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DescriptionLED,asthefirstbasicfunctiontobecompletedinMCUlearning,playsaveryimportantroleinMCUlearners,whichalsocalledmagiclampbyMCUlearners.IbelievethateveryoneseesmostandthesimplestLEDcircuitisthefigureshownbelow.Asshowninthefigure,notonlythecircuitissimple,butalsoitsoperationisverysimple.GiveselectricalleveltoI/OcorrespondingtoeightLEDs,andthecorrespondingLEDcanbeonoroff.Figure1.simpleLEDcircuitCatalogDescription74HC595Drives8BitsLEDSFAQOrdering&Quantity74HC595Drives8BitsLEDSButnotallLEDcircuitsaresosimple.Somecircuitswilluse74HC595chiptodrive8LEDsordrivethe8-bitdigitaltubesegmentcode,asshowninthefigurebelow.Figure2.74HC595drives8LEDsWhyisasimplecircuitsocomplicated?Thereasonisobvious.BeforetheeightLEDneedeightI/O,nowonlythreeI/OcandriveeightLED.Letsbrieflyintroduce74CH595anduseitsuccessfullytodriveeightLEDlights.The74HC595isan8-bitserial-inorparallel-outshiftregisterwithastorageregisterand3-stateoutputs.Boththeshiftandstorageregisterhaveseparateclocks.Thedevicefeaturesaserialinput(DS)andaserialoutput(Q7S)toenablecascadingandanasynchronousresetMRinput.SIisitsserialdatainput.Q0toQ7aredataoutput.SCK,istheclockfortheshiftregister.The595isclock-drivenontherisingedge.Thismeansthatinordertoshiftbitsintotheshiftregister,theclockmustbeHIGH.Andbitsaretransferredinontherisingedgeoftheclock.RCK,isaveryimportantpin.WhendrivenHIGH,thecontentsofShiftRegisterarecopiedintotheStorage/LatchRegister;whichultimatelyshowsupattheoutput.Sothelatchpincanbeseenaslikethefinalstepintheprocesstoseeingourresultsattheoutput.SQHisserialdataoutput.Whatwewanttoachievenowistomovethe8-bitsdataofSIinto74HC595onebyoneundertheactionofSCKandRCKandpresenttheminparallelonQ0-Q7.Figure3.How74HC595ShiftRegisterworksWheneverweapplyaclockpulsetoa595,thebitsintheShiftRegistermoveonesteptotheleft.Belowisitscode.FAQWhatis74HC595?74HC595isashiftregisterwhichworksonSerialINParallelOUTprotocol.Itreceivesdataseriallyfromthemicrocontrollerandthensendsoutthisdatathroughparallelpins.Wecanincreaseouroutputpinsby8usingthesinglechip.Whatisa74hc595n?8-bitShiftRegister74HC595NAshiftregisterisachipyoucanusetocontrolmanyoutputs(8here)atthesametimewhileonlyusingafewpins(3here)ofyourArduino.Howdoesashiftregisterwork?Shiftregistersholdthedataintheirmemorywhichismovedorshiftedtotheirrequiredpositionsoneachclockpulse.Eachclockpulseshiftsthecontentsoftheregisteronebitpositiontoeithertheleftortheright.How74HC595ShiftRegiesterworks?The595hastworegisters(whichcanbethoughtofasmemorycontainers),eachwithjust8bitsofdata.ThefirstoneiscalledtheShiftRegister.TheShiftRegisterliesdeepwithintheICcircuits,quietlyacceptinginput.Howdoesan8bitshiftregisterwork?TheSN74HC595Nisasimple8-bitshiftregisterIC.Simplyput,thisshiftregisterisadevicethatallowsadditionalinputsoroutputstobeaddedtoamicrocontrollerbyconvertingdatabetweenparallelandserialformats.YourchosenmicroprocessorisabletocommunicatewiththeTheSN74HC595Nusingserialinformationthengathersoroutputsinformationinaparallel(multi-pin)format.Essentiallyittakes8bitsfromtheserialinputandthenoutputsthemto8pins.Whatisadigitaltube?Lightemittingdiodeconnectstheanodetogetherandthenconnectedtothepowerofpositiveiscalledcommonanodedigitaltube,lightemittingdiodeconnectedtothecathodeandthenconnectedtothepowerofthecathodeiscalledcommoncathodedigitaltube.Whatisthedifferencebetweenshiftregisterandcounter?Inashiftregister,theinputofelementNistheoutputofelementN-1,andallelementsusethesameclock.Inacounter,theinputofelementNistheinverseofitsoutput,andtheclockofelementN+1istheoutputofelementN.

VS-70HF60-VISHAY

Moreoveritcanalsobeusedasanamplifierinvarietyofaudiorelatedapplicationsuchasinaudioamplifiersandaudi

VJ0603Y222KXACW1BC-VISHAY

WiringtheMOSFETsarealmostsameaswewireBJTtransistors.

VJ0402G475MXQCW1BC-VISHAY

Forexamplethecollectorcurrentofthetransistoris600mAthatisquitegoodtouseitasaswitchtodrivemanyloadsat

BUS245

Thistransistorcanperformwellasaswitchandamplifier.

BA479G-TAP-VISHAY

Howeverbysomemanufacturersthesetransistorsareavailableintwodifferentgainclassificationsthatcanbechec

4N35-VISHAY

Themaxloaddrivingvoltageis80Vmeansyoucandrivetheloadthroughthistransistorfromfewvoltsto80V.

293D105X9035B2TE3-VISHAY

PN2222isaconjointNPNbipolarjunctiontransistorwhichisusedforcommonpersistencelesspowerintensifyingors

IC358

Thetransistoriscapableofhighspeedswitchingandcanbeusedinhighvoltageapplicationswhereswitchingspeedis

MAX50

Themaxcollectordissipationofthetransistoris400mWthatisenoughtodriveasmall2to3inch4Ohmsor8Ohmsspeaker

ISO1540

)TIP127TransistorExplained/Description:TIP127isaPNPBJTdarlingtontransistor.

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