Tkool Electronics

TL082isanOpAmpIC.Indetail,itisahighspeedJFETinputdualoperationalamplifier.Highspeed,lowcost,thisdevicecomeswithaninternaltrimmedoffsetvoltage.Itisavailablewithafastslewrate,alargebandwidthgain,andalowpowersupply.ThisblogprovidesyouwithabasicoverviewoftheTL082op-amp,includingitspindescriptions,functionsandspecifications,producers,etc.,tohelpyouquicklyunderstandwhatTL082is.Ifthisblogcanbehelpfultoyou,wewillbeveryhonored.Ofcourse,ifyouhaveanyquestions,donothesitatetoleaveyourcomments.Circuits:MagnetMotionDetectorusingTL082Op-AmpCatalogTL082PinoutTL082CircuitTL082ApplicationsTL082FeaturesTL082AdvantageTL082PackageTL082ParametersTL082ManufacturerTL082DocumentsComponentDatasheetTL082PinoutTL082CircuitSchematicforInvertingAmplifierApplication100-kHzQuadratureOscillatorTL082FunctionalBlockDiagramTL082ApplicationsSolarenergy:stringandcentralinverterMotordrives:ACandservodrivecontrolandpowerstagemodulesSinglephaseonlineUPSThreephaseUPSProaudiomixersBatterytestequipmentTL082FeaturesWidecommon-modeRejectionratioof70dBto86dBandwidevoltagesupplyrangeAlowinputbiascurrentLessPowerRequirementInternalfrequencycompensationSupplycurrentis1.4mAwhichisverylowLowoffsetcurrentNorequirementofalatchHighinputimpedanceJFETinputstageShort-circuitprotectionforoutputAlargegainbandwidthof3MHzHighinputimpedanceSlewrateishightypically16V/sOperatingtemperaturerangeisfrom55Cto+125CTL082AdvantageTL082OpAmpTheTL082isahigh-speed,low-cost,wide-bandwidthdualJFETinputoperationalamplifier.Thecomponenthasaninternallytrimmedoffsetvoltage.Ithasafastslewrateandlowsupplycurrent.ThisJFETinputdevicecanbeextendedwithlowoffsetandinputbiascurrents.TheTL082iselectricallycompatiblewiththeLM1558andisusedtoimprovetheoverallperformanceoftheLM1558device.Withhighinputimpedanceandlowtotalharmonicdistortion,thisdevicefeatureslownoiseandoffsetvoltagedrift.Theamplifieriswidelyusedinaudiopreamplifiers,sample-and-holdamplifiersandpeakdetectors,andactivefilters.TL082PackagePDIP(P)SO(PS)SOIC(D)TSSOP(PW)TL082ParametersNumberofchannels(#)2Totalsupplyvoltage(Max)(+5V=5,+/-5V=10)30Totalsupplyvoltage(Min)(+5V=5,+/-5V=10)7Rail-to-railIntoV+GBW(Typ)(MHz)3Slewrate(Typ)(V/us)13Vos(offsetvoltage@25C)(Max)(mV)6Iqperchannel(Typ)(mA)1.4Vnat1kHz(Typ)(nV/rtHz)18RatingCatalogOperatingtemperaturerange(C)-40to85,0to70Offsetdrift(Typ)(uV/C)18FeaturesStandardAmpsInputbiascurrent(Max)(pA)200CMRR(Typ)(dB)86Outputcurrent(Typ)(mA)10ArchitectureFETTL082ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentsfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.TL082DocumentsWhatisanopamp?HowtolayoutaPCBforhigh-performance,low-sidecurrent-sensingdesignsCompensationMethodologyforErrorinSKLow-PassFilter,CausedbyLimitedGBWComponentDatasheetTL082Datasheet

STM32F042C4T6-48-LQFP-STMicroelectronics

TL082isanOpAmpIC.Indetail,itisahighspeedJFETinputdualoperationalamplifier.Highspeed,lowcost,thisdevicecomeswithaninternaltrimmedoffsetvoltage.Itisavailablewithafastslewrate,alargebandwidthgain,andalowpowersupply.ThisblogprovidesyouwithabasicoverviewoftheTL082op-amp,includingitspindescriptions,functionsandspecifications,producers,etc.,tohelpyouquicklyunderstandwhatTL082is.Ifthisblogcanbehelpfultoyou,wewillbeveryhonored.Ofcourse,ifyouhaveanyquestions,donothesitatetoleaveyourcomments.Circuits:MagnetMotionDetectorusingTL082Op-AmpCatalogTL082PinoutTL082CircuitTL082ApplicationsTL082FeaturesTL082AdvantageTL082PackageTL082ParametersTL082ManufacturerTL082DocumentsComponentDatasheetTL082PinoutTL082CircuitSchematicforInvertingAmplifierApplication100-kHzQuadratureOscillatorTL082FunctionalBlockDiagramTL082ApplicationsSolarenergy:stringandcentralinverterMotordrives:ACandservodrivecontrolandpowerstagemodulesSinglephaseonlineUPSThreephaseUPSProaudiomixersBatterytestequipmentTL082FeaturesWidecommon-modeRejectionratioof70dBto86dBandwidevoltagesupplyrangeAlowinputbiascurrentLessPowerRequirementInternalfrequencycompensationSupplycurrentis1.4mAwhichisverylowLowoffsetcurrentNorequirementofalatchHighinputimpedanceJFETinputstageShort-circuitprotectionforoutputAlargegainbandwidthof3MHzHighinputimpedanceSlewrateishightypically16V/sOperatingtemperaturerangeisfrom55Cto+125CTL082AdvantageTL082OpAmpTheTL082isahigh-speed,low-cost,wide-bandwidthdualJFETinputoperationalamplifier.Thecomponenthasaninternallytrimmedoffsetvoltage.Ithasafastslewrateandlowsupplycurrent.ThisJFETinputdevicecanbeextendedwithlowoffsetandinputbiascurrents.TheTL082iselectricallycompatiblewiththeLM1558andisusedtoimprovetheoverallperformanceoftheLM1558device.Withhighinputimpedanceandlowtotalharmonicdistortion,thisdevicefeatureslownoiseandoffsetvoltagedrift.Theamplifieriswidelyusedinaudiopreamplifiers,sample-and-holdamplifiersandpeakdetectors,andactivefilters.TL082PackagePDIP(P)SO(PS)SOIC(D)TSSOP(PW)TL082ParametersNumberofchannels(#)2Totalsupplyvoltage(Max)(+5V=5,+/-5V=10)30Totalsupplyvoltage(Min)(+5V=5,+/-5V=10)7Rail-to-railIntoV+GBW(Typ)(MHz)3Slewrate(Typ)(V/us)13Vos(offsetvoltage@25C)(Max)(mV)6Iqperchannel(Typ)(mA)1.4Vnat1kHz(Typ)(nV/rtHz)18RatingCatalogOperatingtemperaturerange(C)-40to85,0to70Offsetdrift(Typ)(uV/C)18FeaturesStandardAmpsInputbiascurrent(Max)(pA)200CMRR(Typ)(dB)86Outputcurrent(Typ)(mA)10ArchitectureFETTL082ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentsfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.TL082DocumentsWhatisanopamp?HowtolayoutaPCBforhigh-performance,low-sidecurrent-sensingdesignsCompensationMethodologyforErrorinSKLow-PassFilter,CausedbyLimitedGBWComponentDatasheetTL082Datasheet

BC337 (Pin configuration of these transistor may different from BC549 therefore it is suggested to always check pin configuration of the transistor you are replacing with BC549)BC549 Transistor Explained / Description:BC549 is a widely used transistor and it is mostly used in variety of general purpose applications in electronic circuits.the emitter base voltage is only 5V due to which it can be used at the output of the microcontrollers.

STM32F042C4T6-48-LQFP-STMicroelectronics

Moreover this transistor can also be used as a switch or controlling variety of loads under 100mA.driving load more than 100mA may burn the transistor or make it weak in performance.with the 100mA collector current it can be used to control variety of loads in the electronic circuit like relays.

STM32F042C4T6-48-LQFP-STMicroelectronics

The noise figure value of the transistor is only 1.2db which is a quite good value to use this transistor in audio related applications.

STM32F042C4T6-48-LQFP-STMicroelectronics

where and how to use this transistor in your electronic circuits.

This transistor is available in different part numbers and all the part numbers have different current gain value like BC549 current gain value is from 110 to 800.IDescriptionThisblogwillintroduce8simpleandeasytounderstandcircuitsthatusingTL431asthemaincomponent.SuchasTL431PrecisionReferenceVoltageCircuits,TL431AdjustableRegulatedPowerSupplyCircuit,etc.HopethisblogcanhelpbeginnerstobetterunderstandTL431ShuntRegualtor.ElectronicsTutorial-TheTL431Part1/3-GettingtoknowthecomponentIDescriptionIITL431PrecisionReferenceVoltageSourceIIITL431AdjustableRegulatedPowerSupplyIVTL431OvervoltageProtectionCircuitVTL431ConstantCurrentSourceCircuitVITL431ComparatorVIITL431VoltageMonitorVIIITL431ControllableShuntCharacteristicsIXTL431SwitchingPowerSupplyComponentDatasheetFAQOrderingQuantityIITL431PrecisionReferenceVoltageSourceTheprecisionreferencevoltagesourcecircuithasgoodtemperaturestabilityandlargeoutputcurrent.Butwhenconnectingcapacitiveloads,weshouldpayattentiontothevalueofCLtoavoidself-excitation.Figure1.TL431Circuit:PrecisionReferenceVoltageSourceIIITL431AdjustableRegulatedPowerSupplyAsshowninthefigure,Vocanbeadjustedbetween2.5~36V.V0=Vref(1+R1/R2)(Vref=2.5v).Sincethewithstandvoltageisrelatedto(Vi-Vo),whenthevoltagedifferenceislarge,thepowerconsumptionofRincreases.Figure2.TL431Circuit:AdjustableRegulatedPowerSupplyIVTL431OvervoltageProtectionCircuitAsshowninthefigure,whenViexceedsacertainvoltage,TL431triggers.Atthistime,thethyristoristurnedonandgeneratesalargeinstantaneouscurrent,whichblowsthefuse,therebyprotectingtherearcircuit.Vprotectionpoint=(1+R1/R2)Vref.Figure3.TL431Circuit:OvervoltageProtectionVTL431ConstantCurrentSourceCircuitAsthepictureshows.TheconstantcurrentvalueisrelatedtoVrefandtheexternalresistance,andthemarginshouldbeconsideredwhenselectingthepowertransistor.Thisconstantcurrentsourcecanbeusedasacurrentlimiterifitisconnectedtoastabilizedcircuit.Figure4.TL431Circuit:ConstantCurrentSourceVITL431ComparatorAsshowninthefigure,itcleverlyusesthecriticalvoltageofVref=2.5v.DuetothesmallinternalresistanceoftheTL431,theinputandoutputwaveformstrackwell.Figure5.TL431Circuit:ComparatorVIITL431VoltageMonitorAsshowninthefigure,usethetransfercharacteristicsofTL431toformapracticalvoltagemonitor.Whenthevoltageisbetweentheupperandlowerlimitvoltages,theLEDpowerandupperandlowerlimitvoltagesare(1+R1/R2)Vrefand(1+R3/R4)Vrefrespectively.Figure6.TL431Circuit:VoltageMonitorVIIITL431ControllableShuntCharacteristicsItcanbeseenfromthefunctionalmodulediagramofTL431thatwhenthevoltageattheREFterminalchangesslightly,theshuntfromthecathodetotheanodewillchangewithin1-100mA.Withthiscontrollableshuntfeature,smallvoltagechangescanbeusedtocontrolrelays,indicatorlights,etc.,andevendirectlydriveaudiocurrentloads.Thepictureshowsasimple400mWmonopoweramplifiercircuitforthisapplication.Figure7.TL431Circuit:ControllableShuntCharacteristicsIXTL431SwitchingPowerSupplyInthepastordinaryswitchingpowersupplydesign,theoutputvoltageisusuallyfedbackdirectlytotheinputterminalaftererroramplification.Thisvoltagecontrolmodecanalsoworkwellinsomeapplications.However,withthedevelopmentoftechnology,mostoftheworldspowersupplymanufacturingindustryhasadoptedaschemewithasimilartopology.Theswitchingpowersupplyofthiskindofstructurehasthefollowingcharacteristics:TheoutputisfedbackbyTL431(controllableshuntreference)andtheerrorisamplified.ThesinkingendofTL431drivesthelight-emittingpartofanoptocoupler.ThefeedbackvoltageobtainedbythephotosensitivepartofthephotocoupleronthemainsideofthepowersupplyisusedtoadjusttheswitchingtimeofacurrentmodePWMcontroller.Thus,astableDCvoltageoutputisobtained.Figure8.TL431Circuit:SwitchingPowerSupplyThepictureaboveisapractical4Wswitchtype5VDCregulatedpowersupplycircuit.ThiscircuitadoptsthiskindoftopologicalstructureandusesTOPSwitchtechnologyatthesametime.Inthepicture:C1,L1,C8andC9constituteanEMIfilter;BR1andC2rectifyandfiltertheinputACvoltage;D1andD2areusedtoeliminatethespikevoltagecausedbytransformerleakageinductance;U1isacurrentmodePWMcontrollerchipwithbuilt-inMOSFET,whichacceptsfeedbackandcontrolstheoperationoftheentirecircuit;D3andC3arethesub-polerectifierfiltercircuit;L2andC4formalow-passfiltertoreducetheoutputripplevoltage;R2andR3areoutputsamplingresistors,andthedividedvoltageoftheoutputiscontrolledbytheREFterminalofTL431tocontroltheshuntofthedevicefromthecathodetotheanode.Thiscurrentdirectlydrivesthelight-emittingpartoftheoptocouplerU2.Thenwhentheoutputvoltagehasatendencytoincrease,theVrefwillincreaseandthecurrentflowingthroughtheTL431willincrease.Therefore,thelight-emittingoftheoptocouplerisstrengthened,andthefeedbackvoltageobtainedbythephotosensitiveterminalisalsogreater.U1willchangetheswitchingtimeoftheMOSFETafterreceivingthisincreasedfeedbackvoltage,andtheoutputvoltagewilldropwiththechange.Infact,theprocessdescribedabovewillreachequilibriuminaveryshorttime.Whenbalanced,Vref=2.5V,andR2=R3,sotheoutputisstable5V.Itshouldbenotedherethattheoutputvoltagecannolongerbechangedbysimplychangingthevalues​​ofthesamplingresistorsR2andR3.Because,theparameterofeachcomponentintheswitchingpowersupplywillhaveagreatinfluenceontheworkingstateofthewholecircuit.Accordingtotheparametersshowninthefigure:Thecircuitcanbewithintheinputrangeof90VAC~264VAC(50/60Hz);Output+5V;Theaccuracyisbetterthan3%;Theoutputpoweris4W;Themaximumoutputcurrentcanreach0.8A;Thetypicalconversionefficiencyis70%.ComponentDatasheetTL431DatasheetFAQWhatistheUseofTL431?TheTL431isaProgrammablePrecisionReferenceandiscommonlyusedinswitchingpowersupplies,whereitprovidesfeedbackindicatingiftheoutputvoltageistoohighortoolow.Byusingaspecialcircuitcalledabandgap,theTL431providesastablevoltagereferenceacrossawidetemperaturerange.WhatisTL431Transistor?TheTL431isaRegulatorDiodewhoseoutputvoltagecanbeprogrammedbychangingthevalueofresistorsconnectedtoit.ItactsalmostlikeaZenerdiodeexceptforthatthevoltageratingofthisICisprogrammable.Itiscommonlyusedtoprovidenegativeorpositivevoltagereferences.HowdoesaShuntRegulatorWork?TheShuntRegulatororShuntVoltageRegulatorisaformofvoltageregulatorwheretheregulatingelementshuntsthecurrenttoground.Theshuntregulatoroperatesbymaintainingaconstantvoltageacrossitsterminalsandittakesupthesurpluscurrenttomaintainthevoltageacrosstheload.

IIntroduction1.1WhatisLM324?LM324isalow-costquad-operationalamplifier.Thelow-frequencysignalgeneratordesignedwithitasthecoredevicehastheadvantagesofsimplecircuit,stablewaveform,economicalandpractical,andeasytouse.Itcanoutputthesinewave,squarewaveandtrianglewavesignalscommonlyusedinexperimentaltesting.Andthefrequencyandamplitudeofthesignalcanbeadjusted.Figure1.LM324Quad-OperationalAmplifiers1.2WhatisWaveGenerator?Thewavegeneratorreferstoaninstrumentthatgenerateselectricaltestsignalswiththerequiredparameters.Thecircuitformcanbecomposedofop-ampsanddiscretecomponents,orasingle-chipintegratedfunctiongenerator.Itiswidelyusedinproductionpracticeandtechnology.Somestandardproductsthatarewidelyusedatpresent,althoughtheyhavecompletefunctionsandhigh-performanceindicators,aremoreexpensiveandhavemanyfunctionsthatarenotavailable.1.3WaveGeneratorUsingLM324Inthisblog,quad-operationalamplifierswithdifferentialinputLM324areusedasthecoredevice,asinewaveisgeneratedbyanRCbridgeoscillationcircuit,thenasquarewaveisgeneratedbyazero-crossingcomparator,andatriangularwaveisgeneratedbyanintegratingcircuit.ThroughProteussoftwaresimulationandsimulationexperiment,theidealwaveformof20Hz~20kHzisobtained,andthefrequencyandamplitudeofthesignalcanbeadjusted.CatalogIIntroduction1.1WhatisLM324?1.2WhatisWaveGenerator?1.3WaveGeneratorUsingLM324IIHowtoGenerateandTransformWaveIIIDesignofUnitCircuit3.1SineWaveGeneratingCircuit3.2SquareWaveGeneratingCircuit3.3TriangleWaveGeneratingCircuitIVCircuitSimulationandTestFAQOrderingQuantityIIHowtoGenerateandTransformWaveTherearemanyschemesforwaveformgenerationandtransformation.Here,thesinewavesquarewavetrianglewaveschemeshowninFigure2isused.Amongthem,thesinewaveisgeneratedbytheRCbridgeoscillationcircuit,whichischaracterizedbystableamplitudeandfrequencyandeasyadjustment,andcangenerateasinesignalwithaverylowfrequency;thenazero-crossingcomparatorisusedtogenerateasquarewave,andthenanRCintegrationcircuitisusedtogenerateatriangularwave.Thissignalhasthesamefrequency.Thiscircuithasasimplestructureandcanproducegoodsineandsquarewavesignals,butitisdifficulttogenerateasynchronizedtriangularwavesignalthroughanintegrationcircuit.Thereasonisthatifthetimeconstantoftheintegrationcircuitdoesnotchange,theamplitudeoftheoutputtrianglewavechangesatthesametimeasthefrequencyofthesquarewavesignalchanges.Tokeepthetrianglewaveoutputamplitudeunchangedandgoodlinearity,theintegrationtimeconstantmustbechangedatthesametime.Figure2.WaveGenerationandTransformationThefrequencyofthesignalisdeterminedbytheRCfrequencyselectionnetworkofthesinusoidaloscillationcircuit.Duetothelargefrequencyrange,thefrequencyselectionnetworkusesthreesetsofcapacitorswithdifferentcapacitiestoformthreefrequencybands,whichareselectedbythebandswitch,andthenthecoaxialpotentiometeradjuststheoscillationfrequency.Threekindsofwaveformscanbeselectedthroughagearswitch,andthenoutputindependentlythroughtheamplitudeadjustmentpotentiometertoachievethepurposeofsignalselectionandamplitudeadjustment.IIIDesignofUnitCircuit3.1SineWaveGeneratingCircuitThesinewavegeneratingcircuitshouldnotonlygeneratethesinesignaloftherequiredoutput,butalsotheinputsignalofthefollowingcircuit.ThispartofthecircuitusesatypicalRCbridgesinewaveoscillationcircuit,asshowninFigure3,itconsistsoftwopartsoftheamplificationlinkandfrequencyselectionnetwork.Theoperationalamplifieristhecoretoformtheamplificationlink.ThenetworkcomposedofresistorR1andcapacitorC1inseries,resistorR2andcapacitorC2inparallelistheRCseries-parallelfrequencyselectionnetwork.Thefrequencyselectionnetworkisalsoapositivefeedbackcircuit,providingzerophaseshiftandforminganin-phaseamplifier.R3andR4aredeepnegativefeedbackstoobtainagoodoutputwaveform.IfR1=R2=R,C1=C2=C,thenthecenterfrequencyofthefrequencyselectionnetworkisf0=1/(2RC).Whenthecircuitworksatthisfrequency,thefeedbackcoefficientisthelargestandis|F|max=1/3.Accordingtotheoscillationconditions,thevoltagegainoftheamplifiercircuitshouldbeatleast3A|(R4+R3)/R4|.Therefore,inordertoensuretheoscillationofthecircuit,R32R4isrequired.Figure3.RCBridgeOscillationCircuitInpracticalapplications,inordertoadjustthefrequencyandthegainoftheamplifier,thecircuitshowninFigure4canbeused.Amongthem:R3~R5anddiodesD1,D2formanegativefeedbacknetworkandamplitudestabilizationlink.AdjustingRV3canchangethefeedbackcoefficientofnegativefeedback,therebyadjustingthevoltagegainoftheamplifiercircuittomeetthereplicationconditionsofoscillation.Figure4.RCOscillationSimulationCircuitInviewofthelargespanofthesignalfrequencyfrom20Hzto20kHz,twogroupsofthreecapacitorseachwithacapacityof10timesdifferentandtwocoaxialpotentiometersareusedforadjustment.Choosedifferentcapacitorsasthecoarseadjustmentoftheoscillationfrequencyf0,andusethecoaxialpotentiometertoachievethefineadjustmentoff0.Theresistancevaluescorrespondingtodifferentcapacitancesandoscillationfrequenciesf0areshowninTable1.Table1.CorrespondencebetweenOscillationFrequencyf0andResistanceCapacitanceItcanbeseenfromTable1thateachcombinationofcapacitanceandresistancecanadjustacertainrangeoffrequencies,andthesethreerangeshaveintersections,sothefrequencycanbecontinuouslyadjusted.Ifyouwanttogeneratea200Hzto2kHzsignal,youcansetthecapacitorto33nF,andthenadjustRV1andRV2tomaketheresistanceinserieswithR1andR2changebetween24kand2.4k.3.2SquareWaveGeneratingCircuitThesquarewavegeneratingcircuitisrelativelysimple.TheinvertinginputoftheoperationalamplifierLM324isgrounded.Thenon-invertinginputisconnectedtotheoutputofthesinewavegeneratingcircuittoformazero-crossingcomparator,asshowninFigure5.Figure5.SquareWaveGeneratingCircuitWhentheinputsinusoidalsignalsinchangesbetweenpositiveandnegativehalfcycles,theoutputisasquarewavesignalsquwithafixedamplitudeandinphasewiththesinewave.3.3TriangleWaveGeneratingCircuitThetriangularwavegeneratingcircuitadoptstheRCintegratingcircuitshowninFigure6,whichiscomposedoftheoperationalamplifierU1:C,C3/C3/C3,R7andRV4.Figure6.TriangleWaveGeneratingCircuitThesquarewavesignalsquisconnectedtotheinvertinginputterminaloftheamplifierthroughR7andRV4,andtheoutputsignalisthetriangularwavetriigeneratedbytheintegraltransformationoftheRCcircuitcomposedofR7,RV4andC3/C3/C3.C3,C3,C3areselectedbythebandswitch(thisswitchshouldbesynchronizedwiththebandswitchoftheselectedfrequencynetwork)tochangetheintegraltimeconstantofthecircuitindifferentfrequencybands.PotentiometerRV4canadjusttheamplitudeoftheoutputsignal.Inordertoobtainatriangularwavewithgoodlinearity,resistorR8isusedfornegativefeedbacklimiting,andwhenselectingthecomponentparameters,thetimeconstantoftheintegratingcircuit=RCshouldbegreaterthanhalftheperiodofthesquarewavesignal(thewidthofthesquarewave).Ifthesignalfrequencyis100Hz,thewidthofthesquarewaveis0.005s.IfC=1F,thenR5k.IVCircuitSimulationandTestDraweachpartofthecircuitshowninFigure4toFigure6inProteus.ThethreepartsofthecircuitareconnectedaccordingtotherelationshipshowninFigure2.Thenconnecttheoutputofeachpartofthecircuittothevirtualoscilloscopeandthenstartthesimulation.YoucanobservesimulationwaveforminFigure7.Inthesimulationprocess,thereareseveralissuesthatneedtobenoted:Accordingtotheoreticalcalculations,thesinewavegenerationcircuitcanstarttovibratewhentheamplifiergainisgreaterthan3,butsometimesthephenomenonofnovibrationoccursintheactualsimulationprocess.Disturbanceisaddedtosolveit,asshowninFigure4,-9Vpowersupply,seetheliteraturefordetails.Tochangethefrequencyband,thethreegroupsofcapacitorsC1/C1/C1,C2/C2/C2,C3/C3/C3mustbechangedatthesametime,otherwisetherewillbenovibrationorThewaveformisdistorted.PotentiometersRV1andRV2shouldbeadjustedtothesameresistance.AdjustRV3tomaketheoutputsinewaveamplitudereachthemaximumundistortedstate.RV4canadjusttheamplitudeoftheoutputtrianglewave.Throughexperimentaltestingofthecircuit,inThreeidealwaveformscanbeobservedontheoscilloscope.Itshouldbenotedthat:switchesSW1,SW2,andSW3shouldusea3-positionswitchwithmorethan3groups.RV1,RV2usecoaxialpotentiometersforadjustment.Theoutputsignalcanbeoutputinparallelatthesametime,oritcanbeoutputseparatelythroughapotentiometer(tomakethesignalamplitudeadjustable)throughaselectionswitch.Inaddition,thepowersupplydoesnotneedtobedisturbedduringactualtesting.Figure7.SimulationWaveformObtainedinProteusFAQWhatislm324?LM324isaQuadop-ampICintegratedwithfourop-ampspoweredbyacommonpowersupply.Thedifferentialinputvoltagerangecanbeequaltothatofpowersupplyvoltage....Generally,op-ampscanperformmathematicaloperations.Whichisthedifferencebetweenlm324andlm339?TheLM324hasacomplementaryoutputwhiletheLM339isopencollector.Inthecomplementaryoutput,currentcanflowineitherdirectionasrequired(eithersourceorsink)whiletheopencollectoroutputcanonlysinkcurrent.Whatisopampusefor?OperationalamplifiersarelineardevicesthathaveallthepropertiesrequiredfornearlyidealDCamplificationandarethereforeusedextensivelyinsignalconditioning,filteringortoperformmathematicaloperationssuchasadd,subtract,integrationanddifferentiation.Howdoesanopampwork?Whatislm324usedfor?LM324ICApplicationsTheapplicationsofICLM324includethefollowing.ByusingthisIC,theconventionalop-ampapplicationscanbeimplementedverysimply.ThisICcanbeusedasoscillators,rectifiers,amplifiers,comparatorsetc.Afterreadingthisblog,doyouhaveabetterunderstandingofLM324?IfyouhaveanythoughtsaboutLM324,pleasedonthesitatetoletusknowinthecommentssection!HowtocheckifTL431isbroken?IfTL431isreallybroken,thenhowtoreplaceit?Thesetwokindsofproblemswillbediscussedinthisblog.HowtoTESTTL431VoltageReference/TL431ATL432KIA431ShuntRegulatorCircuitCatalogIIntroduction1.1WhatisTL431?1.2TL431PinoutIIHowtoMeasureTL431?IIIHowtoTestTL431?IVTL431ReplaceableModelsVConclusionComponentDatasheetFAQIIntroduction1.1WhatisTL431?TL431isa2.5~36VAdjustableShuntRegulator.Withitsexcellentperformanceandlowprice,itcanbewidelyusedinsingle-chipprecisionswitchingpowersuppliesorprecisionlinearregulatedpowersupplies.Inaddition,TL431canalsoformavoltagecomparator,powersupplyvoltagemonitor,delaycircuit,precisionconstantcurrentsource,etc.1.2TL431PinoutThesymbolofTL431isshownintheFigure1.IthasthreepolesA,G,andKrespectively(markedA,K,Ronsomeschematicdiagrams).AandKarethepositiveandnegativeterminalsoftheZenerdiode,andtheGpoleisthesamplingterminal.Figure1.TL431Pinout(1)HowtodetermineAandKpolesAccordingtotheschematicdiagram,theAandKpolescanbejudgedbymeasuringthediodewithamultimeter.Whenmeasuring,settherangetoRX1Kgear.WhentheblackpenisconnectedtotheApoleandtheredpenisconnectedtotheKpole,theresistanceisinaconductingstate(theresistanceofacommonsilicondiode).Inaddition,interchangethetestleads,iftheresistanceisinfinite,thepinconnectedtotheblackpenistheApole,andtheotherpinistheKpole.(2)HowtodetermineGpoleSetthemultimetersrangetoRx10k,connecttheblackpentotheKpole,andtheredpentotheApole.Atthistime,themetershouldhavenoindication.WhentouchingtheblackpenwithonehandandtheGpolewiththeotherhand,thepointershouldswinggreatly.Whenthisconditionismet,thepintouchedbythehandistheGpole.IIHowtoMeasureTL431?(1)MeasurementofforwardandreverseresistanceofzenerdiodeThemultimeterrangeissettoRxlk,theblackpenisconnectedtoApole,andtheredpenisconnectedtoKpole.Atthistime,theforwardresistanceoftheZenerdiodeismeasured.Tomeasurethereverseresistanceelbow,therangeshouldbesettoRxlk.ThedatameasuredwiththeMF47meteris:theforwardresistanceis6xlk,andthereverseresistanceshouldbeinfinite.(2)MeasurementoftheforwardandreverseresistanceofGpoleandAandKpolesThemultimeterrangeissettoRxlk,theblackpenisconnectedtotheGpole,andtheredpenisconnectedtotheApole.Theresistanceshouldbe35xlk.Theresistanceofinterchangeabletestleadsshouldbe10xlkn.ConnecttheblackpentotheGpoleandtheredpentotheKpole.Theresistanceshouldbe11lk.Ifthetestleadsareinterchanged,theresistanceshouldbeinfinite.(3)MeasurementoftheforwardandreverseresistanceofKpoleandA,GpoleThemultimeterrangeissettoRxlk,theblackpenisconnectedtotheKpole,andtheredpenisconnectedtotheGpole.Atthistime,theresistanceisinfinite.Exchangethetestleads,theresistanceshouldbe11lk.ConnecttheblackpentotheKpoleandtheredpentotheApole,andtheresistanceshouldbeinfinite.Ifthetestleadsareinterchanged,theresistanceis8xlk.Figure2.TL431IIIHowtoTestTL431?AsshowninthefigureisthecircuittestedbyTL431.Forthepowersupply,itisa0~20Vmaintenancepowersupply.WeconnectedanammeterbetweentheKpoleandthepowersupply.ThisisdoneinordertoclearlyobservethechangesinthecurrentoftheKpoleasthevoltageoftheGpolechanges.WealsoconnectavoltmeterbetweenKandA.Inthisway,wecanclearlyobservethechangesintheoutputoftheTL431withthepowersupply.Beforethetest,adjustthepotentiometertonearthemiddlevalue.Then,useadigitalmetertomeasuretheKpole-to-groundvoltageandadjustthevoltageoutputofthemaintenancepowersupply.Atthistime,itcanbefoundthatthevoltagebetweentheKpoleandthegroundhasonlytwostates:oneisabout2V(lowlevel);theotherisequaltothepowersupplyvoltage(highlevel).Figure3.TL431CircuitThenhowtojudgewhetherTL431isnormal?Fortheon-lineTL431powersupplyerrorcomparator,theexternalmaintenancepowersupplycanbeusedtodetect.ConnectthemaintenancepowersupplytothesamplingpointoftheTL431,andwhenthevoltageishigherthanthenominalvoltage,theTL431willbeturnedonandtheK-polevoltagewillbelow.Thatistosay,whenthepowersupplyvoltageincreases,theTL431isturnedon,sothatthediodeofthephotocoupleristurnedon,sothatthetransistorisinasaturatedstate,andtheturn-ontimeoftheprimarypowerswitchisfinallyshortened(reducingthedutycycle).Inthisway,theoutputvoltageisreduced.Ifthemaintenancevoltageisreduced,theTL431willbecutoff,theKpolevoltagewillbehigh,andthediodeofthephotocouplerwillbecutoff,whichwillmaketheTriodeinthecut-offstate,andfinallycontroltheincreaseoftheturn-ontimeoftheprimarypowerswitchofthetransformer(increasethedutycycle).Increasetheoutputvoltage.Theclosed-loopvoltagestabilizingcircuitoftheswitchingpowersupplyusestheTL431onorofftwostatestoadjustthedutycycleoftheswitchtocontrolthestabilityoftheoutputvoltage.Whenmeasuringthemultimeter,iftheresistancebetweenthepolesofthelCisnormal,theTL431canbejudgedtobenormal.Whenusingthemaintenancepowersupplypower-ontest,inthecaseofchangingthepowersupplyvoltage,iftheTL431poletothegroundhastwochangesofhighandlowlevels,theTL431canbejudgedtobenormal.Figure4.TL431ShuntRegulatorICIVTL431ReplaceableModelsWhenTL431isdamaged,ifthereisnoreplacementofthesamemodel,itcanbedirectlyreplacedwithKA431,A431,LM431,YL431,S431,etc.TL431suffixlettersindicateproductlevelandoperatingtemperaturerange.Ciscommercialproduct(-10℃~+70℃);Iisanindustrialproduct(-40℃~+85℃);Mismilitaryproduct(-55℃~+125℃).VConclusionInsummary,itistheintroductionofHowtoTestTL431anditsReplacement.TL431hasawiderangeofapplications.Itcanbeusedasaprecisionreferencevoltagesource,andcanalsobeusedtoreplacearegulatortubetoformaparalleladjustableregulatedpowersupply.Itcanalsobeusedasaconstantcurrentsourceandvoltagedetectioncircuit.Inaddition,intheswitchingpowersupply,TL431canalsobeusedasasimpleerroramplifier.ComponentDatasheetTL431DatasheetFAQWhatistheUseofTL431?TheTL431isaProgrammablePrecisionReferenceandiscommonlyusedinswitchingpowersupplies,whereitprovidesfeedbackindicatingiftheoutputvoltageistoohighortoolow.Byusingaspecialcircuitcalledabandgap,theTL431providesastablevoltagereferenceacrossawidetemperaturerange.WhatisTL431Transistor?TheTL431isaRegulatorDiodewhoseoutputvoltagecanbeprogrammedbychangingthevalueofresistorsconnectedtoit.ItactsalmostlikeaZenerdiodeexceptforthatthevoltageratingofthisICisprogrammable.Itiscommonlyusedtoprovidenegativeorpositivevoltagereferences.HowdoesaShuntRegulatorWork?TheShuntRegulatororShuntVoltageRegulatorisaformofvoltageregulatorwheretheregulatingelementshuntsthecurrenttoground.Theshuntregulatoroperatesbymaintainingaconstantvoltageacrossitsterminalsandittakesupthesurpluscurrenttomaintainthevoltageacrosstheload.

WhatisLP2951?TheLP2951isabipolar,low-dropoutvoltageregulator.TheLP2951regulatorisusuallyusedinapplicationsthatrequireapresetoutputvoltage,whichcanbeeasilyconfiguredusingtworesistors.Thisdevicecanprovidelowdropoutregulationinawiderangeofoutputvoltagerangingfrom1.235Vto30V.Therefore,ithasbecomeapopularchoiceformicrocircuitsthatrequiremicropowerregulatorsthatcanprovideupto100mAloadcurrent.ThisblogprovidesyouwithabasicoverviewoftheLP2951voltageregulator,includingitspindescriptions,functionsandspecifications,alternativeproducts,etc.,tohelpyouquicklyunderstandwhatLP2951is.CatalogLP2951PinoutLP2951CircuitLP2951ApplicationsLP2951FeaturesLP2951CAD/CAEsymbolsLP2951FunctionalBlockDiagramLP2951AdvantageLP2951PackageLP2951SpecificationLP2951ManufacturerLP2951DocumentsWheretouseLP2951ComponentDatasheetLP2951PinoutPinNAMEPinNumberTYPEDESCRIPTIONERROR5OActive-lowopen-collectorerroroutput.GoeslowwhenVOUTdropsby6%ofitsnominalvalue.FEEDBACK7IDeterminestheoutputvoltage.ConnecttoVTAP(withOUTPUTtiedtoSENSE)tooutputthefixedvoltagecorrespondingtothepartversion,orconnecttoaresistordividertoadjusttheoutputvoltage.GND4GroundINPUT8ISupplyinputOUTPUT1OVoltageoutput.SENSE2ISensestheoutputvoltage.ConnecttoOUTPUT(withFEEDBACKtiedtoVTAP)tooutputthevoltagecorrespondingtothepartversion.SHUTDOWN3IActive-highinput.Shutsdownthedevice.VTAP6OTietoFEEDBACKtooutputthefixedvoltagecorrespondingtothepartversion.LP2951CircuitLP2951Circuit1:12-Vto5-VConverterLP2951Circuit2LP2951Circuit3LP2951Circuit4:RegulatorwithEarlyWarningandAuxiliaryOutputLP2951ApplicationsApplicationswithHigh-VoltageInputPowerSuppliesLP2951FeaturesWideInputRange:Upto30VRatedOutputCurrentof100mALowDropout:380mV(Typ)at100mALowQuiescentCurrent:75A(Typ)TightLineRegulation:0.03%(Typ)TightLoadRegulation:0.04%(Typ)HighVOAccuracy1.4%at25C2%OverTemperatureCanBeUsedasaRegulatororReferenceStableWithLowESR(12m)CapacitorsCurrent-andThermal-LimitingFeaturesLP2950Only(3-Pin)Fixed-OutputVoltagesof5V,3.3V,and3VLP2951Only(8-PinPackage)Fixed-orAdjustable-OutputVoltages:5V/ADJ,3.3V/ADJ,and3V/ADJLow-VoltageErrorSignalonFallingOutputShutdownCapabilityRemoteSenseCapabilityforOptimalOutputRegulationandAccuracyLP2951CAD/CAEsymbolsPackagePinsDownloadSOIC(D)8ViewoptionsSON(DRG)8ViewoptionsLP2951FunctionalBlockDiagramLP2951AdvantageLP2951voltageregulatorTheLP2950andLP2951devicesarebipolar,low-dropoutvoltageregulatorsthatcanaccommodateawideinputsupply-voltagerangeofupto30V.Theeasy-to-use,3-pinLP2950isavailableinfixed-outputvoltagesof5V,3.3V,and3V.However,the8-pinLP2951deviceisabletooutputeitherafixedoradjustableoutputfromthesamedevice.BytyingtheOUTPUTandSENSEpinstogether,andtheFEEDBACKandVTAPpinstogether,theLP2951deviceoutputsafixed5V,3.3V,or3V(dependingontheversion).Alternatively,byleavingtheSENSEandVTAPpinsopenandconnectingFEEDBACKtoanexternalresistordivider,theoutputcanbesettoanyvaluebetween1.235Vto30V.The8-pinLP2951devicealsooffersadditionalfunctionalitythatmakesitparticularlysuitableforbattery-poweredapplications.Forexample,alogic-compatibleshutdownfeatureallowstheregulatortobeputinstandbymodeforpowersavings.Inaddition,thereisabuilt-insupervisorresetfunctioninwhichtheERRORoutputgoeslowwhenVOUTdropsby6%ofitsnominalvalueforwhateverreasonsduetoadropinVIN,currentlimiting,orthermalshutdown.TheLP2950andLP2951devicesaredesignedtominimizeallerrorcontributionstotheoutputvoltage.Withatightoutputtolerance(0.5%at25C),averylowoutputvoltagetemperaturecoefficient(20ppmtypical),extremelygoodlineandloadregulation(0.3%and0.4%typical),andremotesensingcapability,thepartscanbeusedaseitherlow-powervoltagereferencesor100-mAregulators.LP2951PackagePARTNUMBERPACKAGEBODYSIZE(NOM)LP2951SOIC(8)4.90mmx3.90mmSON(8)3.00mmx3.00mmLP2951SpecificationOutputoptionsAdjustableOutput,FixedOutputIout(Max)(A)0.1Vin(Max)(V)30Vin(Min)(V)2Vout(Max)(V)29Vout(Min)(V)1.2Fixedoutputoptions(V)3,3.3,5Noise(uVrms)160Iq(Typ)(mA)0.075ThermalresistanceJA(C/W)52Loadcapacitance(Min)(F)1RatingCatalogRegulatedoutputs(#)1FeaturesEnable,PowerGoodAccuracy(%)3PSRR@100KHz(dB)57Dropoutvoltage(Vdo)(Typ)(mV)380Operatingtemperaturerange(C)-40to125LP2951ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.LP2951DocumentsUserguideLP2951EVMUsersGuide(Rev.A)ApplicationnoteESR,Stability,andtheLDORegulator(Rev.A)TechnicalarticleLDObasics:capacitorvs.capacitanceWheretouseLP2951BothLP2950andLP2951featurelowquiescentcurrentandlowdropoutvoltage(typical50mVatlightloadand380mVat100mA).Thesedevicesareanexcellentchoiceforuseinbatterypoweredapplicationsuchascordlesstelephones,radiocontrolsystemsandportablecomputers.ComponentDatasheetLP2951DatasheetTheNE555timerICisanintegratedcircuit(chip)usedinavarietyoftimer,delay,pulsegeneration,andoscillatorapplications.ThisblogprovidesyouwithabasicoverviewoftheNE555TimerIC,includingitspindescriptions,functionsandspecifications,alternativeproducts,etc.,tohelpyouquicklyunderstandwhatNE555is.Wewillbegladtofindthatthisblogcanbeusefulforpeoplelovingelectroniccomponents😊Howa555TimerICWorks?CatalogNE555PinoutNE555FeaturesNE555AdvantageNE555CircuitNE555ParametersNE555PackageNE555CAD/CAEsymbolsNE555ManufacturerComponentDatasheetFAQNE555PinoutThepinoutofthe8-pinNE555timerand14-pin556dualtimerareshowninthefollowingtable.Sincethe556isconceptuallytwo555timersthatsharepowerpins,thepinnumbersforeachhalfissplitacrosstwocolumns.Inthefollowingtable,longerpinnamesareused,becausemanufacturersneverstandardizedtheabbreviatedpinnamesacrossalldatasheets.PinNo.PinNamePinDirectionPinDescription1GNDPowerGroundsupply:thispinisthegroundreferencevoltage(zerovolts).2TRIGGERInputTrigger:whenthevoltageatthispinfallsbelow​12ofthevoltageofCONTROL(​13VCC,exceptwhenCONTROLisdrivenbyanexternalsignal),theOUTPUTgoestothehighstateandatimingintervalstarts.Aslongasthispincontinuestobekeptatalowvoltage,theOUTPUTwillremaininthehighstate.3OUTPUTOutputOutput:thispinisapush-pull(P.P.)outputthatisdriventoeitheralowstate(GND)orahighstate(forbipolartimers,VCCminusapproximately1.7volts)(forCMOStimers,VCC).Forbipolartimers,thispincandriveupto200mA,butCMOStimersareabletodriveless(variesbychip).Forbipolartimers,ifthispindrivesanedge-sensitiveinputofadigitallogicchip,a100to1000pFdecouplingcapacitor(betweenthispinandGND)mayneedtobeaddedtopreventdoubletriggering.4RESETInputReset:atimingintervalmayberesetbydrivingthispintoGND,butthetimingdoesnotbeginagainuntilthispinrisesaboveapproximately0.7volts.ThispinoverridesTRIGGER,whichinturnoverridesTHRESHOLD.Ifthispinisnotused,itshouldbeconnectedtoVCCtopreventelectricalnoiseaccidentallycausingareset.5CONTROLInputControl:thispinprovidesaccesstotheinternalvoltagedivider(​23VCCbydefault).Byapplyingavoltagetothispin,thetimingcharacteristicscanbechanged.Inastablemode,thispincanbeusedtofrequency-modulatetheOUTPUTstate.Ifthispinisnotused,itshouldbeconnectedtoa10nFdecouplingcapacitor(betweenthispinandGND)toensureelectricalnoisedoesntaffecttheinternalvoltagedivider.6THRESHOLDInputThreshold:whenthevoltageatthispinisgreaterthanthevoltageatCONTROL(​23VCCexceptwhenCONTROLisdrivenbyanexternalsignal),thentheOUTPUThighstatetimingintervalends,causingtheOUTPUTtogotothelowstate.7DISCHARGEOutputDischarge:Forbipolartimers,thispinisanopen-collector(O.C.)output,CMOStimersareopen-drain(O.D.).Thispincanbeusedtodischargeacapacitorbetweenintervals,inphasewiththeOUTPUT.Inbistablemodeandschmitttriggermode,thispinisunused,whichallowsittobeusedasanalternateoutput.8VCCPowerPositivesupply:Forbipolartimers,thevoltagerangeistypically4.5to16volts,somearespecedforupto18volts,thoughmostwilloperateaslowas3volts.ForCMOStimers,thevoltagerangeistypically2to15volts,somearespecedforupto18volts,andsomearespecedaslowas1volt.Seethesupplyminandmaxcolumnsinthederivativestableinthisarticle.Decouplingcapacitor(s)aregenerallyapplied(betweenthispinandGND)asagoodpractice.NE555FeaturesTimingFromMicrosecondstoHoursAstableorMonostableOperationAdjustableDutyCycleTTL-CompatibleOutputCanSinkorSourceUpto200mAOnProductsComplianttoMIL-PRF-38535,AllParametersAreTestedUnlessOtherwiseNoted.OnAllOtherProducts,ProductionProcessingDoesNotNecessarilyIncludeTestingofAllParameters.NE555AdvantageNE555TimerICThesedevicesareprecisiontimingcircuitscapableofproducingaccuratetimedelaysoroscillation.Inthetime-delayormono-stablemodeofoperation,thetimedintervaliscontrolledbyasingleexternalresistorandcapacitornetwork.Inthea-stablemodeofoperation,thefrequencyanddutycyclecanbecontrolledindependentlywithtwoexternalresistorsandasingleexternalcapacitor.Thethresholdandtriggerlevelsnormallyaretwo-thirdsandone-third,respectively,ofVCC.Theselevelscanbealteredbyuseofthecontrol-voltageterminal.Whenthetriggerinputfallsbelowthetriggerlevel,theflip-flopisset,andtheoutputgoeshigh.Ifthetriggerinputisabovethetriggerlevelandthethresholdinputisabovethethresholdlevel,theflip-flopisresetandtheoutputislow.Thereset(RESET)inputcanoverrideallotherinputsandcanbeusedtoinitiateanewtimingcycle.WhenRESETgoeslow,theflip-flopisreset,andtheoutputgoeslow.Whentheoutputislow,alow-impedancepathisprovidedbetweendischarge(DISCH)andground.Theoutputcircuitiscapableofsinkingorsourcingcurrentupto200mA.Operationisspecifiedforsuppliesof5Vto15V.Witha5-Vsupply,outputlevelsarecompatiblewithTTLinputs.NE555CircuitMissing-PulseDetectorPulse-WidthModulationPulse-PositionModulationSequentialTimerNE555ParametersVCC(Min)(V)4.5VCC(Max)(V)16Iq(Typ)(uA)2000RatingCatalogOperatingtemperaturerange(C)0to70NE555PackagePackagePinsSizePDIP(P)893mm9.81x9.43SOIC(D)819mm3.91x4.9SOIC(D)819mm4.9x3.9SOP(PS)848mm6.2x7.8TSSOP(PW)819mm3x6.4NE555CAD/CAEsymbolsPackagePinsDownloadPDIP(P)8ViewoptionsSO(PS)8ViewoptionsSOIC(D)8ViewoptionsTSSOP(PW)8ViewoptionsNE555ManufacturerTexasInstrumentsInc.(TI)isanAmericantechnologycompanythatdesignsandmanufacturessemiconductorsandvariousintegratedcircuits,whichitsellstoelectronicsdesignersandmanufacturersglobally.ItsheadquartersareinDallas,Texas,UnitedStates.TIisoneofthetoptensemiconductorcompaniesworldwide,basedonsalesvolume.TexasInstrumentssfocusisondevelopinganalogchipsandembeddedprocessors,whichaccountsformorethan80%oftheirrevenue.TIalsoproducesTIdigitallightprocessing(DLP)technologyandeducationtechnologyproductsincludingcalculators,microcontrollersandmulti-coreprocessors.Todate,TIhasmorethan43,000patentsworldwide.ComponentDatasheetNE555DatasheetFAQWhatdoesa555timerdo?The555timerICisaverycheap,popularandusefulprecisiontimingdevicewhichcanactaseitherasimpletimertogeneratesinglepulsesorlongtimedelays,orasarelaxationoscillatorproducingastringofstabilisedwaveformsofvaryingdutycyclesfrom50to100%.HowdoIknowifmyICisne555?HowtoCheckthe555TimerIC?Firstofall,inserttheICinsocket(ifused)verycarefullysothatnopinof555timergetsdamage.Nowtoseetheresult,switchonthepowersupply.Ifyour555timerisworkingproperly,thenboththeLEDs(RedLEDsinmycase)willglowalternately.Areall555timersthesame?Overall,mostbipolar555chipsareeitheridenticalorverycloselyrelatedtoeachother,thoughsomehaveminordesigndifferences.ThereismorevariationsbetweentheCMOS555chips,becauseofthepushtowardsredesignsthatworkatloweroperatingvoltageandlowerstandbycurrent.Howdoyoutriggera555?UsuallythetimerIC555istriggeredbyapplyinganegativegoingpulsetoitstriggerpin2.Thistimeristriggeredthroughapositivepulseinitsresetpin.InthemonostablemodeIC555startstimingcyclewhenanegativepulseisappliedtoitstriggerpin2.Howdoyouusea555chip?Usejumperwiretoconnectpins4and8toeachother(red)andpins2and6toeachother(yellow).Attachthepositiveleadofaspeakertopin3ofthe555andconnectthenegativeleadtoground(pin1).LowvaluesofRAshouldbeavoidedbecausetheypreventthe555timerfromdischargingthecapacitorCnormally.Howdoyouusea555timer?Witha555timer,wecanproduceclocksignalsofvaryingfrequenciesbasedonthevaluesoftheexternalresistorsandcapacitorthatwechoose.Wecanproduceclocksignalsofanyfrequencyneeded.A1Hzclocksignalwillcycleonceeverysecond.A2Hzclocksignalwillcycleevery0.5seconds.

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