdeviceisneeded.ThechipispreferredwhencontrolunitcanonlyprovideTTLoutputAlso,thechipdoesnotneedanyadditionalcomponentstobeinstalledforoperating.HowtouseL298ICForunderstandingtheworkingofL298IC,considerthesimplecircuitconfigurationshownbelow.HereweareusingoneofH-BRIDGESofl298IC.AsshowninthecircuitwehavetwopushbuttonsQ1andQ2whichactascontrolsinputsforbridge-A.TheselogicinputsareprovidedbyMicrocontrollerorMicroprocessorinapplicationcircuits.ThefourdiodesareFLYBACKdiodesusedforprotectingtheICforminductivevoltagespikes.Theenablepinispulledhighthrougharesistorsobridge-Awillbefunctioningallthetime.Ifitspulledtogroundthebridge-Awillbedisablednomattertheinputcontrollogic.AfterallthecircuitaresetupweneedtopressthebuttonsQ1andQ2tochangetheflowofcurrentbetweenpinsOUT1andOUT2.Thelogiccontroltableisgivenbelow.INPUTSFUNCTIONQ1=HIGH,Q2=LOWForwardcurrentQ1=LOW,Q2=HIGHReversecurrentQ1=Q2FastMOTORstopSoifonlyQ1ispressed,thecurrentflowsfromOUT1toOUT2.WiththatMOTORrotatesclockwisedirection.IfonlyQ2ispressed,thecurrentflowsfromOUT2toOUT1.WiththatMOTORrotatesanti-clockwisedirection.IfbothbuttonsarepressedorreleasedsimultaneouslytheMOTORcomestostopimmediately.Inthisway,wecancontrolthemotorrotationusingtheL298chip.L298ApplicationsRoboticarmsRobotsRelaydriversVendingmachinesIndustrialmachinesEngineeringsystemsMeasuringinstrumentsHobbyprojectsL298ComparewithOtherMotorsWithsomanymotordriverscurrentlysuchasServoMotorsandsteppermotors,whatreallyarethedifferencesbetweenthemotordriversandwhichonetochoose?Noworries,aswehavecraftedatablejustforyoutocomparethevariousmotordriverssoyouknowwhichmotordriverfitsthebestforyourproject.TypeMotorDriversChipActuatorWorkingVoltageWorkingCurrentGroveGroveI2CMotorDriverL298N2DCmotoror1Stepper6v-15v2.0Aeach(Max)GroveI2CMotorDriver(TB6612FNG)TB6612FNG2DCmotoror1Stepper2.5v-13.5v(5Avg,15vMax)1.2A(Avg)to3.2A(Max)GroveI2CMiniMotorDriverDRV88302DCMotor2.75v-6.8v0.2Ato1AeachShieldMotorShieldV2.0L298N2DCmotoror1Stepper6v-15v2.0Aeach(Max)4AMotorShieldMC339322DCMotor6v-28v5.0Aeach(Max)BrushlessMotorShield(TB6605FTG)TB6605FTG1DCBrushlessMotor9v-24v-ProductManufacturerSTmicroelectronics(ST)groupwasestablishedinJune1988asaresultofthemergerofSGSMicroelectronicsofItalyandThomsonOfFrance.InMay1998SGS-ThomsonMicroelectronicschangeditsnametoSTmicroelectronicsLimited.Itistheworldslargestmanufacturerofdedicatedanalogchipsandpowerconversionchips,theworldslargestsupplierofindustrialsemiconductorsandset-topboxchips,andaworldleaderindiscretecomponents,mobilephonecameramodules,andautomotiveintegratedcircuits.ComponentDatasheetL298DatasheetFAQWhatisl298n?ThisL298NMotorDriverModuleisahighpowermotordrivermodulefordrivingDCandStepperMotors.ThismoduleconsistsofanL298motordriverICanda78M055Vregulator.L298NModulecancontrolupto4DCmotors,or2DCmotorswithdirectionalandspeedcontrol.Whatistheuseofl298n?TheL298NisadualH-BridgemotordriverwhichallowsspeedanddirectioncontroloftwoDCmotorsatthesametime.ThemodulecandriveDCmotorsthathavevoltagesbetween5and35V,withapeakcurrentupto2A.Howdoesl298ncontrolDCmotorspeed?1.IfyousendaHIGHsignaltotheenable1pin,motorAisreadytobecontrolledandatthemaximumspeed;2.IfyousendaLOWsignaltotheenable1pin,motorAturnsoff;3.IfyousendaPWMsignal,youcancontrolthespeedofthemotor.Themotorspeedisproportionaltothedutycycle.Whatisl298nmotordrivermodule?ThisL298NMotorDriverModuleisahighpowermotordrivermodulefordrivingDCandStepperMotors.ThismoduleconsistsofanL298motordriverICanda78M055Vregulator.L298NModulecancontrolupto4DCmotors,or2DCmotorswithdirectionalandspeedcontrol.Howdoesl298nmotordriverwork?TheL298NisadualH-BridgemotordriverwhichallowsspeedanddirectioncontroloftwoDCmotorsatthesametime.ThemodulecandriveDCmotorsthathavevoltagesbetween5and35V,withapeakcurrentupto2A.HowdoIuseanl298motordriverwithArduino?Startbyconnectingpowersupplytothemotors.Inourexperiment,weareusingDCGearboxMotors(alsoknownasTTmotors)thatareusuallyfoundintwo-wheel-driverobots.Theyareratedfor3to12V.So,wewillconnecttheexternal12VpowersupplytotheVCCterminal.WhatisthefunctionoftheHbridge?AnH-bridgeisanelectroniccircuitthatswitchesthepolarityofavoltageappliedtoaload.ThesecircuitsareoftenusedinroboticsandotherapplicationstoallowDCmotorstorunforwardsorbackwards.Whatisthedifferencebetweenl293dandl298n?L293isaquadruplehalf-HdriverwhileL298isdualfull-Hdriver,i.e,inL293allfourinput-outputlinesareindependentwhileinL298,ahalfHdrivercannotbeusedindependently,onlyfullHdriverhastobeused....Hence,heatsinkisprovidedinL298.DescriptionLM317isaadjustable3-terminalpositive-voltageregulator,thisbolgcoversLM317regulatoralternative,datasheet,applications,featuresandotherinformationonhowtouseandwheretousethisdevice.ABasicIntroductiontoLM317VoltageRegulatorCatalogDescriptionLM317PinoutLM317FeaturesLM317ApplicationsLM317CircuitLM317ParametersLM317CADModelLM317AdvantageLM317ElectricalCharacteristicsLM317PackageLM317AlternativesLM317EquivalentsWheretouseLM317HowtouseLM317LM317ManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityLM317PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1AdjustThispinsadjuststheoutputvoltage2OutputVoltage(Vout)Theregulatedoutputvoltagesetbytheadjustpincanbeobtainedfromthispin3InputVoltage(Vin)TheinputvoltagewhichhastoberegulatedisgiventothispinLM317FeaturesOutputvoltagerangeadjustablefrom1.25Vto37VOutputcurrentgreaterthan1.5AInternalshort-circuitcurrentlimitingThermaloverloadprotectionOutputsafe-areacompensationLM317ApplicationsATCAsolutionsDLP:3Dbiometrics,hyperspectralimaging,opticalnetworking,andspectroscopyDVRandDVSDesktopPCsDigitalsignageandstillcamerasECGelectrocardiogramsEVHEVchargers:levels1,2,and3ElectronicshelflabelsEnergyharvestingEthernetswitchesFemtobasestationsFingerprintandirisbiometricsHVAC:heating,ventilating,andairconditioningHigh-speeddataacquisitionandgenerationHydraulicvalvesIPphones:wiredandwirelessIntelligentoccupancysensingMotorcontrols:brushedDC,brushlessDC,lowvoltage,permanentmagnet,andsteppermotorsPoint-to-pointmicrowavebackhaulsPowerbanksolutionsPowerlinecommunicationmodemsPoweroverethernet(PoE)PowerqualitymetersPowersubstationcontrolsPrivatebranchexchanges(PBX)ProgrammablelogiccontrollersRFIDreadersRefrigeratorsSignalorwaveformgeneratorsSoftware-definedradios(SDR)Washingmachines:high-endandlow-endX-rays:baggagescanners,medical,anddentalLM317CircuitLM317ParametersOutputoptionsAdjustableOutputIout(Max)(A)1.5Vin(Max)(V)40Vin(Min)(V)3Vout(Max)(V)37Vout(Min)(V)1.25Noise(uVrms)38Iq(Typ)(mA)5ThermalresistanceJA(C/W)24Approx.price(US$)1ku|0.14Loadcapacitance(Min)(F)0RatingCatalogRegulatedoutputs(#)1FeaturesAccuracy(%)5PSRR@100KHz(dB)38Dropoutvoltage(Vdo)(Typ)(mV)2000Operatingtemperaturerange(C)0to125IhsManufacturerTEXASINSTRUMENTSINCBrandNameTexasInstrumentsLM317CADModelPackagePinsDownloadDDPAK/TO-263(KTT)3ViewoptionsSOT-223(DCY)4ViewoptionsTO-220(KCS)3ViewoptionsTO-220(KCT)3ViewoptionsLM317ElectricalCharacteristicsOverrecommendedrangesofoperatingvitualjunctiontemperature(unlessotherwisenoted)LM317PackageDDPAK/TO-263(KTT)SOT-223(DCY)TO-220(KCS)TO-220(KCT)LM317AlternativesSharethesamefunctionalityandpinoutbutisnotanequivalenttothecompareddevice:LM7805,LM7806,LM7809,LM7812,LM7905,LM7912,LM117V33,XC6206P332MR.LM317EquivalentsLT1086,LM1117(SMD),PB137,LM337(NegativeVariableVoltageregulator)WheretouseLM317WhenitcomestovariablevoltageregulationrequirementsLM317wouldmostlikelybethefirstchoice.Apartfromusingitasavariablevoltageregulator,itcanalsobeusedasafixedvoltageregulator,currentlimiter,Batterycharger,ACvoltageregulatorandevenasanadjustablecurrentregulator.OnenotabledrawbackofthisICisthatithasavoltagedropofabout2.5acrossitduringregulation,soifyoulookingtoavoidthatproblemlookintotheotherequivalentICsgivenabove.So,ifyouarelookingforavariablevoltageregulatortodelivercurrentupto1.5AthenthisregulatorICmightbetherightchoiceforyourapplication.HowtouseLM317LM317isa3-terminalregulatorICanditisverysimpletouse.Ithasmanyapplicationcircuitsinitsdatasheet,butthisICisknownforbeingusedasavariablevoltageregulator.So,letslookintohowtousethisICasavariablevoltageregulator.AssaidearliertheIChas3pins,inwhichtheinputvoltageissuppliedtopin3(VIN)thenusingapairofresistors(potentialdivider)wesetavoltageatpin1(Adjust)whichwilldecidetheoutputvoltageoftheICthatisgivenoutatpin2(VOUT).Nowtomakeitactasavariablevoltageregulatorwehavetosetvariablevoltagesatpin1whichcanbedonebyusingapotentiometerinthepotentialdivider.Thebelowcircuitisdesignedtotake12V(youcansupplyupto24V)asinputandregulateitfrom1.25Vto10V.TheResistorR1(1K)andthepotentiometer(10k)togethercreatesapotentialdifferenceatadjustpinwhichregulatestheoutputpinaccordingly.TheformulaetocalculatetheOutputvoltagebasedonthevalueofresistorsisVOUT=1.25(1+(R2/R1))Now,letsverifythisformulafortheabovecircuit.ThevalueofR1is1000ohmsandthevalueofR2(potentiometer)is5000becauseitisa10kpotentiometerplacedat50%(50/100of1000is5000).Vout=1.25(1+(5000/1000))=1.256=7.5VAndthesimulationshows7.7Vwhichisprettymuchclose.Youcanvarytheoutputvoltagebysimplyvaryingthepotentiometer.Inourcircuit,amotorisconnectedasaloadwhichconsumesaround650mAyoucanconnectanyloadupto1.5A.Thesameformulaecanalsobeusedtocalculatethevalueofresistorforyourequiredoutputvoltage.Oneeasywaytodothisistousethisonlinecalculatortorandomlysubstitutethevalueofresistorsyouhaveandcheckwhichoutputvoltageyouwillget.LM317ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.ComponentDatasheetLM317DatasheetFAQWhatislm317usedfor?TheLM317servesawidevarietyofapplicationsincludinglocal,oncardregulation.Thisdevicecanalsobeusedtomakeaprogrammableoutputregulator,orbyconnectingafixedresistorbetweentheadjustmentandoutput,theLM317canbeusedasaprecisioncurrentregulator.Whatisthemaximuminputvoltageoflm317?TheLM317isanadjustablevoltagelinearregulatorthatcanoutput1.2537Vatupto1.5Acurrentwithaninputvoltagerangeof340V.Whatisthedifferencebetweenlm317andlm317t?Member.Thereisnofunctionaldifferenceastheyareoneinthesame.TheTattheendjustindicatesthatitsinaTO-220package.Theyusuallytagonextrathingsafterthepartnametoreferencethingslikepackage,temprange,etc.Islm317atransistor?TheLM317isanadjustablethree-terminalpositive-voltageregulatorcapableofsupplyingmorethan1.5Aoveranoutput-voltagerangeof1.25Vto32V....Byusingaheat-sinkedpasstransistorsuchasa2N3055(Q1)wecanproduceseveralampsofcurrentfarabovethe1.5ampsoftheLM317.Howdoesanlm317work?Thecircuitconsistsofalow-sideresistorandhigh-sideresistorconnectedinseriesformingaresistivevoltagedividerwhichisapassivelinearcircuitusedtoproduceanoutputvoltagewhichisafractionofitsinputvoltage.WhatisIClm317?TheLM317deviceisanadjustablethree-terminalpositive-voltageregulatorcapableofsupplyingmorethan1.5Aoveranoutput-voltagerangeof1.25Vto37V.Itrequiresonlytwoexternalresistorstosettheoutputvoltage.Thedevicefeaturesatypicallineregulationof0.01%andtypicalloadregulationof0.1%.HowdoIknowifmylm317isworking?Testinglm317t.Ifyoulooktotheic,thelegstowardsyou,therightoneistheinputpin.youmustseeadifferenceofminimum1.2Vbetweenthetwopins,otherwisetheICisfaulty.furthermore,thefirsttestistoseeifyouhaveinputvoltage!Whatistheworkingpricipleoflm317?LM317worksonaverysimpleprinciple.Itisavariablevoltageregulatori.e.supportsdifferentoutputvoltagelevelsforaconstantappliedinputvoltagesupply.HowtomakeasimplevoltageregulatorcircuitusingLM317?

DescriptionLM339(Quaddifferentialcomparator)consistoffourindependentvoltagecomparators.Itisacommonintegratedcircuitandismainlyusedinhigh-voltagedigitallogicgatecircuits.UsingLM339caneasilyformvariousvoltagecomparatorcircuitsandoscillatorcircuits.CatalogDescriptionComponentDatasheetLM339PinoutBasicParametersFeaturesApplicationPinFunctionListCircuitDiagramPackageElectricalCharacteristicsInstructionsProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityComponentDatasheetComparatorDatasheetLM339DatasheetLM339PinoutLM339PinoutBasicParametersParameternameSymbolNumericalvalueunitsupplyvoltageVCC18or36VDifferentialmodeinputvoltageVID36VCommonmodeinputvoltageVI-0.3~VCCVPowerdissipationPd570mWWorkingenvironmenttemperatureTopr0to+70℃StoragetemperatureTstg-65to150℃FeaturesLowvoltageoffset,generally2mVThecommon-modevoltagerangeisverylarge,from0vtothepowersupplyvoltageminus1.5vTheinternalresistancelimittothesignalsourceisverywideSingleSupplyOperation:2-36VDualSupplyOperation:1V-18VThepotentialofoutputcanbeselectedflexiblyandconvenientlyLM339issimilartooperationalamplifierwithnon-adjustablegain.Eachcomparatorhastwoinputsandoneoutput.Oneofthetwoinputterminalsiscalledthenon-invertinginputterminal,whichisrepresentedby+,andtheotheriscalledtheinvertinginputterminal,whichisrepresentedby-.Whencomparingtwovoltages,addafixedvoltageasareferencevoltageatanyinputterminal,andaddasignalvoltagetobecomparedattheotherterminal.Whenthevoltageatthe+terminalishigherthanthe-terminal,theoutputtubewillcutoff.Whenthevoltageofthe-terminalishigherthanthe+terminal,theoutputtubeissaturated.Thevoltagedifferencebetweenthetwoinputterminalsisgreaterthan10mV,whichcanensurethattheoutputcanbereliablyswitchedfromonestatetoanotherstate.Therefore,itisidealtousetheLM339inweaksignaloccasions.TheoutputterminalofLM339isequivalenttoacrystaltransistorthatisnotconnectedtothecollectorresistor.Whenusing,theoutputterminaltothepositivepowersupplygenerallyneedstobeconnectedtoaresistor(calledpull-upresistor).Choosingpull-upresistorswithdifferentresistancevalueswillaffectthevalueofthehighpotentialattheoutput.Becausewhentheoutputtransistorisoff,itscollectorvoltagebasicallydependsonthevalueofthepull-upresistorandtheload.Inaddition,theoutputofeachcomparatorisallowedtobeconnectedtogether.ApplicationIndustrialAutomotiveInfotainmentandClustersBodyControlModulePowerSupervisionOscillatorsPeakDetectorsLogicVoltageTranslationPinFunctionListPinNumberPinfunctionSymbolPinNumberPinfunctionSymbol1Output2OUT28Invertinginput31N-(3)2Output1OUT19Forwardinput31N+(3)3PowerSupplyVCC+10Invertinginput41N-(4)4Invertinginput11N-(1)11Forwardinput41N+(4)5Positiveinput11N+(1)12PowerSupplyVcc6Invertinginput21N-(2)13Output4OUT47Forwardinput2OUT2(2)14Output3OUT3CircuitDiagramLM339CircuitDiagramPackageLM339PackageElectricalCharacteristicsVCC=5.0V,Tamb=25℃,unlessotherwisestatedParameternameSymbolTestconditionsMinimumTypicalMaximumunitInputoffsetvoltageVIOVCM=0toVCC-1.5VO(P)=1.4V,Rs=0-1.05.0mVInputoffsetcurrentIIO--550nAInputbiascurrentIb--65250nACommonmodeinputvoltageVIC-0-VCC-1.5VQuiescentCurrentICCVCC=+5V,noload-1.12.0mAVCC=+30V,noload-1.32.5mAVoltagegainAVVCC=15V,RL>15k-200-V/mVSinkcurrentIsinkVi(-)>1V,Vi(+)=0V,Vo(p)<1.5V616-mAOutputleakagecurrentIOLEVi(-)=0V,Vi(+)=1V,VO=5V-0.1-nAInstructionsTheLM339seriesarehighgain,widebandwidthdeviceswhich,likemostcomparators,caneasilyoscillateiftheoutputleadisinadvertentlyallowedtocapacitivelycoupletotheinputsviastraycapacitance.Thisshowsuponlyduringtheoutputvoltagetransitionintervalsasthecomparatorchangesstates.Powersupplybypassingisnotrequiredtosolvethisproblem.StandardPCboardlayoutishelpfulasitreducesstrayinput-outputcoupling.Reducingthisinputresistorsto10kreducesthefeedbacksignallevelsandfinally,addingevenasmallamount(1to10mv)ofpositivefeedback(hysteresis)causessucharapidtransitionthatoscillationsduetostrayfeedbackarenotpossible.SimplysocketingtheICandattachingresistorstothepinswillcauseinput-outputoscillationsduringthesmalltransitionintervalsunlesshysteresisisused.Iftheinputsignalisapulsewaveform,withrelativelyfastriseandfalltimes,hysteresisisnotrequired.Allpinsofanyunusedcomparatorsshouldbetiedtothenegativesupply.ThebiasnetworkofLM339establishesadraincurrentwhichisindependentofthemagnitudeofthepowersupplyvoltageovertherangeoffrom2Vto30V.Itisusuallyunnecessarytouseabypasscapacitoracrossthepowersupplyline.ThedifferentialinputvoltagemaybelargerthanV+withoutdamagingthedevice.Protectionshouldbeprovidedtopreventtheinputvoltagesfromgoingnegativemorethan-0.3VDC(at25℃).Aninputclampdiodecanbeusedasshownintheapplicationssection.TheoutputoftheLM339istheuncommittedcollectorofagrounded-emitterNPNoutputtransistor.ManycollectorscanbetiedtogethertoprovideanoutputORingfunction.Anoutputpull-upresistorcanbeconnectedtoanyavailablepowersupplyvoltagewithinthepermittedsupplyvoltagerangeandthereisnorestrictiononthisvoltageduetothemagnitudeofthevoltagewhichisappliedtotheV+terminaloftheLM1339package.TheoutputcanalsobeusedasasimpleSPSTswitchtoground(whenapull-upresistorisnotused).Theamountofcurrentwhichtheoutputdevicecansinkislimitedbythedriveavailable(whichisindependentofV+)andtheofthisdevice.Whenthemaximumcurrentlimitisreached(approximately16mA),theoutputtransistorwillcomeoutofsaturationandtheoutputvoltagewillriseveryrapidly.Theoutputsaturationvoltageislimitedbytheapproximately60RSAToftheoutputtransistor.Thelowoffsetvoltageoftheoutputtransistor(1mV)allowstheoutputtoclampessentiallytogroundlevelforsmallloadcurrents.ProductManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.FAQWhatisLM339?LM339isavoltagecomparatorICfromLMx39xseriesandismanufacturedbymanyindustries.Thedevicesconsistoffourindependentvoltagecomparatorsthataredesignedtooperatefromasinglepowersupply.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM324andLM339?TheLM324hasacomplementaryoutputwhiletheLM339isopencollector.Inthecomplementaryoutput,currentcanflowineitherdirectionasrequired(eithersourceorsink)whiletheopencollectoroutputcanonlysinkcurrent.HowdoesLM339comparatorwork?TheLM339isaquadopampcomparator.Acomparatorworksbyasimpleconcept.Eachopampofacomparatorhas2inputs,ainvertinginputandanoninvertinginput.Iftheinvertinginputvoltageisgreaterthanthenoninvertinginput,thentheoutputisdrawntoground.Whatiscomparatoric?Acomparatorisanelectroniccircuit,whichcomparesthetwoinputsthatareappliedtoitandproducesanoutput.Theoutputvalueofthecomparatorindicateswhichoftheinputsisgreaterorlesser.Pleasenotethatcomparatorfallsundernon-linearapplicationsofICs.WhatisthereplacementforLM339?LM311,LM324,LM397,LM139,LM239,LM2901Whatisacomparatorcircuit?Acomparatorcircuitcomparestwovoltagesandoutputseithera1(thevoltageattheplusside;VDDintheillustration)ora0(thevoltageatthenegativeside)toindicatewhichislarger.Comparatorsareoftenused,forexample,tocheckwhetheraninputhasreachedsomepredeterminedvalue.WhatistheuseofLM339?LM339isusedinapplicationswhereacomparisonbetweentwovoltagesignalsisrequired.Inadditionwithfourofthosecomparatorsonboardthedevicecancomparefourpairsofvoltagesignalsatatimewhichcomesinhandyinsomeapplications.DescriptionThe74HC595isanhighspeedCMOS8-BITSHIFTREGISTERS/OUTPUTLATCHES(3-STATE)fabricatedwithsilicongateC2MOStechnology.Thisdevicecontainsan8-bitserial-in,parallel-outshiftregisterthatfeedsan8-bitD-typestorageregister.Thestorageregisterhas83-STATEoutputs.Separateclocksareprovidedforboththeshiftregisterandthestorageregister.Theshiftregisterhasadirect-overridingclear,serialinput,andserialoutput(standard)pinsforcascading.Boththeshiftregisterandstorageregisterusepositive-edgetriggeredclocks.Ifbothclocksareconnectedtogether,theshiftregisterstatewillalwaysbeoneclockpulseaheadofthestorageregister.Allinputsareequippedwithprotectioncircuitsagainststaticdischargeandtransientexcessvoltage.TheShiftRegister:Explained[74HC595]CatalogDescriptionFeaturesApplicationPinoutLogicDiagramParametersComponentDatasheetPackageProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityFeaturesLowquiescentcurrent:80AmaximumLowinputcurrent:1Amaximum8-bitserial-in,parallel-outshiftregisterwithstorageWideoperatingvoltagerange:2V~6VShiftregisterhasdirectclearGuaranteedshiftfrequency:DCto30MHzPackage:SOP16ApplicationSerial-to-paralleldataconversionRemotecontrolholdingregisterPinoutPinNo.SymbolNameandFunction1,2,3,4,5,6,7,15QAtoQHDataoutput8GNDGround(0V)9QHSerialdataoutput10SCLRShiftregisterclearinput11SCKShiftregisterclockinput12RCKStorageregisterclockinput13GOutputenableinput14SISerialdatainput16VCCPositivesupplyvoltageLogicDiagramParametersBrandNameDiodesLow-powerconsumptionWhenTA=25℃,Icc=4A(MAX)LowquiescentcurrentMaximum80ALowinputcurrentMaximum1AWideoperatingvoltagerange2V-6VPackageDIP16/SOP16ComponentDatasheetDatasheet74HC595DatasheetPackageProductManufacturerDiodesIncorporatedisaleadingglobalmanufacturerandsupplierofhigh-qualityapplicationspecificstandardproductswithinthebroaddiscrete,logic,analog,andmixed-signalsemiconductormarkets.DiodescorporateheadquartersandAmericassalesofficearelocatedinPlano,Texas,andMilpitas,California.Diodesservetheconsumerelectronics,computing,communications,industrial,andautomotivemarkets.Diodesproductsincludediodes,rectifiers,transistors,MOSFETs,protectiondevices,function-specificarrays,singlegatelogic,amplifiersandcomparators,Hall-effectandtemperaturesensors,powermanagementdevices,includingLEDdrivers,AC-DCconvertersandcontrollers,DC-DCswitchingandlinearvoltageregulators,andvoltagereferencesalongwithspecialfunctiondevices,suchasUSBpowerswitches,loadswitches,voltagesupervisors,andmotorcontrollers.FAQWhatis74HC595?74HC595isashiftregisterwhichworksonSerialINParallelOUTprotocol.Itreceivesdataseriallyfromthemicrocontrollerandthensendsoutthisdatathroughparallelpins.Wecanincreaseouroutputpinsby8usingthesinglechip.Whatisa74hc595n?8-bitShiftRegister74HC595NAshiftregisterisachipyoucanusetocontrolmanyoutputs(8here)atthesametimewhileonlyusingafewpins(3here)ofyourArduino.Howdoesashiftregisterwork?Shiftregistersholdthedataintheirmemorywhichismovedorshiftedtotheirrequiredpositionsoneachclockpulse.Eachclockpulseshiftsthecontentsoftheregisteronebitpositiontoeithertheleftortheright.How74HC595ShiftRegiesterworks?The595hastworegisters(whichcanbethoughtofasmemorycontainers),eachwithjust8bitsofdata.ThefirstoneiscalledtheShiftRegister.TheShiftRegisterliesdeepwithintheICcircuits,quietlyacceptinginput.Howdoesan8bitshiftregisterwork?TheSN74HC595Nisasimple8-bitshiftregisterIC.Simplyput,thisshiftregisterisadevicethatallowsadditionalinputsoroutputstobeaddedtoamicrocontrollerbyconvertingdatabetweenparallelandserialformats.YourchosenmicroprocessorisabletocommunicatewiththeTheSN74HC595Nusingserialinformationthengathersoroutputsinformationinaparallel(multi-pin)format.Essentiallyittakes8bitsfromtheserialinputandthenoutputsthemto8pins.

DescriptionTheMMBT3904LT1GisaNPNsiliconBipolarTransistor,designedforuseinlinear,lowerpowersurfacemountandswitchingapplications.MMBT3904LT1GHowdoesatransistorwork?CatalogMMBT3904LT1GDescriptionMMBT3904LT1GPinoutMMBT3904LT1GFeaturesMMBT3904LT1GMarkingDiagramMMBT3904LT1GCADModelsMMBT3904LT1GFunctionalEquivalentsMMBT3904LT1GPackageOutlinesMMBT3904LT1GPopularitybyRegionMMBT3904LT1GMarketingPriceAnalysisMMBT3904LT1GManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityMMBT3904LT1GPinoutMMBT3904LT1GFeaturesTheseDevicesarePbFree,HalogenFree/BFRFreeandareRoHSCompliantSPrefixforAutomotiveandOtherApplicationsRequiringUniqueSiteandControlChangeRequirements;AECQ101QualifiedandPPAPCapableMMBT3904LT1GMarkingDiagramMMBT3904LT1GCADModelsPartSymbolFootprint3DModelMMBT3904LT1GFunctionalEquivalentsMMBT3904LT1GPackageOutlinesMMBT3904LT1GPopularitybyRegionMMBT3904LT1GMarketingPriceAnalysisMMBT3904LT1GManufacturerONSemiconductor(Nasdaq:ON)isdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ONSemiconductoroperatesaresponsive,reliable,world-classsupplychainandqualityprogram,andanetworkofmanufacturingfacilities,salesofficesanddesigncentersinkeymarketsthroughoutNorthAmerica,Europe,andtheAsiaPacificregions.ComponentDatasheetMMBT3904LT1GDatasheetFAQWhatisMMBT3904LT1G?TheMMBT3904LT1GisaNPNsiliconBipolarTransistor,designedforuseinlinear,lowerpowersurfacemountandswitchingapplications.Whatisatransistor?Atransistorisasemiconductordeviceusedtoamplifyorswitchelectronicsignalsandelectricalpower.Itiscomposedofsemiconductormaterialusuallywithatleastthreeterminalsforconnectiontoanexternalcircuit.WhatisPNPtransistor?APNPtransistorisabipolarjunctiontransistorconstructedbysandwichinganN-typesemiconductorbetweentwoP-typesemiconductors.APNPtransistorhasthreeterminalsaCollector(C),Emitter(E)andBase(B).ThePNPtransistorbehavesliketwoPNjunctionsdiodesconnectedbacktoback.Whatdoesatransistordo?Atransistor,alsoknownasaBJT(BipolarJunctionTransistor),isacurrentdrivensemiconductordevicewhichcanbeusedtocontroltheflowofelectriccurrentinwhichasmallamountofcurrentintheBaseleadcontrolsalargercurrentbetweentheCollectorandEmitter.Howmanytypesoftransistorarethere?Transistorsarebasicallyclassifiedintotwotypes;theyareBipolarJunctionTransistors(BJT)andFieldEffectTransistors(FET).TheBJTsareagainclassifiedintoNPNandPNPtransistors.TheFETtransistorsareclassifiedintoJFETandMOSFET.Whatistransistordiagram?DiagramAshowsanNPNtransistorwhichisoftenusedasatypeofswitch.Asmallcurrentorvoltageatthebaseallowsalargervoltagetoflowthroughtheothertwoleads(fromthecollectortotheemitter).ThecircuitshownindiagramBisbasedonanNPNtransistor.Whentheswitchispressedacurrentpassesthroughtheresistorintothebaseofthetransistor.Thetransistorthenallowscurrenttoflowfromthe+9voltstothe0vs,andthelampcomeson.Thetransistorhastoreceiveavoltageatitsbaseanduntilthishappensthelampdoesnotlight.Whatarethetwomainappilcationsoftransistor?Transistorsarecommonlyusedindigitalcircuitsaselectronicswitcheswhichcanbeeitherinanonoroffstate,bothforhigh-powerapplicationssuchasswitched-modepowersuppliesandforlow-powerapplicationssuchaslogicgates.DescriptionBC327isageneralpurposePNPtransistor,todaywewilldiscussaboutitspinoutconfiguration,equivalent,uses,packagedimensionsandmanyotherdetails.BC327UsingTransistorsBC327BC337toMakeaMiniPowerfulAudioAmplifierCatalogueDescriptionBC327IntroductionBC327PinConfigurationBC327MarkingDiagramBC327TechnicalSpecificationsBC327CADModelsBC327ApplicationsBC327PackageDimensionsBC327FunctionalEquivalentsBC327PopularitybyRegionWhereandHowtoUseBC327HowtoGetLongTermPerformancefromBC327BC327ManufacturerComponentDatasheetOrdering&QuantityBC327IntroductionBC327isageneralpurposePNPBJPtransistorthatcanbeusedforswitchingandamplificationpurposesinelectroniccircuits.Thetransistorfeatures800mAcollectorcurrenthenceitcanbeusedtodrivevarietyofloadsinanelectronicapplication.Themaxcollector-emittervoltageis-45Vthereforeitcaneasilyhandleloadvoltageunder45V.Apartfromthattransistoralsofeatures625mWcollectordissipationandDCcurrentgainofmaximum630thereforeitcanalsobeusedasanaudioamplifierorforanytypeofsignalamplification.BC327manufacturedindifferenthFEclassificationthatcanbedifferentiatewiththecodenumberwrittenafterthetransistornumber.Ifyoufindcode-16afterthetransistornumberthenthehFEwillbe100~250,ifthecodeis-25thenthehFEwillbe160~400andifthecodeis-40thenthehFEwillbe250~630.BC327PinConfigurationPinNumberPinNameDescription1CollectorCurrentflowsinthroughcollector,normallyconnectedtoload2BaseControlsthebiasingoftransistor,UsedtoturnONorOFFthetransistor3EmitterCurrentDrainsoutthroughemitter,normallyconnectedtogroundBC327MarkingDiagramBC327TechnicalSpecificationsPackageType:TO-92TransistorType:PNPMaxCollectorCurrent(IC):-800mAMaxCollector-EmitterVoltage(VCE):-45VMaxCollector-BaseVoltage(VCB):-50VMaxEmitter-BaseVoltage(VBE):-5VMaxCollectorDissipation(Pc):625MilliwattMaxTransitionFrequency(fT):100MHzMinimumMaximumDCCurrentGain(hFE):100to630MaxStorageOperatingtemperatureShouldbe:-55to+150CentigradeBC327CADModelsBC327PartSymbolBC327FootprintBC327ApplicationsOutputofMicrocontrollerstoDriveLoadsAnyTypeofSignalAmplificationAudioamplifierAudioAmpStagesDriveLoadsUnder800mABC327PackageDimensionsBC327FunctionalEquivalentsBC327PopularitybyRegionWhereandHowtoUseBC327LikeotheressentialgeneralpurposetransistorstheBC327isalsoamustofhavetransistorinyourlabbecauseitcanbeusedinwidevarietyofapplications.Itcanbeusedasaswitchtodriveloadsupto800mAwhichincludeshighpowerrelays,highpowertransistors,highpowerLEDs,ICsandotherpartsofacircuit.With-5Vemitter-basevoltagethistransistorcanalsobeusedastheoutputofmicrocontrollerstodriveloadofupto800mAwhichcaneasilydrivemotors,modules,sensorsetc.HowtoGetLongTermPerformancefromBC327Togetlongtermgoodperformancewiththistransistorinyourelectronicapplicationsitisrecommendedtonotdriveloadmorethan0.8Aor800mA,donotdriveloadormorethan-45V,alwaysuseasuitablebaseresistorwiththetransistor.Donotstoreoroperatethistransistorintemperaturebelow-55centigradeandabove+150centigradeandalwayscheckpinconfigurationbeforeplacinginthecircuit.BC327ManufacturerONSemiconductor(Nasdaq:ON)isdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ONSemiconductoroperatesaresponsive,reliable,world-classsupplychainandqualityprogram,andanetworkofmanufacturingfacilities,salesofficesanddesigncentersinkeymarketsthroughoutNorthAmerica,Europe,andtheAsiaPacificregions.ComponentDatasheetBC327Datasheet

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