Tkool Electronics

L298DescriptionTheL298isanintegratedmonolithiccircuitina15-leadMultiwattandPowerSO20packages.Itisahighvoltage,ahighcurrentdualfull-bridgedriverdesignedtoacceptstandardTTLlogiclevelsanddriveinductiveloadssuchasrelays,solenoids,DCandsteppingmotors.Twoenableinputsareprovidedtoenableordisablethedeviceindependentlyoftheinputsignals.Theyaremostlyused:whenitisneededtooperatedifferentloadslikemotorsandsolenoidetcwhereanH-BridgeisrequiredwhenhighpowermotordriverisrequiredwhenthecontrolunitcanonlyprovideTTLoutputswhencurrentcontrolandPWMoperablesingle-chipdeviceisneededCatalogL298DescriptionL298CircuitDiagramL298FeaturesandSpecificationsL298PinConfigurationsandFunctionsL298PackageOutlineandMechanicalDataWheretouseL298ICHowtouseL298ICL298ApplicationsL298ComparewithOtherMotorsProductManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityL298CircuitDiagramL298FeaturesandSpecificationsOperatingsupplyvoltageupto46vTotalDCcurrentupto4A25wratedpower2enablecontrolterminalstoenableordevicewithoutinputtingsignals.Abletodriveatwo-phasesteppermotor,four-phasesteppermotorortwoDCmotorsLowsaturationvoltageOvertemperatureprotectionLogical0inputvoltageupto1.5V(highnoiseimmunity)Operatingtemperature:-23Cto130CStorageTemperature:-40Cto150CL298PinConfigurationsandFunctionsPinoutFunctions:L298PackageOutlineandMechanicalDataL298(Multiwatt15V)L298(Multiwatt15H)L298(PowerSO20)WheretouseL298ICHereareafewareaswhereL298ispreferred:L298isbasicallyusedwhereH-BRIDGEisrequired.Whereahighpowermotordriverisrequired.Inthemarked,thereareH-bridgeslikeL293whichareusedforthelowpoweredapplicationwhileL298isspeciallydesignedforthehighpowerapplications.WherecurrentcontrolandPWMoperablesingle-chipdeviceisneeded.ThechipispreferredwhencontrolunitcanonlyprovideTTLoutputAlso,thechipdoesnotneedanyadditionalcomponentstobeinstalledforoperating.HowtouseL298ICForunderstandingtheworkingofL298IC,considerthesimplecircuitconfigurationshownbelow.HereweareusingoneofH-BRIDGESofl298IC.AsshowninthecircuitwehavetwopushbuttonsQ1andQ2whichactascontrolsinputsforbridge-A.TheselogicinputsareprovidedbyMicrocontrollerorMicroprocessorinapplicationcircuits.ThefourdiodesareFLYBACKdiodesusedforprotectingtheICforminductivevoltagespikes.Theenablepinispulledhighthrougharesistorsobridge-Awillbefunctioningallthetime.Ifitspulledtogroundthebridge-Awillbedisablednomattertheinputcontrollogic.AfterallthecircuitaresetupweneedtopressthebuttonsQ1andQ2tochangetheflowofcurrentbetweenpinsOUT1andOUT2.Thelogiccontroltableisgivenbelow.INPUTSFUNCTIONQ1=HIGH,Q2=LOWForwardcurrentQ1=LOW,Q2=HIGHReversecurrentQ1=Q2FastMOTORstopSoifonlyQ1ispressed,thecurrentflowsfromOUT1toOUT2.WiththatMOTORrotatesclockwisedirection.IfonlyQ2ispressed,thecurrentflowsfromOUT2toOUT1.WiththatMOTORrotatesanti-clockwisedirection.IfbothbuttonsarepressedorreleasedsimultaneouslytheMOTORcomestostopimmediately.Inthisway,wecancontrolthemotorrotationusingtheL298chip.L298ApplicationsRoboticarmsRobotsRelaydriversVendingmachinesIndustrialmachinesEngineeringsystemsMeasuringinstrumentsHobbyprojectsL298ComparewithOtherMotorsWithsomanymotordriverscurrentlysuchasServoMotorsandsteppermotors,whatreallyarethedifferencesbetweenthemotordriversandwhichonetochoose?Noworries,aswehavecraftedatablejustforyoutocomparethevariousmotordriverssoyouknowwhichmotordriverfitsthebestforyourproject.TypeMotorDriversChipActuatorWorkingVoltageWorkingCurrentGroveGroveI2CMotorDriverL298N2DCmotoror1Stepper6v-15v2.0Aeach(Max)GroveI2CMotorDriver(TB6612FNG)TB6612FNG2DCmotoror1Stepper2.5v-13.5v(5Avg,15vMax)1.2A(Avg)to3.2A(Max)GroveI2CMiniMotorDriverDRV88302DCMotor2.75v-6.8v0.2Ato1AeachShieldMotorShieldV2.0L298N2DCmotoror1Stepper6v-15v2.0Aeach(Max)4AMotorShieldMC339322DCMotor6v-28v5.0Aeach(Max)BrushlessMotorShield(TB6605FTG)TB6605FTG1DCBrushlessMotor9v-24v-ProductManufacturerSTmicroelectronics(ST)groupwasestablishedinJune1988asaresultofthemergerofSGSMicroelectronicsofItalyandThomsonOfFrance.InMay1998SGS-ThomsonMicroelectronicschangeditsnametoSTmicroelectronicsLimited.Itistheworldslargestmanufacturerofdedicatedanalogchipsandpowerconversionchips,theworldslargestsupplierofindustrialsemiconductorsandset-topboxchips,andaworldleaderindiscretecomponents,mobilephonecameramodules,andautomotiveintegratedcircuits.ComponentDatasheetL298DatasheetFAQWhatisl298n?ThisL298NMotorDriverModuleisahighpowermotordrivermodulefordrivingDCandStepperMotors.ThismoduleconsistsofanL298motordriverICanda78M055Vregulator.L298NModulecancontrolupto4DCmotors,or2DCmotorswithdirectionalandspeedcontrol.Whatistheuseofl298n?TheL298NisadualH-BridgemotordriverwhichallowsspeedanddirectioncontroloftwoDCmotorsatthesametime.ThemodulecandriveDCmotorsthathavevoltagesbetween5and35V,withapeakcurrentupto2A.Howdoesl298ncontrolDCmotorspeed?1.IfyousendaHIGHsignaltotheenable1pin,motorAisreadytobecontrolledandatthemaximumspeed;2.IfyousendaLOWsignaltotheenable1pin,motorAturnsoff;3.IfyousendaPWMsignal,youcancontrolthespeedofthemotor.Themotorspeedisproportionaltothedutycycle.Whatisl298nmotordrivermodule?ThisL298NMotorDriverModuleisahighpowermotordrivermodulefordrivingDCandStepperMotors.ThismoduleconsistsofanL298motordriverICanda78M055Vregulator.L298NModulecancontrolupto4DCmotors,or2DCmotorswithdirectionalandspeedcontrol.Howdoesl298nmotordriverwork?TheL298NisadualH-BridgemotordriverwhichallowsspeedanddirectioncontroloftwoDCmotorsatthesametime.ThemodulecandriveDCmotorsthathavevoltagesbetween5and35V,withapeakcurrentupto2A.HowdoIuseanl298motordriverwithArduino?Startbyconnectingpowersupplytothemotors.Inourexperiment,weareusingDCGearboxMotors(alsoknownasTTmotors)thatareusuallyfoundintwo-wheel-driverobots.Theyareratedfor3to12V.So,wewillconnecttheexternal12VpowersupplytotheVCCterminal.WhatisthefunctionoftheHbridge?AnH-bridgeisanelectroniccircuitthatswitchesthepolarityofavoltageappliedtoaload.ThesecircuitsareoftenusedinroboticsandotherapplicationstoallowDCmotorstorunforwardsorbackwards.Whatisthedifferencebetweenl293dandl298n?L293isaquadruplehalf-HdriverwhileL298isdualfull-Hdriver,i.e,inL293allfourinput-outputlinesareindependentwhileinL298,ahalfHdrivercannotbeusedindependently,onlyfullHdriverhastobeused....Hence,heatsinkisprovidedinL298.

JRC4580

L298DescriptionTheL298isanintegratedmonolithiccircuitina15-leadMultiwattandPowerSO20packages.Itisahighvoltage,ahighcurrentdualfull-bridgedriverdesignedtoacceptstandardTTLlogiclevelsanddriveinductiveloadssuchasrelays,solenoids,DCandsteppingmotors.Twoenableinputsareprovidedtoenableordisablethedeviceindependentlyoftheinputsignals.Theyaremostlyused:whenitisneededtooperatedifferentloadslikemotorsandsolenoidetcwhereanH-BridgeisrequiredwhenhighpowermotordriverisrequiredwhenthecontrolunitcanonlyprovideTTLoutputswhencurrentcontrolandPWMoperablesingle-chipdeviceisneededCatalogL298DescriptionL298CircuitDiagramL298FeaturesandSpecificationsL298PinConfigurationsandFunctionsL298PackageOutlineandMechanicalDataWheretouseL298ICHowtouseL298ICL298ApplicationsL298ComparewithOtherMotorsProductManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityL298CircuitDiagramL298FeaturesandSpecificationsOperatingsupplyvoltageupto46vTotalDCcurrentupto4A25wratedpower2enablecontrolterminalstoenableordevicewithoutinputtingsignals.Abletodriveatwo-phasesteppermotor,four-phasesteppermotorortwoDCmotorsLowsaturationvoltageOvertemperatureprotectionLogical0inputvoltageupto1.5V(highnoiseimmunity)Operatingtemperature:-23Cto130CStorageTemperature:-40Cto150CL298PinConfigurationsandFunctionsPinoutFunctions:L298PackageOutlineandMechanicalDataL298(Multiwatt15V)L298(Multiwatt15H)L298(PowerSO20)WheretouseL298ICHereareafewareaswhereL298ispreferred:L298isbasicallyusedwhereH-BRIDGEisrequired.Whereahighpowermotordriverisrequired.Inthemarked,thereareH-bridgeslikeL293whichareusedforthelowpoweredapplicationwhileL298isspeciallydesignedforthehighpowerapplications.WherecurrentcontrolandPWMoperablesingle-chipdeviceisneeded.ThechipispreferredwhencontrolunitcanonlyprovideTTLoutputAlso,thechipdoesnotneedanyadditionalcomponentstobeinstalledforoperating.HowtouseL298ICForunderstandingtheworkingofL298IC,considerthesimplecircuitconfigurationshownbelow.HereweareusingoneofH-BRIDGESofl298IC.AsshowninthecircuitwehavetwopushbuttonsQ1andQ2whichactascontrolsinputsforbridge-A.TheselogicinputsareprovidedbyMicrocontrollerorMicroprocessorinapplicationcircuits.ThefourdiodesareFLYBACKdiodesusedforprotectingtheICforminductivevoltagespikes.Theenablepinispulledhighthrougharesistorsobridge-Awillbefunctioningallthetime.Ifitspulledtogroundthebridge-Awillbedisablednomattertheinputcontrollogic.AfterallthecircuitaresetupweneedtopressthebuttonsQ1andQ2tochangetheflowofcurrentbetweenpinsOUT1andOUT2.Thelogiccontroltableisgivenbelow.INPUTSFUNCTIONQ1=HIGH,Q2=LOWForwardcurrentQ1=LOW,Q2=HIGHReversecurrentQ1=Q2FastMOTORstopSoifonlyQ1ispressed,thecurrentflowsfromOUT1toOUT2.WiththatMOTORrotatesclockwisedirection.IfonlyQ2ispressed,thecurrentflowsfromOUT2toOUT1.WiththatMOTORrotatesanti-clockwisedirection.IfbothbuttonsarepressedorreleasedsimultaneouslytheMOTORcomestostopimmediately.Inthisway,wecancontrolthemotorrotationusingtheL298chip.L298ApplicationsRoboticarmsRobotsRelaydriversVendingmachinesIndustrialmachinesEngineeringsystemsMeasuringinstrumentsHobbyprojectsL298ComparewithOtherMotorsWithsomanymotordriverscurrentlysuchasServoMotorsandsteppermotors,whatreallyarethedifferencesbetweenthemotordriversandwhichonetochoose?Noworries,aswehavecraftedatablejustforyoutocomparethevariousmotordriverssoyouknowwhichmotordriverfitsthebestforyourproject.TypeMotorDriversChipActuatorWorkingVoltageWorkingCurrentGroveGroveI2CMotorDriverL298N2DCmotoror1Stepper6v-15v2.0Aeach(Max)GroveI2CMotorDriver(TB6612FNG)TB6612FNG2DCmotoror1Stepper2.5v-13.5v(5Avg,15vMax)1.2A(Avg)to3.2A(Max)GroveI2CMiniMotorDriverDRV88302DCMotor2.75v-6.8v0.2Ato1AeachShieldMotorShieldV2.0L298N2DCmotoror1Stepper6v-15v2.0Aeach(Max)4AMotorShieldMC339322DCMotor6v-28v5.0Aeach(Max)BrushlessMotorShield(TB6605FTG)TB6605FTG1DCBrushlessMotor9v-24v-ProductManufacturerSTmicroelectronics(ST)groupwasestablishedinJune1988asaresultofthemergerofSGSMicroelectronicsofItalyandThomsonOfFrance.InMay1998SGS-ThomsonMicroelectronicschangeditsnametoSTmicroelectronicsLimited.Itistheworldslargestmanufacturerofdedicatedanalogchipsandpowerconversionchips,theworldslargestsupplierofindustrialsemiconductorsandset-topboxchips,andaworldleaderindiscretecomponents,mobilephonecameramodules,andautomotiveintegratedcircuits.ComponentDatasheetL298DatasheetFAQWhatisl298n?ThisL298NMotorDriverModuleisahighpowermotordrivermodulefordrivingDCandStepperMotors.ThismoduleconsistsofanL298motordriverICanda78M055Vregulator.L298NModulecancontrolupto4DCmotors,or2DCmotorswithdirectionalandspeedcontrol.Whatistheuseofl298n?TheL298NisadualH-BridgemotordriverwhichallowsspeedanddirectioncontroloftwoDCmotorsatthesametime.ThemodulecandriveDCmotorsthathavevoltagesbetween5and35V,withapeakcurrentupto2A.Howdoesl298ncontrolDCmotorspeed?1.IfyousendaHIGHsignaltotheenable1pin,motorAisreadytobecontrolledandatthemaximumspeed;2.IfyousendaLOWsignaltotheenable1pin,motorAturnsoff;3.IfyousendaPWMsignal,youcancontrolthespeedofthemotor.Themotorspeedisproportionaltothedutycycle.Whatisl298nmotordrivermodule?ThisL298NMotorDriverModuleisahighpowermotordrivermodulefordrivingDCandStepperMotors.ThismoduleconsistsofanL298motordriverICanda78M055Vregulator.L298NModulecancontrolupto4DCmotors,or2DCmotorswithdirectionalandspeedcontrol.Howdoesl298nmotordriverwork?TheL298NisadualH-BridgemotordriverwhichallowsspeedanddirectioncontroloftwoDCmotorsatthesametime.ThemodulecandriveDCmotorsthathavevoltagesbetween5and35V,withapeakcurrentupto2A.HowdoIuseanl298motordriverwithArduino?Startbyconnectingpowersupplytothemotors.Inourexperiment,weareusingDCGearboxMotors(alsoknownasTTmotors)thatareusuallyfoundintwo-wheel-driverobots.Theyareratedfor3to12V.So,wewillconnecttheexternal12VpowersupplytotheVCCterminal.WhatisthefunctionoftheHbridge?AnH-bridgeisanelectroniccircuitthatswitchesthepolarityofavoltageappliedtoaload.ThesecircuitsareoftenusedinroboticsandotherapplicationstoallowDCmotorstorunforwardsorbackwards.Whatisthedifferencebetweenl293dandl298n?L293isaquadruplehalf-HdriverwhileL298isdualfull-Hdriver,i.e,inL293allfourinput-outputlinesareindependentwhileinL298,ahalfHdrivercannotbeusedindependently,onlyfullHdriverhastobeused....Hence,heatsinkisprovidedinL298.

IDescriptionLM1875isapoweramplifierintegratedblockchip.Itssuperiorperformanceandattractivetonehavebeenacceptedbymanyenthusiasts,anditwasalltherageinthe1990s.LM1875adoptsTO-220packagestructure,whichisshapedlikeamid-powertube,smallinsize,simpleinperipheralcircuits,andlargeinoutputpower.Theintegratedcircuitintroducedinthisblogisequippedwithoverload,overheatingandinductiveloadreversepotentialsafetyprotection,whichisoneoftheidealchoicesforhigh-endaudio.Figure1.LM1875CatalogIDescriptionIILM1875ParametersIIILM1875CircuitPrincipleIVLM1875CircuitAssemblyandDebuggingVIntheEndOrdering&QuantityIILM1875ParametersVoltageRange16~60VQuiescentCurrent50MmAOutputPower25WHarmonicDistortion0.02%,whenf=1kHz,RL=8,P0=20WRatedGain26dB,whenf=1kHzWorkingVoltage25VConversionRate18V/SIIILM1875CircuitPrincipleThiscircuitiscomposedofanattenuatedtonecontrolcircuitcontrolledseparatelyforhighandlowsounds,LM1875amplifiercircuitandpowersupplycircuit.Amongthem,thesoundqualitycontrolpartusesanattenuatedtonecircuitcontrolledseparatelyforhighandlowsounds.Thespecificcomponentsareasfollows:R02,R03,C02,C01,W02formabasscontrolcircuit;C03,C04,W03formatreblecontrolcircuit;R04istheisolationresistance;W01isthevolumecontroller,whichadjuststhevolumeoftheamplifier;C05isanisolationcapacitortopreventthedownstreamLM1875DCpotentialelementfromaffectingtheprevioustonecircuit.TheamplifyingcircuitmainlyadoptsLM1875,whichiscomposedof1875,R08,R09,C066,etc.ThemagnificationofthecircuitisdeterminedbytheratioofR08toR09;C06isusedtostabilizethedriftoftheLM1875s4thpinDCzeropotential,butithasacertainimpactonthesoundquality;C07andR10functiontopreventtheamplifierfromgeneratinglow-frequencyself-excitation.InAddtion,theloadimpedanceofthisamplifieris416.Figure2.LM1875CircuitWhataboutthepowersupplycircuitofthepoweramplifier?Pleasetakealookatthepicturebelow.Inordertoensurethesoundqualityofthepoweramplifierboard,weneedtopayattentiontothefollowingwhendesigningthecircuit:Theoutputpowerofthepowertransformershallnotbelessthan80W;Theoutputvoltageis2*25V;Thefiltercapacitorusestwo4700UF/25Velectrolyticcapacitorsinparallel;Positiveandnegativepowersuppliesshare44700UF/25Vcapacitors;Thetwo104basecapacitorsarehigh-frequencyfiltercapacitors;Onlyiftheaboverequirementsaremet,theamplifiercanmaintainbettersoundquality.Figure3.LM1875CircuitIVLM1875CircuitAssemblyandDebuggingThisblogwillintroducethenecessarytoolsforcircuitassembly,howtoprepareforsoldering,andfinallyhowtodebugthecircuit.Ofcourse,ifyoustillfeellikeyouarestillcannotgetenough,intheendyoucanevenfollowourtipstotryanextrainterestingexperimentwiththiscircuit.ToolsThatYouNeedA20Welectricsolderingiron,preferablywithadjustabletemperature;Amultimeter;Apairofneedlenosepliers;Ascrewdriver;Somesolderwireandpineperfume.HowtoPrepareforWeldingWeldingsequence:①Weldingjumpers;②Weldingresistance;③Weldingcapacitor;④Weldedrectifiertube;⑤Weldingpotentiometer;⑥WeldLM1875.NotesFixtheLM1875withscrewsontheheatsinkbeforeweldingLM1875,otherwisethescrewswillbedifficulttodriveinwhentheheatsinkisinstalledattheend;ThepartofLM1875incontactwiththeheatsinkmustbecoatedwithasmallamountofheatdissipationgreasetofacilitateheatdissipation;Payattentiontotheweldingqualitywhenwelding.Forbeginners,youcanpracticeafewmoretimesontheoldcircuitboard,andthenformallysolder.HowtoDebugCorrectlyThedebuggingofthispoweramplifierboardisverysimple.Afterthecircuitboardissolderedwithelectroniccomponents,wemustcarefullycheckthecircuitboardforsolderingerrors.Specialattentionshouldbepaidtoelectronicpartswithpolarity,suchaselectrolyticcapacitorsandbridgerectifiers.Oncetheweldingisreversed,thereisariskofburningthecomponents.Whenthetransformerisconnected,theoutputterminaloftheamplifierisnotconnectedtothespeaker,butconnectedtoamultimeter(preferablydigitaldisplay,andthemultimeterissettoDC*2V).Inaddition,payattentiontothereadingofthemultimeterwhenpoweringonthepoweramplifierboard.Undernormalcircumstances,thereadingshouldbewithin30mV,otherwiseweshouldimmediatelycutoffthepowertocheckthecircuitboard.Ifthereadingoftheelectricmeteriswithinthenormalrange,itindicatesthatthefunctionofthepoweramplifierboardisbasicallynormal.Atthistime,weconnectedthespeaker,theninputthemusicsignal,andthenpoweronthetestmachine.Underthecorrectproceduresandspecifications,turnthevolumepotentiometer,thevolumeshouldchange,andturnthehighandlowknobs,thetoneofthespeakerwillchange.Figure4.LM1875ExperimentWorthTryingFirst,wewillshort-circuitC6andmeasuretheDCpotentialattheoutputofLM1875withamultimetertoseeifitiswithin30MV.Then,connectthespeakerandtestfortwohours.UseamultimetertomeasuretheDCpotentialattheoutputoftheLM1875toseeiftheDCpotentialiswithin30MV.IftheDCpotentialiswithin30MV,thecapacitorC6canbeomitted.Inthiscase,theamplifierboardbecomesapureDCpoweramplifier.VIntheEndSofar,thepoweramplifierboardhasbeensuccessfullyinstalledandadjusted.Lookingatthispieceofworkthatyoucanbeproudofandenjoyingthewonderfulmusic,areyousatisfied?IDescriptionThisblogintroducesthedesignofalithiumbatterybackuppowercontrolboardbasedonLM393,whichissimple,stable,reliable,andlow-cost.Itcandirectlyoutputthemainsvoltagewhenthereismainspower,andcontinuouslymonitorthemainsvoltage.Notonlycanthisdesignautomaticallyturnontheinverterwithin10msafterthemainspowerisoff,butitalsohasapowermanagementfunction:whentheinternallithiumbatteryvoltageislowerthanthesetvalue,itwillautomaticallycharge.ThisVediointroducesHowDoesLM393WorksCatalogIDescriptionIIDesignandWorkingPrinciple2.1Design2.2WorkingPrincipleIIITestIVConclsionOrdering&QuantityIIDesignandWorkingPrincipleThedetailsofLM393basedlithiumbatterybackupcircuitareasfollows:2.1Design2.1.1MainsPowerFailureWhenthereisnomainspowerinput,thecontrolpanelwillturnontheinverterandoutput220VACwithin10msofthemainspowerfailure.2.1.2ChargingManagementFigure1.FunctionDiagramWhenthereismainsinput,thecontrolboardfirstshutsdowntheinverteroutputandswitchestothemainsoutput;thenentersthechargingmanagementstate(duetothefeatureofthelithiumbatteryprotectionboard,theprotectionboardstopschargingafteroverchargeprotection.WhenthebatteryvoltageWhenitdropstotheoverchargerecoveryvalueorbelow,itwillautomaticallyresumecharging.Whenthereismainsinputforalongtime,thelithiumbatterychargerwillberepeatedlycharged,whichwillaffectthelifeofthelithiumbattery).Whenthelithiumbatteryisfullycharged,itwillstopcharging.Whenitdropstoacertainlevel(thisparameterislowerthantheoverchargerecoveryvalueofthelithiumbatteryprotectionboard,thespecificparametervalueisadjustable)andthenresumecharginguntilitisfullycharged,andrepeattheaboveprocess.2.2WorkingPrincipleAccordingtothedesignrequirements,theprincipledesignofthiscontrolboardisdividedintotwoparts:lithiumbatteryvoltagedetectionandcontrol,andmainsvoltagedetectionandcontrol.ThemainvoltagecomparisonpartofthecontrolboardusesthedualvoltagecomparatorintegratedchipLM393.LM393integrates2independentcomparators,itsoperatingpowersupplyvoltagerangeiswide,itcanworkfor2~36Vwhensinglepowerinput,and1~18Vwhendualpowerinput.Inaddition,itscurrentconsumptionissmall,only0.8mA.AndwhatisthepinoutofLM393?WecantakealookatFigure2below:Pins3,5arethenon-invertinginputterminalsofthetwocomparatorsrespectively;Pins2,6aretheinvertinginputterminalsofthetwocomparatorsrespectively;Pins1,7arethecorrespondingoutputterminalsofthetwocomparatorsrespectively.Figure2.LM393PinoutWhenusedasabasiccomparisoncircuit,ifthevoltageatthenon-invertinginputterminalisgreaterthanthevoltageattheinvertinginputterminal,thecorrespondingoutputterminaloutputsahighlevel,andviceversa.Forexample,whenU5U6,U7outputshighlevel;whenU5U6,U7outputslowlevel.2.2.1LithiumBatteryVoltageDetectionandControlLithiumbatteryvoltagedetectioncontrolisshowninFigure3.(1)PowerSupplyThepowersupplyofthecontrolpartistakenfromthelithiumbatteryofthebackuppowersupply,andthevoltageofthecontrolboardis12VDC.Becausethelithiumbatteryinthisdesignis48V,itsvoltagerangeis32Vto54.6V,whichishigherthanthelargeinputvoltagerequiredbythestabilizerblock7812.Therefore,inordertoprotectthevoltageregulatorblock7812,weneedtoconnecta20Vvoltageregulatortubeinseriesattheinputtostepdown.Here,diodeD5actsasreversevoltageprotection(2)VoltageComparisonThepowermanagementadoptsthecomparatorLM393,thesamplingvoltageofthelithiumbatteryisdividedbyresistorsR11andR12,andtheninputtothenon-invertinginputofLM393.Thereferencevoltagedivides12VthroughtheresistorR4andthepotentiometer,andthenenterstheinvertinginputofLM393.WhenthesamplingvoltageU1ishigherthanthereferencevoltageU2,theoutputterminalcorrespondingtoLM393outputsahighlevel,thetransistor9012isturnedoff,therelaydoesnotoperate,andtheinverterstopsworking.WhenthesamplingvoltageU1islowerthanthereferencevoltageU2,theoutputterminalcorrespondingtoLM393outputsalowlevel,thetransistor9012isturnedon,therelayacts,andtheinverteristurnedon.ThereferencevoltagecanbeadjustedaccordingtotheactualparametersthroughthepotentiometerR5.Figure3.LM393LithiumBatteryVoltageDetectionandControl(3)HysteresisComparatorCircuitInasingle-limitcomparator,iftheinputsignalUinhasaslightinterferencenearthethreshold,theoutputvoltagewillproducecorrespondingjitter(fluctuation).Forexample,inthedesignoflithiumbatteryvoltagedetection,ifthesamplingvoltageofthelithiumbatteryfluctuatesnearthetargetvoltage(seeFigure3),thevoltageofU1ishigherthanthevoltageofU2,andtheoutputofthecomparatorshouldoutputahighlevel.However,iftheU1voltageorU2voltagefluctuatesslightlyatthistime,thetransistor9012islikelytobeturnedonandofffrequentlyatthistime,andthecontroloutputwillbeveryunstable.Thenhowtoovercomethisshortcoming?Wecanintroducepositivefeedbackinthedesign(thatis,thewayofhardwaretoachievereturndifference).Ifweneedtofixatrippointatacertainreferencevoltagevalue,wecaninsertanon-linearelement(suchasacrystaldiode)inthepositivefeedbackcircuit.Byusingtheunidirectionalconductivityofthediode(inFigure2,D10diode1N4148),theaboverequirementscanbeachieved.2.2.2MainsVoltageDetectionandControlThedescriptionofthemainsvoltagedetectioncontrolpartisshowninFigure4.(1)PowerSupplyPartThepowersupplypartusesthesamepowersupplyDC12Vasthelithiumbatteryvoltagedetectionandcontrolpart.(2)MainsVoltageDetectionTakingintoaccountthecostofthemainsvoltagedetectionpart,thisdesignabandonsthetraditionaltransformerorvoltagetransformerdetectionmethod,andusestwooptocouplerchipsPC817todetectthemains.PC817isacommonlyusedlinearoptocoupler,whichisoftenusedinfunctionalcircuitsthatrequiremoreprecision.Whenanelectricalsignalisappliedtotheinputend,thelightemitteremitslightandilluminatesthelightreceiver.Thelightreceiveristurnedonafterreceivingthelight,andgeneratesaphotocurrentoutputfromtheoutputend,thusrealizingtheelectricity-optical-electricityconversion.Thisconversionisoftenappliedtovariouscivilindustrialproductssuchasswitchingpowersupplies,UPS,adapters,etc.Figure4.LM393MainsVoltageDetectionandControlTakeAC220Vasanexample.Inordertoprotecttheoptocoupler,weusea1Mresistorinthedesigntolimitthecurrentoftheoptocoupleremitter.TheoptocouplerchipsU1andU2arerespectivelyturnedonundertheactionofalternatingcurrent,andcooperatewiththecapacitorC6toensurethatthevoltageofthenon-invertinginputterminalU3isgreaterthantheinvertinginputterminalU4undertheconditionofnormalmainsinput.Theoptocouplerchipusedinthisdesigncanalsobeusedforelectricalisolationbetweenthecontrolboardandthemains.Whenthereismainspower:LM393snon-invertinginputterminalU3voltageisDC12VInvertinginputterminalU4voltageis9V(R2,R10dividedvoltage)ThecorrespondingoutputterminalishighThetransistor9014isturnedonTherelayoperatesThenormallyclosedpointisopenThereisoutputbetweenmainsvoltageWhenthereisnomainspower:Thevoltageatthenon-invertinginputterminalU3ofLM393isDC0VThevoltageattheinvertinginputterminalU4is9VThecorrespondingoutputterminalislowlevelThetransistor9014iscutoffTherelaydoesnotoperateThenormallyclosedpointisclosedTheinverteroutputs220V.IIITestAftertesting,thiscontrolcircuitmeetsthedesignrequirements:whenthereismainspowersupply,itoutputsmainsvoltage,andautomaticallyconvertstobackuppowersupplywithin10msinthecaseofmainspowerfailure,andhasgoodchargingmanagementfunctions,asshowninFigure5andFigure6.Figure5.LithiumBatteryVoltageDetectionWaveformFigure6.MainsVoltageDetectionWaveformInpracticalapplications,MOStubesandtriacscanalsobeusedtoreplacetherelaysinthevoltagedetectionandcontrolpartofthelithiumbatteryandtherelaysinthemainsvoltagedetectionandcontrolparttoachievethecontroloutput.IVConclsionThiscontrolboardisdesignedaccordingtothecharacteristicsofthelithiumbatterybackuppowersupplythatisgraduallypopularizedatpresent.Ithastheadvantagesofstronganti-interferenceandlowcost,andhasstrongmarketpromotionvalue.Insubsequentdesigns,wecanalsoaddprotectionfunctionssuchasbatteryunder-voltageprotection,short-circuitprotection,overloadprotection,over-voltageprotection,andover-temperatureprotectionaccordingtouserrequirementstocontinuouslyimprovetheproduct.Afterreadingtheblog,haveyoubetterunderstandLM393?Finally,ifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutLM393,pleasedonothesitatetoleaveamessageinthecommentsectionbelow!

JRC4580

IntroductionInordertosolvetheproblemoftransientdistortion,thetypicalapplicationcircuitofLM3886poweramplifierischangedtothecurrentnegativefeedbacktype.Thecurrentsampleflowingthroughthespeakervoicecoilisfedbacktothepoweramplifierinputterminalviaresistance,andtheloudspeakersystemisalsoincludedinthefeedbacksystem.CatalogIntroductionCatalogITypicalpoweramplifiercircuitIIImprovedPowerAmplifierCircuitOrdering&QuantityITypicalpoweramplifiercircuitThepoweramplifiercircuitmadeofLM3886consistsoftwoparts:pre-amplifierandpoweramplifier.ThepreamplifierconsistsofanintegratedoperationalamplifierNE5534,whichprovidesavoltagegainofabout5times.ThepoweramplifieriscomposedofLM3886,whichprovidesavoltagegainofabout10times.Therefore,thefullpoweroutputcanbeachievedbyinputtingabout0.5Vsignalattheinputend.Figure1onlyshowstheLM3886dualpowersupplycircuit,whichcanalsoworkinasinglepowersupply.Consideringfromtheaspectofsoundquality,theaudioamplifiercircuitgenerallydoesnotusesinglepowersupply,butdualpowersupply.Figure1.typicalpoweramplifiercircuitThetypicalapplicationcircuitofLM3886adoptsthetraditionalnegativevoltagefeedbackmode.Negativevoltagefeedbackcanimprovethefrequencycharacteristicsofpoweramplifierandreducenonlineardistortion,butthesoundislackofstrength.Asthevolumeincreases,thelowfrequencywillbecometight,dryandhard,andthedistortionwillincrease.Atthesametime,thehighfrequencybecomessharpandharsh,andthemusicanditsdefinitionaregreatlyreduced.Thisistheso-calledTransientIntermodulationDistortion.Thetransientintermodulationdistortionismainlycausedbytheintroductionofdeepnegativefeedback.Voltagetypenegativefeedbackiseffectivetoimprovethenonlineardistortionofpoweramplifier,butitcannottakeintoaccountthetransientdistortionatthesametime.IIImprovedPowerAmplifierCircuitTheimprovedcircuitisshowninFigure2.Thelow-frequencyspectralgainofpoweramplifierisdeterminedbytheratioofR3andR4.C3andR5determinethehigh-frequencygainofpoweramplifier.DuetothelargecapacitancereactanceofC3atlowfrequency,thecurrentfeedbackisterminatedatlowfrequency,whilethehighfrequencyisimprovedbycurrentnegativefeedback.Theresultisthatthetotalbandwidthisimprovedandthetransientdistortionisgreatlyreduced.Theselectionoffeedbackcomponentsshouldbebasedontheimpedanceandinductanceoftheloudspeaker,sothatthelow-frequencygainis2-3timesofthehigh-frequencygain.Formerpoweramplifiersoftendesignedthefrequencycharacteristicstobeflat,whichdidnotachievegoodsoundeffects.Inordertoimprovethesoundeffectofthepoweramplifier,weshouldusethenegativefeedbackcircuittoconsciouslyincreasethelowfrequencygaintoachievethebesteffect,whichalsomeetstherequirementsofthelargedynamicsoundeffectoftodayshometheater.Figure2.schematicdiagramofpoweramplifiercircuitThesoundeffectofthismachineisexcellent.Thelowfrequencyextensionisincreasedanditisflexible.Thehighfrequencyisclearandsmooth.Theresolutionisgreatlyimproved,andthemetallicsoundiscompletelydisappeared.Evenifthevolumewasdoubled,nosignificantdistortionwasheard.DescriptionLM3886isahigh-performanceaudiopoweramplifier.Undertheratedworkingvoltage,itiscapableofdelivering68Wofcontinuousaveragepowertoa4loadand38Winto8with0.1%THD+Nfrom20Hz20kHz.TheperformanceoftheLM3886,utilizingitsSelfPeakInstantaneousTemperature(Ke)(SPiKe)protectioncircuitry,putsitinaclassabovediscreteandhybridamplifiersbyprovidinganinherently,dynamicallyprotectedSafeOperatingArea(SOA).SPiKeprotectionmeansthatthesepartsarecompletelysafeguardedattheoutputagainstovervoltage,undervoltage,overloads,includingshortstothesupplies,thermalrunaway,andinstantaneoustemperaturepeaks.TheLM3886maintainsanexcellentsignal-to-noiseratioofgreaterthan92dBwithatypicallownoisefloorof2.0V.ItexhibitsextremelylowTHD+Nvaluesof0.03%attheratedoutputintotheratedloadovertheaudiospectrum,andprovidesexcellentlinearitywithanIMD(SMPTE)typicalratingof0.004%.CatalogDescriptionCADModelsFeaturesApplicationsParametersElectricalCharacteristicsPinoutCircuitDiagramPackageProductComplianceComponentDatasheetProductManufacturerOrdering&QuantityCADModelsLM3886SymbolLM3886FootprintFeatures68WCont.Avg.OutputPowerinto4atVCC=28V38WCont.Avg.OutputPowerinto8atVCC=28V50WCont.Avg.OutputPowerinto8atVCC=35V135WInstantaneousPeakOutputPowerCapabilitySignal-to-NoiseRatio92dBAnInputMuteFunctionOutputProtectionfromaShorttoGroundortotheSuppliesviaInternalCurrentLimitingCircuitryOutputOver-VoltageProtectionagainstTransientsfromInductiveLoadsSupplyUnder-VoltageProtection,notAllowingInternalBiasingtoOccurwhen|VEE|+|VCC|12V,thusEliminatingTurn-OnandTurn-OffTransients11-LeadTO-220PackageWideSupplyRange20V-94VApplicationsComponentstereoCompactstereoSelf-poweredspeakersSurround-soundamplifiersHifg-endstereoTVsParametersAudioinputtypeAnalogInputArchitectureClass-ABSpeakerchannels(Max)MonoPowerstagesupply(Max)(V)94Powerstagesupply(Min)(V)20Load(Min)(ohms)4Outputpower(W)68SNR(dB)110THD+N@1kHz(%)0.03Iq(Typ)(mA)50ControlinterfaceHardwareClosed/openloopOpenAnalogsupply(Min)(V)20Analogsupply(Max)(V)84Powertoparallelbridgetiedload(Max)(W)68PSRR(dB)120Operatingtemperaturerange(C)0to70NumberofTerminals11NumberofFunctions1BrandNameTexasInstrumentsElectricalCharacteristicsThefollowingspecificationsapplyforV+=+28V,V-=-28V,lMUTE=-o.5mAwithRL=4unlessotherwisespecified.LimitsapplyforTA=25℃.PinoutPin1isthepositivepowersupplyV+terminal;Pin2isanemptypin(NC);Pin3istheoutputterminalaftersignalamplification;Pin4isthenegativepowerV-terminal;Pin5isanemptypin(NC)(internallyindependent,butinthe150WLM3886,thispinshouldbeconnectedtoV+);Pin6isanemptypin(NC);Pin7istheground(GND)terminal;Pin8isthemuteend.Ifitisnotneeded,itshouldbeconnectedtothev-terminal.Pin9istheinvertinginputofthesignal;Pin10isthenon-invertinginputterminalofthesignal;Pin11isanemptypin(NC)CircuitDiagramPackageLM3886hastwopackagingmethods.Oneisthatthebackplateisnotinsulatedfromtheinnerelectrode,anditmustbeinsulatedwhenaheatsinkisadded.Theotheristhatthebackplateisinsulatedfromtheinternalelectrodes,sothereisnoneedtoconsiderinsulationwhenaddingaheatsink.ProductComplianceECCNEAR99USHTS8542330001ComponentDatasheetDatasheetLM3886DatasheetProductManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.IIntroductionLM1875isapoweramplifierintegratedblock.Ithasfewperipheralcircuits,largedistortion-freepower,andcanworkwithbothsingleanddualpowersupplies.Italsohasasafeworkingareaprotection(inductiveload)foroverload,overheatingandreversepotentialsuppressioninthecircuit,suitableforhigh-gradeaudiocircuits.AndLM1875isalsosuitableforaudioamplification,servoamplification,bridgeamplification,andpoweramplificationintestsystems.ThisVedioTakeLM1875asanExampletoExplaintheBridgedAudioAmplifierCatalogIIntroductionIIDCNegativeFeedbackBTLPowerAmplifierCircuitIII20WSingle-powerAmplifierCircuitIVLM1875PowerAmplifierCircuitwithHighandLowAdjustmentVCurrentFeedbackPowerAmplifierCircuitOrdering&QuantityIIDCNegativeFeedbackBTLPowerAmplifierCircuitTheLM1875amplifiercircuitissimple,wherethesoundisbeautiful,andhasthetimbreoftheamplifier.Thepoweramplifierproducedbyitcanoutputpowerupto25Wunderpositiveandnegative25Vvoltage.Inordertooutputmorepower,itcanbeconnectedtoBTLcircuit.Theoutputpowerofthefollowingcircuitexceeds60W(8ohmspeaker),whichisdesignedasacurrentnegativefeedbackcircuit,andthesoundismorebeautiful.Inaddition,themainrecommendationofthisboardistocancelC11andC21inFigure1,andaddacapacitorattheinput(changeC11here).ChangethecircuittoaDCamplifier,thesoundeffectwillbebetter.Figure1.LM1875CuircuitIII20WSingle-powerAmplifierCircuitThecircuitisshowninFigure3.ThebasicworkingprincipleoftheLM1875singlepowersupplyandthedualpowersupplyisthesame.Thedifferenceisthatwhenthesinglepowersupplyisused,R1andR2areusedforvoltagedivision,while1/2VCCistakenasthebiasvoltageandaddedtoR3topin1,makingtheoutputvoltagechangeupanddownbasedon1/2VCC.Therefore,themaximumdynamicrangecanbeobtained.Figure2.LM1875CuircuitIVLM1875PowerAmplifierCircuitwithHighandLowAdjustmentFigure3.LM1875CuircuitThecircuitaboveiscomposedofthreeparts:AnattenuatedtonecontrolcircuitcontrolledbyhighandlowsoundsAnLM1875amplifiercircuitApowersupplycircuit.Thetonepartusesattenuatingtonecircuitscontrolledbyhighandlowbassrespectively,amongwhichR02,R03,C02,C01,W02formabasscontrolcircuit;C03,C04,W03formatreblecontrolcircuit;R04istheisolationresistance,W01isthevolumecontroller,adjustingthevolumeoftheamplifier;C05istheDCblockingcapacitor,topreventtheLM1875DCpotentialofthesubsequentstagefromaffectingthetonecircuitoftheprecedingstage.TheamplifyingcircuitadoptsLM1875,R08,R09,C06.Amongthem,themagnificationofthecircuitisdeterminedbytheratioofR08andR09;andC06isusedtostabilizetheDCzeropotentialdriftofthe4thpinofLM1875,butithasacertainimpactonthesoundquality;C07,R10istopreventtheamplifierfromgeneratinglow-frequencyself-excitation.Theloadimpedanceofthisamplifieris416.Figure4.LM1875CuircuitAsforthepowersupply,inordertoensurethesoundquality,theoutputpowerofthepowertransformershouldnotbelessthan80W,andtheoutputvoltageis2*25V.Thefiltercapacitorusestwo2200F/25Velectrolyticcapacitorsinparallel,andthepositiveandnegativepowersuppliessharefour2200F/25Vcapacitors.Thetwo104monolithiccapacitorsarehigh-frequencyfiltercapacitors,whicharebeneficialtothesoundqualityoftheamplifier.VCurrentFeedbackPowerAmplifierCircuitThecurrentmodepoweramplifierhasbettersoundquality.ThecurrentmodepoweramplifiercircuitusingthepoweramplifierintegratedcircuitLM1875isshowninFigure5.Inthefigure,theresistorR3connectedinserieswiththespeakerRLhasaverysmallvalue.ThecurrentflowingthroughthespeakerflowsthroughR3,andthesamplingfeedbackvoltagegeneratedatbothendsisproportionaltotheoutputcurrent.ThevoltageformedonR3issenttothefeedbackinputoftheamplifierthroughR2toformacurrentnegativefeedback,whichincreasestheoutputimpedanceoftheamplifierandreducesthedampingcoefficient.Theso-calledRubernetworkwascancelledinthecircuit,andonlyC4wasusedastheleadcompensation.AlthoughthesettingofR2preventstheoutputfeedbackcurrentfrombeingfedback100%tothenegativeinputterminal,itpreventstheharmfuleffectsoflargefeedbackontheinputterminal;Atthesametime,thebiasofthepositiveandnegativeinputterminalsisbalanced,andtheDCoffsetoftheoutputterminaliseliminated.Figure5.LM1875CuircuitFirstsoldertwosmall0.22uFcapacitorstothepin③and⑤,andweldtheotherendsofthemtogetherasthegroundterminal.Regardingtheresistancetogrounding,allarebentandweldedatthispoint.The24Vpowercordandoutputcordaredirectlysolderedtotherelevantpins.Short-circuittheinputterminaltoground,soldera10resistortotheRLspeaker,andtestthevoltageoftheoutputterminaltogroundafterpower-on.Ifitislessthan100mVandthereisbasicallynodeviationafterhalfanhour,youcandisconnecttheinputshortcircuitandconnectthespeaker.Afterreadingtheblog,haveyoubetterunderstandLM1875?IfyouarealsointerestedindetailedintroductiontoLM1875,youmaywishtobrowserighthererightnow!Finally,ifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutLM1875,pleasedonothesitatetoleaveamessageinthecommentsectionbelow!

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IntroductionTheLM393comparatorcanberegardedasequivalenttothemostpopularversionoftheLM358operationalamplifier.Althoughanyoperationalamplifiercanbeusedasavoltagecomparator,theLM393comparatorprovesitsadvantagebyprovidinganopencollectoroutputtomakeitsuitablefordrivingloads.Theoutputtransistorcandriveloadsupto50Vand50mAandissuitablefordrivingmostTTL,MOSandRTLloads.Thetransistorcanalsoisolatetheloadfromthesystemground.ThisVedioIntroducesLM393DualComparatorwithOpenCollectorOutputfromIntegratedCircuitCatalogIntroductionCADCAESymbolsDocumentandMediaECCNUNSPSCLM393PinConfigurationandFunctionsPopularitybyRegionBasicParametersProductManufacturerFeaturesProductRangeAdvantagesAlternativeModelsFunctionalBlockDiagramOrdering&QuantityDocumentandMediaComponentDatasheetLM393DatasheetApplicationNotesApplicationDesignGuidelinesforLM393LM393PinConfigurationandFunctionsTheLM393datasheetprovidedaboveisforyourreference,sothatyoucanunderstandthephysicaldimensionsofallpackagesinmoredetail.Theconfigurationofall8pinsandthefunctionofeachpinareasfollows:ThefunctionofLM393pinsareasfollows:BasicParametersNumberofchannels2OutputtypeOpen-collectorPropagationdelaytime1.3sVs(Max)36VVs(Min)2VVos(offsetvoltage@25C)(Max)5mVIqperchannel(Typ)0.225mAInputbiascurrent(+/-)(Max)50nARail-to-railOutRatingCatalogOperatingtemperaturerange0℃to70℃FeaturesStandardcomparatorVICR(Max)34.5VVICR(Min)0VApprox.price1ku|0.06US$FeaturesImprovedspecificationsofB-versionMaximumrating:upto38VESDrating(HBM):2kVLowinputoffset:0.37mVLowinputbiascurrent:3.5nALowsupply-current:200ApercomparatorFasterresponsetimeof1secExtendedtemperaturerangeforLM393BAvailableintiny2x2mmWSONpackageB-versionisdrop-inreplacementforLM293,LM393andLM2903,AandVversionsCommon-modeinputvoltagerangeincludesgroundDifferentialinputvoltagerangeequaltomaximumratedsupplyvoltage:38VLowoutputsaturationvoltageOutputcompatiblewithTTL,MOS,andCMOSAdvantagesVacuumrobotSinglephaseUPSServerPSUCordlesspowertoolWirelessInfrastructureApplicancesBuildingAutomationFactoryautomationcontrolMotordrivesInfotainmentclusterFunctionalBlockDiagramCADCAESymbolsPackagePinsDownloadPDIP(P)8ViewoptionsSO(PS)8ViewoptionsSOIC(D)8ViewoptionsTSSOP(PW)8ViewoptionsVSSOP(DGK)8ViewoptionsECCNUNSPSCDescriptionValueECCNCodeEAR99HTSCode8542.39.00.01PopularitybyRegionProductManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.ProductRangeDevicesBoardsDeveloperToolsARMPROCESSORSAUTOMOTIVEPRODUCTSIDENTIFICATIONSECURITYKinetisCortex-MMicrocontrollersIn-VehicleNetworkNFCLPCCortex-MMicrocontrollersMicrocontrollersandProcessorsRFIDAlternativeModelsLM741LM358LM339LM324Afterreadingtheblog,haveyoubetterunderstandLM393?IfyouarealsointerestedinhowtoDIYyoursolartrackingcarbyusingLM393,youmaywishtobrowserighthererightnow!Finally,ifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutLM393,pleasedonothesitatetoleaveamessageinthecommentsectionbelow!IIntroductionTheLM393isadualvoltagecomparator.thismeansthatitaccepts2inputsforcomparison.TheoutputloadresistanceofLM393comparatorcanbeconnectedtoanypowersupplyvoltagewithintheallowablepowersupplyvoltagerange,andisnotlimitedbythevoltagevalueoftheVccterminal.ThisoutputcanbeusedasasimpleopencircuittogroundSPS(whentheloadresistorisnotused),thesinkcurrentoftheoutputpartislimitedbythevalueofthedriverandthedevicethatcanbeobtained.Whenthelimitcurrent(16mA)isreached,theoutputtransistorwillexitandtheoutputvoltagewillrisequickly.Inthisblog,wewilldiscuss3waystousetheLM393comparatortobuildcircuits,including:InfraredObstacleAvoidanceModule,Ni-CdBatteryCharger,andPWMModulationCircuit.LM393imagesareforreferenceonly.Figure1.LM393ComparatorCatalogIIntroductionIILM393BasedInfraredObstacleAvoidanceModule2.1ModuleDescription2.2DescriptionofModuleParameters2.3ModuleInterfaceDescriptionIIILM393Ni-CdBatteryChargerIVLM393PWMModulationCircuitOrdering&QuantityIILM393BasedInfraredObstacleAvoidanceModuleFigure2.LM393InfraredObstacleAvoidanceModule2.1ModuleDescriptionThesensormodulehasstrongadaptabilitytoambientlight.Ithasapairofinfraredemittingandreceivingtubes.Thetransmittingtubeemitsinfraredraysofafrequency.Whenitencountersanobstacle(reflectingsurface)inthedetectiondirection,itwillbereflectedbackandreceivedbythereceivingtube.Afterthereceivedinfraredlightisprocessedbythecomparatorcircuit,thegreenindicatorlightwilllightup,andthesignaloutputinterfaceoutputsadigitalsignal(alow-levelsignal).Thedetectiondistancecanbeadjustedbythepotentiometerknob.Theeffectivedistancerangeis2-30cm,andtheoperatingvoltageItis3.3V-5V.Thedetectiondistanceofthesensorcanbeadjustedbyapotentiometer,whichhasthecharacteristicsofsmallinterference,easyassemblyandconvenientuse.Itcanbewidelyusedinmanysituationssuchasrobotobstacleavoidance,obstacleavoidancetrolley,pipelinecountingandblackandwhitelinetracking.2.2DescriptionofModuleParametersWhenthemoduledetectsanobstaclesignalinfront,thegreenindicatoronthecircuitboardlightsup,andtheOUTportcontinuouslyoutputsalow-levelsignal.Thedetectiondistanceofthismoduleis2~30cm,andthedetectionangleis35.Inaddition,thedetectiondistancecanbeadjustedbythepotentiometer:Byadjustingthepotentiometerclockwise,thedetectiondistanceincreases;Byadjustingthepotentiometercounterclockwise,thedetectiondistancedecreases;Thesensorisactiveinfraredreflectiondetection,sothereflectivityandshapeofthetargetisthekeytothedetectiondistance.Amongthem,theblackdetectiondistanceissmallandthewhiteislarge;thedistanceofsmallareasissmall,andthedistanceoflargeareasislarge;TheoutputportOUTofthesensormodulecanbedirectlyconnectedtotheIOportofthesingle-chipmicrocomputer,oritcandirectlydrivea5Vrelay;connectionmode:VCC-VCC;GND-GND;OUT-IO;TheLM393comparatorhasthecharacteristicsofstableoperation;3-5VDCpowersupplycanbeusedtopowerthemodule.Whenthepoweristurnedon,theredpowerindicatorlights;has3mmscrewholesforeasyfixingandinstallation;Circuitboardsize:3.2CM*1.4CM;Themodulehasadjustedthethresholdcomparisonvoltagethroughthepotentiometer.Unlessunderspecialcircumstances,pleasedonotadjustthepotentiometeratwill.2.3ModuleInterfaceDescriptionVCCexternal3.3V-5Vvoltage(canbedirectlyconnectedto5vmicrocontrollerand3.3vmicrocontroller);ConnectGNDexternallytoGND;OUTsmallboarddigitaloutputinterface(0and1);Theworkingcurrentiswithin10ma;BarriersensormoduleasshowninFigure3.Figure3.InfraredReflectiveSensorModuleIIILM393Ni-CdBatteryChargerThecost-effectivenickel-cadmiumbatterychargerformedbyLM393comparatorisshowninFigure4,whichhasthefollowingcharacteristics:Figure4.Nickel-CadmiumBatteryChargerConstantcurrentchargingisinterspersedwithlargecurrentdischarge.Theconstantcurrentchargingcurrentisabout300mA,andthedischargecurrentincreasesasthebatteryvoltageincreases.Whenthebatteryisnearlyfull,thedischargecurrentreaches400mA.Chargefor1.5secondsanddischargefor0.5secondsatintervals.Afterthehighcurrentchargingiscompleted,thereisabout5mAtricklecharging.Thebatteryvoltageisdetectedduringdischarge.Becausethevoltageduringchargingisalwayshigherthanthevoltageduringdischarging.Ifthereisanerrorbetweenthedetectionandtheactualworkingstateofthebatteryduringcharging,thedetectioncanmorereflectthecapacityofthebatterywhendischarging.Thenumberofrechargeablebatteriescanbe1to4.For500mAhnickel-cadmiumbatteries,thechargingtimeisabout2hours,whichcanmeetthegeneralneeds.IVLM393PWMModulationCircuitWeknowthatPWMgenerallyrequiresasawtoothwaveandacontrolvoltagetobecomparedwithacomparatortoobtainaPWMpulse.Thecomparator2ofLM393votagecomparatorwillbeusedasaPWMcomparator,whosenon-invertinginputendisthecontrolvoltageinputend,andtheinvertinginputendisthesawtoothwaveinputend.Theoutputterminal(pin7)isusedastheoutputterminaltosendthePWMdimmingsignaltotheIRNpinoftheIRS2540/1viatheisolationdiodeVD.TheLM393circuitofPWMModulationisshowninFigure5below.Figure5.PWMModulationCircuitThegenerationofthesawtoothwaveisrealizedbythecomparator1ofLM393.IfyoudonotlookatthecapacitorC1,thecomparator1isamultivibratorwithasquarewaveoutput.Inordertoobtainthesawtoothwave,acapacitorC1isconnectedinparallelwiththeCOMendoftheoutputendofthecomparator1.ThisisactuallythechargingprocessoftheoutputterminalsR1andC1ofthecomparator1.Ifthecapacitanceofthiscapacitorislargeenough,butbecausethechargingofC1requiresR1,andthedischargeofC1istheoutputtransistorofthecomparator,thentheriseandfallofthevoltageattheoutputofthecomparatorwillbeasymmetric,whichwillformanoscillatingsawtoothwave.Figure6.OscillatingSawtoothWaveDuetotheVBUSapplicationofthepowersupplyofthecircuitinthefigure,itneedstobesteppeddownwithRS,andthevoltageregulationofVD2andthepowersupplybypasscapacitorsC3andC4arerequired.Afterreadingtheblog,haveyoubetterunderstandLM393?IfyouarealsointerestedinhowtoDIYyoursolartrackingcarbyusingLM393,youmaywishtobrowserighthererightnow!Finally,ifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutLM393,pleasedonothesitatetoleaveamessageinthecommentsectionbelow!

JRC4580

IntroductionLM567isahigh-stabilitylow-frequencyintegratedphase-lockedloopdecoder.Duetoitsgoodnoisesuppressionabilityandcenterfrequencystability,itiswidelyusedinthedecodingofvariouscommunicationequipmentandthedemodulationcircuitofAMandFMsignals.LM567Imagesareforreferenceonly.LM567ToneDecoderCatalogIntroductionDocumentsandMediaPinConfigurationandFunctionsBasicParametersFeaturesApplicationsFunctionalBlockDiagramCircuitDiagramECCNUNSPSCProductManufacturerProductRangeOrdering&QuantityDocumentsandMediaComponentDatasheetsLM567(C)PinConfigurationandFunctionsThedatasheetprovidedaboveisforyourreference,sothatyoucanunderstandthephysicaldimensionsofallpackagesinmoredetail.Theconfigurationofall8pinsandthefunctionofeachpinareasfollows:PinConfigurationAndthefunctionofall8pinsandthefunctionofeachpinareasfollows:PinFunctionBasicParametersBrandNameTexasInstrumentsECCNCodeEAR99FactoryLeadTime1WeekHTSCode8542.39.00.01JESD-30CodeR-PDSO-G8JESD-609Codee3Length4.9mmManufacturerTexasInstrumentsManufacturerPartNumberLM567CMX/NOPBMoistureSensitivityLevel1NumberofFunctions1NumberofTerminals8OperatingTemperature-Max70CPackageBodyMaterialPLASTIC/EPOXYPackageCodeSOPPackageDescriptionSOP-8PackageEquivalenceCodeSOP8,.23PackageShapeRECTANGULARPackageStyleSMALLOUTLINEPartLifeCycleCodeActivePartPackageCodeSOICPbfreeCodeYesPeakReflowTemperature260℃PinCount8QualificationStatusNotQualifiedReachComplianceCodeCompliantRiskRank0.62RohsCodeYesSeatedHeight-Max1.75mmSupplyCurrent-Max15mASupplyVoltage-Nom5VSurfaceMountYESTelecomICTypeTONEDECODERCIRCUITTemperatureGradeCOMMERCIALTerminalFinishMatteTin(Sn)TerminalFormGULLWINGTerminalPitch1.27mmTerminalPositionDUALTime@PeakReflowTemperature-Max(s)NOTSPECIFIEDWidth3.91mmFeatures20to1FrequencyRangeWithanExternalResistorLogicCompatibleOutputWith100-mACurrentSinkingCapabilityBandwidthAdjustableFrom0to14%HighRejectionofOutofBandSignalsandNoiseImmunitytoFalseSignalsHighlyStableCenterFrequencyCenterFrequencyAdjustablefrom0.01Hzto500kHzApplicationsTheLM567tonedecoderisadevicecapableofdetectingwhetheraninputsignaliswithinaselectabledetectionrange.Thedevicehasanopencollectortransistoroutput,soanexternalresistorisrequiredtoreachtheappropriatelogiclevels.Whentheinputsignalisinthedetectionband,thedeviceoutputchangestotheLOWstate.TheinternalfreeoperatingfrequencyoftheVCOdefinesthecenterfrequencyofthedetectionband.AnexternalRCfilterisrequiredtoadjustthisfrequency.Thebandwidthinwhichthedevicewilldetectthedesiredfrequencydependsonthecapacityoftheloopfilterterminal.Usuallya1Fcapacitorisconnectedtothispin.LM567isgenerallyusedinthefollowingsituations:TouchToneDecodingPrecisionOscillatorFrequencyMonitoringandControlWideBandFSKDemodulationUltrasonicControlsCarrierCurrentRemoteControlsCommunicationsPagingDecodersFunctionalBlockDiagramCircuitDiagramThefollowingdescribestheclassiccircuitdiagramofthephase-lockedloopLM567usedincarriercommunicationapplications.Therearemanyapplicationsforit,butthethreecircuitsdescribedbelowhaveallbeentestedbypracticeforreferencebythosewholovecarriercommunication.ClassicCircuitDiagram(1)ClassicCircuitDiagram(2)ClassicCircuitDiagram(3)ECCNUNSPSCDescriptionValueECCNCodeEAR99HTSCode8542.39.00.01ProductManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.ProductRangeDevicesBoardsDeveloperToolsARMPROCESSORSAUTOMOTIVEPRODUCTSIDENTIFICATIONSECURITYKinetisCortex-MMicrocontrollersIn-VehicleNetworkNFCLPCCortex-MMicrocontrollersMicrocontrollersandProcessorsRFIDAfterreadingtheblog,haveyoubetterunderstandLM567?IfyouarealsointerestedinhowtouseLM567totestthespeedofyourmotorcycle,youmaywishtobrowserighthererightnow!Finally,ifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutLM567,pleasedonothesitatetoleaveamessageinthecommentsectionbelow!

IIntroductionLM567isatonedecodingphase-lockedloopintegratedcircuit.Itiscompactindesign,simpleincircuit,andhasawiderangeofapplications.However,ifusingimproperly,itwillbringtroublesindebugging.ThisblogintroducestheworkingprincipleandtipsabouthowtouseLM567tonedecoderforreadersreference.Figure1.LM567ToneDecoderCatalogIIntroductionIILM567InternalStructurePinFunctionIIILM567WorkingPrincipleApplicationIVTipsofUsingToneDecoderLM567Ordering&QuantityIILM567InternalStructurePinFunctionThenameofLM567isphase-lockedlooptonedecoder,itspackageformuses8-pindualin-line,itsinternalstructureandpinfunctionsareillustratedinFigure2.Itsinternalcircuitstructureiscomposedofquadraturephase,detector,phase-lockedloop,amplifier,etc.TheoperatingvoltagerangeofLM567is4.75-9V,theoperatingfrequencycanreach500KHz,andthestaticoperatingcurrentisonly8mA.Thepin③isthesignalinputterminal,whichrequirestheinputsignaltobegreaterthan25mV.Thepin⑧isthelogicoutputterminal.Itcanbeseenfromthefigurethatitisanopencollectortransistoroutput,whichallowsamaximumsinkcurrentof100mA.Theexternalresistanceandcapacitanceofpins⑤and⑥determinethecenterfrequencyf01/1.1RCofICinternalvoltagecontrolledoscillator.Pins①and②areusuallyconnectedtothegroundseparatelytoformanoutputfilternetworkandalooplow-passfilternetwork.Thecapacitorconnectedtopin②determinesthecapturebandwidth.Thelargerthevalueofthecapacitor,thenarrowertheloopbandwidthis.Figure2.TopViewofLM567IIILM567WorkingPrincipleApplicationWhenthetonedecoderLM567works,itsphase-lockedloopinternalcurrent-controlledoscillatorgeneratesanoscillationsignalofacertainfrequencyandphase.Thissignalissenttothequadraturephasedetectortogetherwiththesignalinputatpin③forcomparison.Whenthefrequencyofthesignalfallswithinagivenpassband,thephase-lockedlooplocksthissignal,andatthesametimetheinternaltransistoroftheLM567iscontrolledtobepoweredup,andtheoutputterminaloftheLM567outputslowlevel.The⑤pinofLM567outputstherectangularsignaloftheinternaloscillator,andthe⑥pinoutputsthesawtoothpulse.Thefrequencyofbothisthesameasthecenterfrequencyoftheinternaloscillator.The②pinistheoutputofthephase-lockedloopphasedetector.ThevoltageonisthesignalafterF/Vconversion.Ifthetonesignalisinputtothe②pin,thenthe⑤pinoutputstheFMsquarewavesignalmodulatedbythe②pininputsignal.FromthebasicfunctionofLM567,LM567canbeusedasanoscillator,modulatorordemodulator.Therefore,itcanbeusedasabasicdeviceinthecircuit.TheapplicationofLM567hasthefunctionofdecodingaspecificfrequencyintheinputsignal,anditiswidelyusedincommunication,remotecontrol,measurement,frequencymonitoring,etc.Figure3.LM567ToneDecoderIVTipsofUsingToneDecoderLM567AlthoughLM567hasaverywiderangeofapplications,ifitisnothandledproperlyduringdesignandapplication,itstillfailstoachievetheexpectedresults,andevenbringstroubletothedebuggingoraffectsthereliabilityoftheproduct.Therefore,itshouldbeconsideredfromthefollowingaspectswhenusingit:1.SetOperatingFrequencyandBandwidthofLM567AccuratelyandAppropriatelyWeknowthattheinternaloscillationfrequencyf0ofLM567canbepre-setwithintherangeof0.1KHzto500KHz,anditscorrespondingbandwidthcanalsobedeterminedasrequiredwithinthefieldrangeof7%f0to14%f0.Therefore,afterthedetectedsignalisdetermined,theinternaloscillationfrequencyf0ofLM567shouldbesettocoincidewiththecenterfrequencyofthemeasuredsignal,andthetimingcomponentsRandCconnectedwiththe5and6feetofLM567shouldbeusedwithhighprecision.Amongthem,thesettingofthecenterfrequencycanbedeterminedbytheresistancevalueofthetunerR.Whenadjusting,itisnecessarytopreventRshortcircuitoropencircuit,otherwisetheoutputlevelof⑧pinwillbelowlevelwhetherthereisinputsignalornot.Theexternalcapacitanceofthe②pinofLM567determinesthecapturebandwidth.Thesmallerthecapacity,thewiderthecapturebandwidth.However,thecapacitancecannotbereducedblindlytoincreasethebandwidth,soasnottoreducetheanti-interferenceabilityoreventriggerfalsely,whichaffectsthereliabilityoftheproduct.2.MaketheCenterFrequencyofthePassbandCoincidewiththeCenterFrequencyoftheOscillationAsMuchAsPossibleItshouldbenotedthatthecenterfrequencyofthepassbanddoesnotalwayscoincidewiththecenterfrequencyoftheoscillator,andsometimesitwilldeviateseverely.Thiswillinevitablycauseadecreaseinreliabilityandsensitivity.Therefore,measuresshouldbetakentomakethetwocenterscoincideasmuchaspossible.ThecircuitshowninFigure4canminimizethefrequencyoffsetofthetwocenters.Figure4.CircuitofLM5673.WorkingVoltageofLM567ShouldBeStableThestabilityoftheoperatingvoltageoftheLM567hasafixedresponsetothestabilityofthecenterfrequencyofthetonedecoder.4.AvoidMisoperationWhentheOutputTerminalisPoweredOnLM567outputsalowlevelatthemomentwhenthepoweristurnedon.Therefore,forsomeremotecontrolcircuits,itisnecessarytoaddaCRintegrationdelaycircuittotheoutputendtoavoiderroneousoperationwhenthepoweristurnedon.Thisisespeciallyimportantintheon-offcontrolcircuit.Afterreadingtheblog,haveyoubetterunderstandLM567?Finally,ifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutLM567,pleasedonothesitatetoleaveamessageinthecommentsectionbelow!DescriptionLM317isaadjustable3-terminalpositive-voltageregulator,thisbolgcoversLM317regulatoralternative,datasheet,applications,featuresandotherinformationonhowtouseandwheretousethisdevice.ABasicIntroductiontoLM317VoltageRegulatorCatalogDescriptionLM317PinoutLM317FeaturesLM317ApplicationsLM317CircuitLM317ParametersLM317CADModelLM317AdvantageLM317ElectricalCharacteristicsLM317PackageLM317AlternativesLM317EquivalentsWheretouseLM317HowtouseLM317LM317ManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityLM317PinoutPinNumberPinNameDescription1AdjustThispinsadjuststheoutputvoltage2OutputVoltage(Vout)Theregulatedoutputvoltagesetbytheadjustpincanbeobtainedfromthispin3InputVoltage(Vin)TheinputvoltagewhichhastoberegulatedisgiventothispinLM317FeaturesOutputvoltagerangeadjustablefrom1.25Vto37VOutputcurrentgreaterthan1.5AInternalshort-circuitcurrentlimitingThermaloverloadprotectionOutputsafe-areacompensationLM317ApplicationsATCAsolutionsDLP:3Dbiometrics,hyperspectralimaging,opticalnetworking,andspectroscopyDVRandDVSDesktopPCsDigitalsignageandstillcamerasECGelectrocardiogramsEVHEVchargers:levels1,2,and3ElectronicshelflabelsEnergyharvestingEthernetswitchesFemtobasestationsFingerprintandirisbiometricsHVAC:heating,ventilating,andairconditioningHigh-speeddataacquisitionandgenerationHydraulicvalvesIPphones:wiredandwirelessIntelligentoccupancysensingMotorcontrols:brushedDC,brushlessDC,lowvoltage,permanentmagnet,andsteppermotorsPoint-to-pointmicrowavebackhaulsPowerbanksolutionsPowerlinecommunicationmodemsPoweroverethernet(PoE)PowerqualitymetersPowersubstationcontrolsPrivatebranchexchanges(PBX)ProgrammablelogiccontrollersRFIDreadersRefrigeratorsSignalorwaveformgeneratorsSoftware-definedradios(SDR)Washingmachines:high-endandlow-endX-rays:baggagescanners,medical,anddentalLM317CircuitLM317ParametersOutputoptionsAdjustableOutputIout(Max)(A)1.5Vin(Max)(V)40Vin(Min)(V)3Vout(Max)(V)37Vout(Min)(V)1.25Noise(uVrms)38Iq(Typ)(mA)5ThermalresistanceJA(C/W)24Approx.price(US$)1ku|0.14Loadcapacitance(Min)(F)0RatingCatalogRegulatedoutputs(#)1FeaturesAccuracy(%)5PSRR@100KHz(dB)38Dropoutvoltage(Vdo)(Typ)(mV)2000Operatingtemperaturerange(C)0to125IhsManufacturerTEXASINSTRUMENTSINCBrandNameTexasInstrumentsLM317CADModelPackagePinsDownloadDDPAK/TO-263(KTT)3ViewoptionsSOT-223(DCY)4ViewoptionsTO-220(KCS)3ViewoptionsTO-220(KCT)3ViewoptionsLM317ElectricalCharacteristicsOverrecommendedrangesofoperatingvitualjunctiontemperature(unlessotherwisenoted)LM317PackageDDPAK/TO-263(KTT)SOT-223(DCY)TO-220(KCS)TO-220(KCT)LM317AlternativesSharethesamefunctionalityandpinoutbutisnotanequivalenttothecompareddevice:LM7805,LM7806,LM7809,LM7812,LM7905,LM7912,LM117V33,XC6206P332MR.LM317EquivalentsLT1086,LM1117(SMD),PB137,LM337(NegativeVariableVoltageregulator)WheretouseLM317WhenitcomestovariablevoltageregulationrequirementsLM317wouldmostlikelybethefirstchoice.Apartfromusingitasavariablevoltageregulator,itcanalsobeusedasafixedvoltageregulator,currentlimiter,Batterycharger,ACvoltageregulatorandevenasanadjustablecurrentregulator.OnenotabledrawbackofthisICisthatithasavoltagedropofabout2.5acrossitduringregulation,soifyoulookingtoavoidthatproblemlookintotheotherequivalentICsgivenabove.So,ifyouarelookingforavariablevoltageregulatortodelivercurrentupto1.5AthenthisregulatorICmightbetherightchoiceforyourapplication.HowtouseLM317LM317isa3-terminalregulatorICanditisverysimpletouse.Ithasmanyapplicationcircuitsinitsdatasheet,butthisICisknownforbeingusedasavariablevoltageregulator.So,letslookintohowtousethisICasavariablevoltageregulator.AssaidearliertheIChas3pins,inwhichtheinputvoltageissuppliedtopin3(VIN)thenusingapairofresistors(potentialdivider)wesetavoltageatpin1(Adjust)whichwilldecidetheoutputvoltageoftheICthatisgivenoutatpin2(VOUT).Nowtomakeitactasavariablevoltageregulatorwehavetosetvariablevoltagesatpin1whichcanbedonebyusingapotentiometerinthepotentialdivider.Thebelowcircuitisdesignedtotake12V(youcansupplyupto24V)asinputandregulateitfrom1.25Vto10V.TheResistorR1(1K)andthepotentiometer(10k)togethercreatesapotentialdifferenceatadjustpinwhichregulatestheoutputpinaccordingly.TheformulaetocalculatetheOutputvoltagebasedonthevalueofresistorsisVOUT=1.25(1+(R2/R1))Now,letsverifythisformulafortheabovecircuit.ThevalueofR1is1000ohmsandthevalueofR2(potentiometer)is5000becauseitisa10kpotentiometerplacedat50%(50/100of1000is5000).Vout=1.25(1+(5000/1000))=1.256=7.5VAndthesimulationshows7.7Vwhichisprettymuchclose.Youcanvarytheoutputvoltagebysimplyvaryingthepotentiometer.Inourcircuit,amotorisconnectedasaloadwhichconsumesaround650mAyoucanconnectanyloadupto1.5A.Thesameformulaecanalsobeusedtocalculatethevalueofresistorforyourequiredoutputvoltage.Oneeasywaytodothisistousethisonlinecalculatortorandomlysubstitutethevalueofresistorsyouhaveandcheckwhichoutputvoltageyouwillget.LM317ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.ComponentDatasheetLM317DatasheetFAQWhatislm317usedfor?TheLM317servesawidevarietyofapplicationsincludinglocal,oncardregulation.Thisdevicecanalsobeusedtomakeaprogrammableoutputregulator,orbyconnectingafixedresistorbetweentheadjustmentandoutput,theLM317canbeusedasaprecisioncurrentregulator.Whatisthemaximuminputvoltageoflm317?TheLM317isanadjustablevoltagelinearregulatorthatcanoutput1.2537Vatupto1.5Acurrentwithaninputvoltagerangeof340V.Whatisthedifferencebetweenlm317andlm317t?Member.Thereisnofunctionaldifferenceastheyareoneinthesame.TheTattheendjustindicatesthatitsinaTO-220package.Theyusuallytagonextrathingsafterthepartnametoreferencethingslikepackage,temprange,etc.Islm317atransistor?TheLM317isanadjustablethree-terminalpositive-voltageregulatorcapableofsupplyingmorethan1.5Aoveranoutput-voltagerangeof1.25Vto32V....Byusingaheat-sinkedpasstransistorsuchasa2N3055(Q1)wecanproduceseveralampsofcurrentfarabovethe1.5ampsoftheLM317.Howdoesanlm317work?Thecircuitconsistsofalow-sideresistorandhigh-sideresistorconnectedinseriesformingaresistivevoltagedividerwhichisapassivelinearcircuitusedtoproduceanoutputvoltagewhichisafractionofitsinputvoltage.WhatisIClm317?TheLM317deviceisanadjustablethree-terminalpositive-voltageregulatorcapableofsupplyingmorethan1.5Aoveranoutput-voltagerangeof1.25Vto37V.Itrequiresonlytwoexternalresistorstosettheoutputvoltage.Thedevicefeaturesatypicallineregulationof0.01%andtypicalloadregulationof0.1%.HowdoIknowifmylm317isworking?Testinglm317t.Ifyoulooktotheic,thelegstowardsyou,therightoneistheinputpin.youmustseeadifferenceofminimum1.2Vbetweenthetwopins,otherwisetheICisfaulty.furthermore,thefirsttestistoseeifyouhaveinputvoltage!Whatistheworkingpricipleoflm317?LM317worksonaverysimpleprinciple.Itisavariablevoltageregulatori.e.supportsdifferentoutputvoltagelevelsforaconstantappliedinputvoltagesupply.HowtomakeasimplevoltageregulatorcircuitusingLM317?

DescriptionLM339(Quaddifferentialcomparator)consistoffourindependentvoltagecomparators.Itisacommonintegratedcircuitandismainlyusedinhigh-voltagedigitallogicgatecircuits.UsingLM339caneasilyformvariousvoltagecomparatorcircuitsandoscillatorcircuits.CatalogDescriptionComponentDatasheetLM339PinoutBasicParametersFeaturesApplicationPinFunctionListCircuitDiagramPackageElectricalCharacteristicsInstructionsProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityComponentDatasheetComparatorDatasheetLM339DatasheetLM339PinoutLM339PinoutBasicParametersParameternameSymbolNumericalvalueunitsupplyvoltageVCC18or36VDifferentialmodeinputvoltageVID36VCommonmodeinputvoltageVI-0.3~VCCVPowerdissipationPd570mWWorkingenvironmenttemperatureTopr0to+70℃StoragetemperatureTstg-65to150℃FeaturesLowvoltageoffset,generally2mVThecommon-modevoltagerangeisverylarge,from0vtothepowersupplyvoltageminus1.5vTheinternalresistancelimittothesignalsourceisverywideSingleSupplyOperation:2-36VDualSupplyOperation:1V-18VThepotentialofoutputcanbeselectedflexiblyandconvenientlyLM339issimilartooperationalamplifierwithnon-adjustablegain.Eachcomparatorhastwoinputsandoneoutput.Oneofthetwoinputterminalsiscalledthenon-invertinginputterminal,whichisrepresentedby+,andtheotheriscalledtheinvertinginputterminal,whichisrepresentedby-.Whencomparingtwovoltages,addafixedvoltageasareferencevoltageatanyinputterminal,andaddasignalvoltagetobecomparedattheotherterminal.Whenthevoltageatthe+terminalishigherthanthe-terminal,theoutputtubewillcutoff.Whenthevoltageofthe-terminalishigherthanthe+terminal,theoutputtubeissaturated.Thevoltagedifferencebetweenthetwoinputterminalsisgreaterthan10mV,whichcanensurethattheoutputcanbereliablyswitchedfromonestatetoanotherstate.Therefore,itisidealtousetheLM339inweaksignaloccasions.TheoutputterminalofLM339isequivalenttoacrystaltransistorthatisnotconnectedtothecollectorresistor.Whenusing,theoutputterminaltothepositivepowersupplygenerallyneedstobeconnectedtoaresistor(calledpull-upresistor).Choosingpull-upresistorswithdifferentresistancevalueswillaffectthevalueofthehighpotentialattheoutput.Becausewhentheoutputtransistorisoff,itscollectorvoltagebasicallydependsonthevalueofthepull-upresistorandtheload.Inaddition,theoutputofeachcomparatorisallowedtobeconnectedtogether.ApplicationIndustrialAutomotiveInfotainmentandClustersBodyControlModulePowerSupervisionOscillatorsPeakDetectorsLogicVoltageTranslationPinFunctionListPinNumberPinfunctionSymbolPinNumberPinfunctionSymbol1Output2OUT28Invertinginput31N-(3)2Output1OUT19Forwardinput31N+(3)3PowerSupplyVCC+10Invertinginput41N-(4)4Invertinginput11N-(1)11Forwardinput41N+(4)5Positiveinput11N+(1)12PowerSupplyVcc6Invertinginput21N-(2)13Output4OUT47Forwardinput2OUT2(2)14Output3OUT3CircuitDiagramLM339CircuitDiagramPackageLM339PackageElectricalCharacteristicsVCC=5.0V,Tamb=25℃,unlessotherwisestatedParameternameSymbolTestconditionsMinimumTypicalMaximumunitInputoffsetvoltageVIOVCM=0toVCC-1.5VO(P)=1.4V,Rs=0-1.05.0mVInputoffsetcurrentIIO--550nAInputbiascurrentIb--65250nACommonmodeinputvoltageVIC-0-VCC-1.5VQuiescentCurrentICCVCC=+5V,noload-1.12.0mAVCC=+30V,noload-1.32.5mAVoltagegainAVVCC=15V,RL>15k-200-V/mVSinkcurrentIsinkVi(-)>1V,Vi(+)=0V,Vo(p)<1.5V616-mAOutputleakagecurrentIOLEVi(-)=0V,Vi(+)=1V,VO=5V-0.1-nAInstructionsTheLM339seriesarehighgain,widebandwidthdeviceswhich,likemostcomparators,caneasilyoscillateiftheoutputleadisinadvertentlyallowedtocapacitivelycoupletotheinputsviastraycapacitance.Thisshowsuponlyduringtheoutputvoltagetransitionintervalsasthecomparatorchangesstates.Powersupplybypassingisnotrequiredtosolvethisproblem.StandardPCboardlayoutishelpfulasitreducesstrayinput-outputcoupling.Reducingthisinputresistorsto10kreducesthefeedbacksignallevelsandfinally,addingevenasmallamount(1to10mv)ofpositivefeedback(hysteresis)causessucharapidtransitionthatoscillationsduetostrayfeedbackarenotpossible.SimplysocketingtheICandattachingresistorstothepinswillcauseinput-outputoscillationsduringthesmalltransitionintervalsunlesshysteresisisused.Iftheinputsignalisapulsewaveform,withrelativelyfastriseandfalltimes,hysteresisisnotrequired.Allpinsofanyunusedcomparatorsshouldbetiedtothenegativesupply.ThebiasnetworkofLM339establishesadraincurrentwhichisindependentofthemagnitudeofthepowersupplyvoltageovertherangeoffrom2Vto30V.Itisusuallyunnecessarytouseabypasscapacitoracrossthepowersupplyline.ThedifferentialinputvoltagemaybelargerthanV+withoutdamagingthedevice.Protectionshouldbeprovidedtopreventtheinputvoltagesfromgoingnegativemorethan-0.3VDC(at25℃).Aninputclampdiodecanbeusedasshownintheapplicationssection.TheoutputoftheLM339istheuncommittedcollectorofagrounded-emitterNPNoutputtransistor.ManycollectorscanbetiedtogethertoprovideanoutputORingfunction.Anoutputpull-upresistorcanbeconnectedtoanyavailablepowersupplyvoltagewithinthepermittedsupplyvoltagerangeandthereisnorestrictiononthisvoltageduetothemagnitudeofthevoltagewhichisappliedtotheV+terminaloftheLM1339package.TheoutputcanalsobeusedasasimpleSPSTswitchtoground(whenapull-upresistorisnotused).Theamountofcurrentwhichtheoutputdevicecansinkislimitedbythedriveavailable(whichisindependentofV+)andtheofthisdevice.Whenthemaximumcurrentlimitisreached(approximately16mA),theoutputtransistorwillcomeoutofsaturationandtheoutputvoltagewillriseveryrapidly.Theoutputsaturationvoltageislimitedbytheapproximately60RSAToftheoutputtransistor.Thelowoffsetvoltageoftheoutputtransistor(1mV)allowstheoutputtoclampessentiallytogroundlevelforsmallloadcurrents.ProductManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.FAQWhatisLM339?LM339isavoltagecomparatorICfromLMx39xseriesandismanufacturedbymanyindustries.Thedevicesconsistoffourindependentvoltagecomparatorsthataredesignedtooperatefromasinglepowersupply.WhatisthedifferencebetweenLM324andLM339?TheLM324hasacomplementaryoutputwhiletheLM339isopencollector.Inthecomplementaryoutput,currentcanflowineitherdirectionasrequired(eithersourceorsink)whiletheopencollectoroutputcanonlysinkcurrent.HowdoesLM339comparatorwork?TheLM339isaquadopampcomparator.Acomparatorworksbyasimpleconcept.Eachopampofacomparatorhas2inputs,ainvertinginputandanoninvertinginput.Iftheinvertinginputvoltageisgreaterthanthenoninvertinginput,thentheoutputisdrawntoground.Whatiscomparatoric?Acomparatorisanelectroniccircuit,whichcomparesthetwoinputsthatareappliedtoitandproducesanoutput.Theoutputvalueofthecomparatorindicateswhichoftheinputsisgreaterorlesser.Pleasenotethatcomparatorfallsundernon-linearapplicationsofICs.WhatisthereplacementforLM339?LM311,LM324,LM397,LM139,LM239,LM2901Whatisacomparatorcircuit?Acomparatorcircuitcomparestwovoltagesandoutputseithera1(thevoltageattheplusside;VDDintheillustration)ora0(thevoltageatthenegativeside)toindicatewhichislarger.Comparatorsareoftenused,forexample,tocheckwhetheraninputhasreachedsomepredeterminedvalue.WhatistheuseofLM339?LM339isusedinapplicationswhereacomparisonbetweentwovoltagesignalsisrequired.Inadditionwithfourofthosecomparatorsonboardthedevicecancomparefourpairsofvoltagesignalsatatimewhichcomesinhandyinsomeapplications.DescriptionThe74HC595isanhighspeedCMOS8-BITSHIFTREGISTERS/OUTPUTLATCHES(3-STATE)fabricatedwithsilicongateC2MOStechnology.Thisdevicecontainsan8-bitserial-in,parallel-outshiftregisterthatfeedsan8-bitD-typestorageregister.Thestorageregisterhas83-STATEoutputs.Separateclocksareprovidedforboththeshiftregisterandthestorageregister.Theshiftregisterhasadirect-overridingclear,serialinput,andserialoutput(standard)pinsforcascading.Boththeshiftregisterandstorageregisterusepositive-edgetriggeredclocks.Ifbothclocksareconnectedtogether,theshiftregisterstatewillalwaysbeoneclockpulseaheadofthestorageregister.Allinputsareequippedwithprotectioncircuitsagainststaticdischargeandtransientexcessvoltage.TheShiftRegister:Explained[74HC595]CatalogDescriptionFeaturesApplicationPinoutLogicDiagramParametersComponentDatasheetPackageProductManufacturerFAQOrdering&QuantityFeaturesLowquiescentcurrent:80AmaximumLowinputcurrent:1Amaximum8-bitserial-in,parallel-outshiftregisterwithstorageWideoperatingvoltagerange:2V~6VShiftregisterhasdirectclearGuaranteedshiftfrequency:DCto30MHzPackage:SOP16ApplicationSerial-to-paralleldataconversionRemotecontrolholdingregisterPinoutPinNo.SymbolNameandFunction1,2,3,4,5,6,7,15QAtoQHDataoutput8GNDGround(0V)9QHSerialdataoutput10SCLRShiftregisterclearinput11SCKShiftregisterclockinput12RCKStorageregisterclockinput13GOutputenableinput14SISerialdatainput16VCCPositivesupplyvoltageLogicDiagramParametersBrandNameDiodesLow-powerconsumptionWhenTA=25℃,Icc=4A(MAX)LowquiescentcurrentMaximum80ALowinputcurrentMaximum1AWideoperatingvoltagerange2V-6VPackageDIP16/SOP16ComponentDatasheetDatasheet74HC595DatasheetPackageProductManufacturerDiodesIncorporatedisaleadingglobalmanufacturerandsupplierofhigh-qualityapplicationspecificstandardproductswithinthebroaddiscrete,logic,analog,andmixed-signalsemiconductormarkets.DiodescorporateheadquartersandAmericassalesofficearelocatedinPlano,Texas,andMilpitas,California.Diodesservetheconsumerelectronics,computing,communications,industrial,andautomotivemarkets.Diodesproductsincludediodes,rectifiers,transistors,MOSFETs,protectiondevices,function-specificarrays,singlegatelogic,amplifiersandcomparators,Hall-effectandtemperaturesensors,powermanagementdevices,includingLEDdrivers,AC-DCconvertersandcontrollers,DC-DCswitchingandlinearvoltageregulators,andvoltagereferencesalongwithspecialfunctiondevices,suchasUSBpowerswitches,loadswitches,voltagesupervisors,andmotorcontrollers.FAQWhatis74HC595?74HC595isashiftregisterwhichworksonSerialINParallelOUTprotocol.Itreceivesdataseriallyfromthemicrocontrollerandthensendsoutthisdatathroughparallelpins.Wecanincreaseouroutputpinsby8usingthesinglechip.Whatisa74hc595n?8-bitShiftRegister74HC595NAshiftregisterisachipyoucanusetocontrolmanyoutputs(8here)atthesametimewhileonlyusingafewpins(3here)ofyourArduino.Howdoesashiftregisterwork?Shiftregistersholdthedataintheirmemorywhichismovedorshiftedtotheirrequiredpositionsoneachclockpulse.Eachclockpulseshiftsthecontentsoftheregisteronebitpositiontoeithertheleftortheright.How74HC595ShiftRegiesterworks?The595hastworegisters(whichcanbethoughtofasmemorycontainers),eachwithjust8bitsofdata.ThefirstoneiscalledtheShiftRegister.TheShiftRegisterliesdeepwithintheICcircuits,quietlyacceptinginput.Howdoesan8bitshiftregisterwork?TheSN74HC595Nisasimple8-bitshiftregisterIC.Simplyput,thisshiftregisterisadevicethatallowsadditionalinputsoroutputstobeaddedtoamicrocontrollerbyconvertingdatabetweenparallelandserialformats.YourchosenmicroprocessorisabletocommunicatewiththeTheSN74HC595Nusingserialinformationthengathersoroutputsinformationinaparallel(multi-pin)format.Essentiallyittakes8bitsfromtheserialinputandthenoutputsthemto8pins.

DescriptionTheMMBT3904LT1GisaNPNsiliconBipolarTransistor,designedforuseinlinear,lowerpowersurfacemountandswitchingapplications.MMBT3904LT1GHowdoesatransistorwork?CatalogMMBT3904LT1GDescriptionMMBT3904LT1GPinoutMMBT3904LT1GFeaturesMMBT3904LT1GMarkingDiagramMMBT3904LT1GCADModelsMMBT3904LT1GFunctionalEquivalentsMMBT3904LT1GPackageOutlinesMMBT3904LT1GPopularitybyRegionMMBT3904LT1GMarketingPriceAnalysisMMBT3904LT1GManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQOrdering&QuantityMMBT3904LT1GPinoutMMBT3904LT1GFeaturesTheseDevicesarePbFree,HalogenFree/BFRFreeandareRoHSCompliantSPrefixforAutomotiveandOtherApplicationsRequiringUniqueSiteandControlChangeRequirements;AECQ101QualifiedandPPAPCapableMMBT3904LT1GMarkingDiagramMMBT3904LT1GCADModelsPartSymbolFootprint3DModelMMBT3904LT1GFunctionalEquivalentsMMBT3904LT1GPackageOutlinesMMBT3904LT1GPopularitybyRegionMMBT3904LT1GMarketingPriceAnalysisMMBT3904LT1GManufacturerONSemiconductor(Nasdaq:ON)isdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ONSemiconductoroperatesaresponsive,reliable,world-classsupplychainandqualityprogram,andanetworkofmanufacturingfacilities,salesofficesanddesigncentersinkeymarketsthroughoutNorthAmerica,Europe,andtheAsiaPacificregions.ComponentDatasheetMMBT3904LT1GDatasheetFAQWhatisMMBT3904LT1G?TheMMBT3904LT1GisaNPNsiliconBipolarTransistor,designedforuseinlinear,lowerpowersurfacemountandswitchingapplications.Whatisatransistor?Atransistorisasemiconductordeviceusedtoamplifyorswitchelectronicsignalsandelectricalpower.Itiscomposedofsemiconductormaterialusuallywithatleastthreeterminalsforconnectiontoanexternalcircuit.WhatisPNPtransistor?APNPtransistorisabipolarjunctiontransistorconstructedbysandwichinganN-typesemiconductorbetweentwoP-typesemiconductors.APNPtransistorhasthreeterminalsaCollector(C),Emitter(E)andBase(B).ThePNPtransistorbehavesliketwoPNjunctionsdiodesconnectedbacktoback.Whatdoesatransistordo?Atransistor,alsoknownasaBJT(BipolarJunctionTransistor),isacurrentdrivensemiconductordevicewhichcanbeusedtocontroltheflowofelectriccurrentinwhichasmallamountofcurrentintheBaseleadcontrolsalargercurrentbetweentheCollectorandEmitter.Howmanytypesoftransistorarethere?Transistorsarebasicallyclassifiedintotwotypes;theyareBipolarJunctionTransistors(BJT)andFieldEffectTransistors(FET).TheBJTsareagainclassifiedintoNPNandPNPtransistors.TheFETtransistorsareclassifiedintoJFETandMOSFET.Whatistransistordiagram?DiagramAshowsanNPNtransistorwhichisoftenusedasatypeofswitch.Asmallcurrentorvoltageatthebaseallowsalargervoltagetoflowthroughtheothertwoleads(fromthecollectortotheemitter).ThecircuitshownindiagramBisbasedonanNPNtransistor.Whentheswitchispressedacurrentpassesthroughtheresistorintothebaseofthetransistor.Thetransistorthenallowscurrenttoflowfromthe+9voltstothe0vs,andthelampcomeson.Thetransistorhastoreceiveavoltageatitsbaseanduntilthishappensthelampdoesnotlight.Whatarethetwomainappilcationsoftransistor?Transistorsarecommonlyusedindigitalcircuitsaselectronicswitcheswhichcanbeeitherinanonoroffstate,bothforhigh-powerapplicationssuchasswitched-modepowersuppliesandforlow-powerapplicationssuchaslogicgates.DescriptionBC327isageneralpurposePNPtransistor,todaywewilldiscussaboutitspinoutconfiguration,equivalent,uses,packagedimensionsandmanyotherdetails.BC327UsingTransistorsBC327BC337toMakeaMiniPowerfulAudioAmplifierCatalogueDescriptionBC327IntroductionBC327PinConfigurationBC327MarkingDiagramBC327TechnicalSpecificationsBC327CADModelsBC327ApplicationsBC327PackageDimensionsBC327FunctionalEquivalentsBC327PopularitybyRegionWhereandHowtoUseBC327HowtoGetLongTermPerformancefromBC327BC327ManufacturerComponentDatasheetOrdering&QuantityBC327IntroductionBC327isageneralpurposePNPBJPtransistorthatcanbeusedforswitchingandamplificationpurposesinelectroniccircuits.Thetransistorfeatures800mAcollectorcurrenthenceitcanbeusedtodrivevarietyofloadsinanelectronicapplication.Themaxcollector-emittervoltageis-45Vthereforeitcaneasilyhandleloadvoltageunder45V.Apartfromthattransistoralsofeatures625mWcollectordissipationandDCcurrentgainofmaximum630thereforeitcanalsobeusedasanaudioamplifierorforanytypeofsignalamplification.BC327manufacturedindifferenthFEclassificationthatcanbedifferentiatewiththecodenumberwrittenafterthetransistornumber.Ifyoufindcode-16afterthetransistornumberthenthehFEwillbe100~250,ifthecodeis-25thenthehFEwillbe160~400andifthecodeis-40thenthehFEwillbe250~630.BC327PinConfigurationPinNumberPinNameDescription1CollectorCurrentflowsinthroughcollector,normallyconnectedtoload2BaseControlsthebiasingoftransistor,UsedtoturnONorOFFthetransistor3EmitterCurrentDrainsoutthroughemitter,normallyconnectedtogroundBC327MarkingDiagramBC327TechnicalSpecificationsPackageType:TO-92TransistorType:PNPMaxCollectorCurrent(IC):-800mAMaxCollector-EmitterVoltage(VCE):-45VMaxCollector-BaseVoltage(VCB):-50VMaxEmitter-BaseVoltage(VBE):-5VMaxCollectorDissipation(Pc):625MilliwattMaxTransitionFrequency(fT):100MHzMinimumMaximumDCCurrentGain(hFE):100to630MaxStorageOperatingtemperatureShouldbe:-55to+150CentigradeBC327CADModelsBC327PartSymbolBC327FootprintBC327ApplicationsOutputofMicrocontrollerstoDriveLoadsAnyTypeofSignalAmplificationAudioamplifierAudioAmpStagesDriveLoadsUnder800mABC327PackageDimensionsBC327FunctionalEquivalentsBC327PopularitybyRegionWhereandHowtoUseBC327LikeotheressentialgeneralpurposetransistorstheBC327isalsoamustofhavetransistorinyourlabbecauseitcanbeusedinwidevarietyofapplications.Itcanbeusedasaswitchtodriveloadsupto800mAwhichincludeshighpowerrelays,highpowertransistors,highpowerLEDs,ICsandotherpartsofacircuit.With-5Vemitter-basevoltagethistransistorcanalsobeusedastheoutputofmicrocontrollerstodriveloadofupto800mAwhichcaneasilydrivemotors,modules,sensorsetc.HowtoGetLongTermPerformancefromBC327Togetlongtermgoodperformancewiththistransistorinyourelectronicapplicationsitisrecommendedtonotdriveloadmorethan0.8Aor800mA,donotdriveloadormorethan-45V,alwaysuseasuitablebaseresistorwiththetransistor.Donotstoreoroperatethistransistorintemperaturebelow-55centigradeandabove+150centigradeandalwayscheckpinconfigurationbeforeplacinginthecircuit.BC327ManufacturerONSemiconductor(Nasdaq:ON)isdrivingenergyefficientinnovations,empoweringcustomerstoreduceglobalenergyuse.Thecompanyoffersacomprehensiveportfolioofenergyefficientpowerandsignalmanagement,logic,discreteandcustomsolutionstohelpdesignengineerssolvetheiruniquedesignchallengesinautomotive,communications,computing,consumer,industrial,LEDlighting,medical,military/aerospaceandpowersupplyapplications.ONSemiconductoroperatesaresponsive,reliable,world-classsupplychainandqualityprogram,andanetworkofmanufacturingfacilities,salesofficesanddesigncentersinkeymarketsthroughoutNorthAmerica,Europe,andtheAsiaPacificregions.ComponentDatasheetBC327Datasheet

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