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IIntroductionTheLM393isadualvoltagecomparator.thismeansthatitaccepts2inputsforcomparison.TheoutputloadresistanceofLM393comparatorcanbeconnectedtoanypowersupplyvoltagewithintheallowablepowersupplyvoltagerange,andisnotlimitedbythevoltagevalueoftheVccterminal.ThisoutputcanbeusedasasimpleopencircuittogroundSPS(whentheloadresistorisnotused),thesinkcurrentoftheoutputpartislimitedbythevalueofthedriverandthedevicethatcanbeobtained.Whenthelimitcurrent(16mA)isreached,theoutputtransistorwillexitandtheoutputvoltagewillrisequickly.Inthisblog,wewilldiscuss3waystousetheLM393comparatortobuildcircuits,including:InfraredObstacleAvoidanceModule,Ni-CdBatteryCharger,andPWMModulationCircuit.LM393imagesareforreferenceonly.Figure1.LM393ComparatorCatalogIIntroductionIILM393BasedInfraredObstacleAvoidanceModule2.1ModuleDescription2.2DescriptionofModuleParameters2.3ModuleInterfaceDescriptionIIILM393Ni-CdBatteryChargerIVLM393PWMModulationCircuitOrdering&QuantityIILM393BasedInfraredObstacleAvoidanceModuleFigure2.LM393InfraredObstacleAvoidanceModule2.1ModuleDescriptionThesensormodulehasstrongadaptabilitytoambientlight.Ithasapairofinfraredemittingandreceivingtubes.Thetransmittingtubeemitsinfraredraysofafrequency.Whenitencountersanobstacle(reflectingsurface)inthedetectiondirection,itwillbereflectedbackandreceivedbythereceivingtube.Afterthereceivedinfraredlightisprocessedbythecomparatorcircuit,thegreenindicatorlightwilllightup,andthesignaloutputinterfaceoutputsadigitalsignal(alow-levelsignal).Thedetectiondistancecanbeadjustedbythepotentiometerknob.Theeffectivedistancerangeis2-30cm,andtheoperatingvoltageItis3.3V-5V.Thedetectiondistanceofthesensorcanbeadjustedbyapotentiometer,whichhasthecharacteristicsofsmallinterference,easyassemblyandconvenientuse.Itcanbewidelyusedinmanysituationssuchasrobotobstacleavoidance,obstacleavoidancetrolley,pipelinecountingandblackandwhitelinetracking.2.2DescriptionofModuleParametersWhenthemoduledetectsanobstaclesignalinfront,thegreenindicatoronthecircuitboardlightsup,andtheOUTportcontinuouslyoutputsalow-levelsignal.Thedetectiondistanceofthismoduleis2~30cm,andthedetectionangleis35.Inaddition,thedetectiondistancecanbeadjustedbythepotentiometer:Byadjustingthepotentiometerclockwise,thedetectiondistanceincreases;Byadjustingthepotentiometercounterclockwise,thedetectiondistancedecreases;Thesensorisactiveinfraredreflectiondetection,sothereflectivityandshapeofthetargetisthekeytothedetectiondistance.Amongthem,theblackdetectiondistanceissmallandthewhiteislarge;thedistanceofsmallareasissmall,andthedistanceoflargeareasislarge;TheoutputportOUTofthesensormodulecanbedirectlyconnectedtotheIOportofthesingle-chipmicrocomputer,oritcandirectlydrivea5Vrelay;connectionmode:VCC-VCC;GND-GND;OUT-IO;TheLM393comparatorhasthecharacteristicsofstableoperation;3-5VDCpowersupplycanbeusedtopowerthemodule.Whenthepoweristurnedon,theredpowerindicatorlights;has3mmscrewholesforeasyfixingandinstallation;Circuitboardsize:3.2CM*1.4CM;Themodulehasadjustedthethresholdcomparisonvoltagethroughthepotentiometer.Unlessunderspecialcircumstances,pleasedonotadjustthepotentiometeratwill.2.3ModuleInterfaceDescriptionVCCexternal3.3V-5Vvoltage(canbedirectlyconnectedto5vmicrocontrollerand3.3vmicrocontroller);ConnectGNDexternallytoGND;OUTsmallboarddigitaloutputinterface(0and1);Theworkingcurrentiswithin10ma;BarriersensormoduleasshowninFigure3.Figure3.InfraredReflectiveSensorModuleIIILM393Ni-CdBatteryChargerThecost-effectivenickel-cadmiumbatterychargerformedbyLM393comparatorisshowninFigure4,whichhasthefollowingcharacteristics:Figure4.Nickel-CadmiumBatteryChargerConstantcurrentchargingisinterspersedwithlargecurrentdischarge.Theconstantcurrentchargingcurrentisabout300mA,andthedischargecurrentincreasesasthebatteryvoltageincreases.Whenthebatteryisnearlyfull,thedischargecurrentreaches400mA.Chargefor1.5secondsanddischargefor0.5secondsatintervals.Afterthehighcurrentchargingiscompleted,thereisabout5mAtricklecharging.Thebatteryvoltageisdetectedduringdischarge.Becausethevoltageduringchargingisalwayshigherthanthevoltageduringdischarging.Ifthereisanerrorbetweenthedetectionandtheactualworkingstateofthebatteryduringcharging,thedetectioncanmorereflectthecapacityofthebatterywhendischarging.Thenumberofrechargeablebatteriescanbe1to4.For500mAhnickel-cadmiumbatteries,thechargingtimeisabout2hours,whichcanmeetthegeneralneeds.IVLM393PWMModulationCircuitWeknowthatPWMgenerallyrequiresasawtoothwaveandacontrolvoltagetobecomparedwithacomparatortoobtainaPWMpulse.Thecomparator2ofLM393votagecomparatorwillbeusedasaPWMcomparator,whosenon-invertinginputendisthecontrolvoltageinputend,andtheinvertinginputendisthesawtoothwaveinputend.Theoutputterminal(pin7)isusedastheoutputterminaltosendthePWMdimmingsignaltotheIRNpinoftheIRS2540/1viatheisolationdiodeVD.TheLM393circuitofPWMModulationisshowninFigure5below.Figure5.PWMModulationCircuitThegenerationofthesawtoothwaveisrealizedbythecomparator1ofLM393.IfyoudonotlookatthecapacitorC1,thecomparator1isamultivibratorwithasquarewaveoutput.Inordertoobtainthesawtoothwave,acapacitorC1isconnectedinparallelwiththeCOMendoftheoutputendofthecomparator1.ThisisactuallythechargingprocessoftheoutputterminalsR1andC1ofthecomparator1.Ifthecapacitanceofthiscapacitorislargeenough,butbecausethechargingofC1requiresR1,andthedischargeofC1istheoutputtransistorofthecomparator,thentheriseandfallofthevoltageattheoutputofthecomparatorwillbeasymmetric,whichwillformanoscillatingsawtoothwave.Figure6.OscillatingSawtoothWaveDuetotheVBUSapplicationofthepowersupplyofthecircuitinthefigure,itneedstobesteppeddownwithRS,andthevoltageregulationofVD2andthepowersupplybypasscapacitorsC3andC4arerequired.Afterreadingtheblog,haveyoubetterunderstandLM393?IfyouarealsointerestedinhowtoDIYyoursolartrackingcarbyusingLM393,youmaywishtobrowserighthererightnow!Finally,ifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutLM393,pleasedonothesitatetoleaveamessageinthecommentsectionbelow!

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