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I.IntroductionTDA7294isaveryinnovativeDMOShigh-powerintegratedamplifiercircuitlaunchedbythefamousEuropeanSGS-THOMSONSTMicroelectronicstomainlandChinainthe1990s.Itsweepsawaytheraw,cold,andhardtonesofthepreviouslinearintegratedpoweramplifiersandthickfilmintegration,andiswidelyusedintheHI-FIfield:suchashometheater,activespeakers,etc.Thedesignofthischipfocusesontone,andhastheadvantagesofbipolarsignalprocessingcircuitandpowerMOS.Ithasthecharacteristicsofhighvoltageresistance,lownoise,lowdistortion,andveryaffinityforreplayingsound;andhasasilentstandbyfunction,short-circuitcurrentandoverheatprotectionfunctionstomakeitsperformancemoreperfect.ThisarticlewillintroduceseveralpoweramplifiercircuitdesignsbasedonTDA7294.CatalogI.IntroductionII.OCLCircuitIII.BTLCircuitIV.ConstantCurrentPowerAmplifierV.Hi-FiIntegratedPowerAmplifierVI.ActiveSubwooferAmplifierAddsStandbyFunctionVII.HighFidelityPowerAmplifierVIII.ClassABPowerAmplifierIX.Two-channelPowerAmplifierX.100WPowerAmplifierCircuitOrdering&QuantityII.OCLCircuitTheOCLcircuitdiagramisshowninFigure1.Thiscircuitisadual-channel70WpoweramplifiercomposedoftwoTDA7294.Therearefewexternalcomponentsandsimplecircuit.Whenthepowersupplyvoltageis35V,70Wcontinuousoutputpowercanbeobtainedonan8ohmload.Itisverysuitableforplaybackinanenvironmentbelow30squaremeters.Ifthespeakerimpedanceislessthan8ohms,thepowersupplyvoltageshouldbereducedaccordingly.Figure1OCLCircuitDiagramIII.BTLCircuitTheBTLcircuitisshowninFigure2.ItusestwoTDA7294bridgestoformaBTLpoweramplifiercircuit.Theoutputpowercanreachmorethan150W.Itissuitableforplacesthatrequirehighpowersuchasdancehalls.4TDA7294arerequiredforstereo.Whenthepowersupplyvoltageis25V,acontinuousoutputpowerof150Wcanbeobtainedonan8ohmload.Whenthepowersupplyis35V,acontinuousoutputpowerof180Wcanbeobtainedona16ohmload.WhenuseTDA7294asBTLpoweramplifier,theloadmustnotbelessthan8ohms.Figure2BTLCircuitDiagramIV.ConstantCurrentPowerAmplifierThispoweramplifiercircuitissomewhatdifferentfromtheprevioustwostructures.Itsfeedbackcircuitiscurrentsampling,voltagesummationandnegativefeedback.Thiskindofcircuitstructureistheconstantcurrentpoweramplifierthatpeopleoftensay.Thespecificanalysisofthecircuitwillnotbedetailed,onlythemoreprominentadvantagescomparedwiththetraditionalconstantvoltagepoweramplifierwillbeintroduced.(1)Theoutputcurrentofthepoweramplifierhasnothingtodowiththeloadimpedance.Eveniftheloadisshort-circuited,itwillnotcausetheamplifiertooverheat.(2)Theoutputpowerincreaseswiththeincreaseofloadimpedance.Pushingthespeakerloadwithinacertainpowerreservecanensurethebassstrengthandhighfrequencyresolutionoftheoriginalmusicsignal.(3)Theforceactingonthevoicecoilofthespeakeronlydependsonthecurrent.Theuseoffluid-controlledoscillationtopromotethespeakermustbefasterthanthevoltage-controlledoscillation,sothattheinputandoutputimpedanceofthespeakervibrationsystemcanbeeasilymatched.Theconstantcurrentpoweramplifiercircuitisactuallyacontrolledcurrentsourcecontrolledbytheinputsignalvoltage.Itsinternalfeedbackcircuitiscurrentsampling,voltagesummingnegativefeedback,andithasthecharacteristicsofhighinputandoutputimpedance.Theinputimpedanceishigh,whichisexactlywhatthepreviousstageconstantvoltageamplifiercircuitneeds,whichisbeneficialforthesignalvoltagetobesenttotheinputendofthepoweramplifierwithoutloss.Thehighoutputimpedancecanreducetheshuntoftheinternalresistancetothesignal,whichisconducivetoaddingtheoutputsignalcurrenttotheload.InFigure3,thepowersupplyvoltageisselectedas35V,anditsmagnificationisdeterminedbytheratioofthespeakertoR6.Figure3ConstantcurrentpoweramplifiercircuitdiagramV.Hi-FiIntegratedPowerAmplifierThefamousEuropeanSGS-THOMSONSTMicroelectronicshaslaunchedaHi-Fihigh-powerDMOSintegratedamplifiercircuitTDA7294.ThecircuitisshowninFigure4.Itintegratesthebestdesignofmodernpoweramplifiercircuit,combinestheadvantagesofbipolarsignalprocessingcircuitandpowerMOS,hasthecharacteristicsoflownoiseandlowdistortion;standbyandmutecircuitcompletelyeliminatestheimpactnoisecausedbypoweronandoff,andeliminatesspeakerprotectioncircuitoverheating,short-circuitcurrentprotectionandotherfunctionsmakeitsperformancemoreexcellent.ThisdeviceissuitableforhometheaterandHi-Fiamplifiers.Themainparametersare:VS(powersupplyvoltage)10~40V(maximumvoltagewithoutsignal50V);Io(peakoutputcurrent)10A;Po(RMScontinuousoutputpower)70Wwhenvs=35V8;vs=70Wwhen27V4;(effectivevalueofmusicoutputpower)100WwhenVS=38V8;100WwhenVS=29V4.Figure4Hi-FiIntegratedPowerAmplifierCircuitDiagramTheclosed-loopgainofthecircuitinFigure4is30dB.IncreasingR3canincreasethegain,andviceversa,buttheamplifiergainshouldbe24dB.TheamplifierhasthebestperformancewhenR1=R3.R7,C4andR5+R6,C3determinethestandbyandmutetimeconstants.Thelargerthevalue,thelongerthetime.Whenthecontrolterminalisconnectedtolowpotentialground,itismuteandstandby;whenthecontrolterminalisconnectedtoVS,because(R5+R6)R7,pin⑩risestoahigherpotentialthanpin⑨,andturnstoalowpotentialfirstwhenshuttingdown,whichmakesthestandbyandshutdownprocessesgooninasilentstate,ensuringthattheamplifieristurnedonandoffwithoutnoise.Figure5BTLPoweramplifierfinishedboardForhigh-powerprofessionalapplicationsfiledssuchasdancehalls,youcanchoosetheBTLpoweramplifierfinishedboardshowninFigure5.BothTDA7294areequippedwiththeirownprofessionalradiators.Whenvs=25V8,themaximumcontinuousoutputpowerreaches150W;when35V16,Themaximumcontinuousoutputpowerreaches170W.WeusedTDA7294standardapplicationcircuitandMarantzPM80andYAMAHAA-592tomakealisteningcomparison.Theformerisamid-pricedHi-FimachinewithaClassA,ClassAandBstatusswitch,andthelatterisa439.16dollarsclasswithAc-3inputAVpoweramplifier,audiosourceismusicfaxE60CD,speakerisTannerNo.5.ItturnsoutthatthesoundorientationofTDA7294hasadistinctiveEuropeanstyle,soft,mellow,delicate,andfullofbouncingfeeling.ItissimilartotheMarantzPM-80inClassAandBstatus,butthesoundfieldofPM-80isdeeperwhenworkinginpureClassA.ComparedwithYAMAHAA-592,thedifferenceislarger.ThelowfrequencyofA-592seemstobeslightlyimproved.Itsoundspowerful,butitisharderandthelinesareblurry.TDA7294issweetandnatural,withhigherresolution,reallylikelandscapepaintingdonewithsplashesofinkandfine-brushflowersandbirds(atechniqueofchineseink-painting),eachhasitsinfinitecharm.VI.ActiveSubwooferAmplifierAddsStandbyFunctionThiscircuitisanimprovementontheaudiocircuitusingtheintegratedcircuitTDA7294.ThecircuitdiagramisshowninFigure6.TDA729410pinhasamutefunction.WhentheexternalDCprovideshighlevel,theintegratedblockisintheworkingstate;whenthelowlevelisapplied,theintegratedblockisinthecut-offstate.Atthistime,thecircuitconsumeslittlepowerandIC114pinhasnooutput,thatis,standbyform.Thegeneralcircuitistoprovideahighleveltopin10tomakeitintheconductingstate,infact,thedevelopmentofthispinfunctioncanmeetsomespecialworkrequirements.Thiscircuitisbasedonthistoincreasethestandbyfunctionoftheactivesubwooferpoweramplifier,anditscircuitisreliableandresponsive.Figure6ActivesubwooferamplifieraddsstandbyfunctioncircuitdiagramVII.HighFidelityPowerAmplifierThecircuitisshowninFigure7.ThedrivestageadoptsTDA7294.Theinternaldrivestageandoutputstageofthechipusefieldeffecttubes,whicharepoweredby40V,andtheoutputpowercanreach70W(RL=8;THD=0.005%).Ithasadelicatetoneandanexcellentsenseofhearing.PoweroutputVT1,VT2adoptsShankenhigh-powerpairtube2SA1394,2SC3858.Thecircuitprincipleisasfollows:ThesignalisinputtotheTDA7294non-invertinginputpin③throughC1andR1.R7andR3,C3,C4ofICpin②formanegativefeedbacknetwork,theclosedloopgainofthisamplifierisabout34times.The⑨and⑩pinsarethestandbyandmuteterminalsrespectively.SincetheRCnetworktimeconstantofthe⑩pinislargerthanthatofthe⑨pin,theswitchingmachinesareallperformedundermutesatge,avoidingtheswitchingimpactsound,andC7isabootstrapcapacitor.Figure7High-fidelitypoweramplifierpromotedbyTDA7294Productionpoints:(1)InsulatingmicasheetsshouldbeaddedbetweenthemetalcapandtheheatsinkofTDA7294(themetalcapisconnectedtothepin⑧).(2)Thepowertransformerusesring-shaped300Wdouble20V,four50V/10000Ffiltercapacitors,two50V/100F,andtwo100V/0.1F.Thepowersupplypartshouldbetestedseparately,firstwithoutconnectingthepoweramplifier,measurewhetherthepositiveandnegativeoutputvoltageofthepowersupplyaresymmetrical,theerrorshouldbewithin0.6V.(3)Whentestingthemachine,forsafetyreasons,youshouldfirstusealowervoltagetest(suchas25V)withoutaddingasignal,andmeasuretheDCvoltageoftheoutputterminaltotheground.Normally,itshouldbewithin20mV.(4)R8,R9,R10,D1formthefinalbiascircuit.ThisbiasmakestheoutputtubesVT1andVT2notcutoffduringoperation,sothequiescentcurrentcanbesmall(about5mA).(5)Thepowertubeshouldbestrictlymatched(within3%)andgenuineproductsshouldbeselected.TheoutputresistanceR14isa5Wnon-inductivetype,andtheinductorLisformedbytightlywinding10turnsonR14withadiameterof1.5mmenameledwire.TDA7294uses60mmTimes,85mmTimes,20mm12-slotheatsink,andtheoutputpairtubeneedsaprofessionalheatsink.Thesectionswithhighcurrentontheprintedboardneedtobetin-rolled,whichisextremelybeneficialforthetransparencyandstrengthofthesound.Figure8PoweramplifierPCBpromotedbyTDA7294VIII.ClassABPowerAmplifierTDA7294integratedcircuitcanbeusedasahigh-fidelityaudioclassABpoweramplifier.Itcandrive4ohmor8ohmspeakers,andwhenconnectedtoan8ohmspeaker,itwillprovide50wattsofoutputpowerand0.1%THD.Figure9ClassABpoweramplifiercircuitdiagramYoumustinstallalargeenoughradiatorforTDA7294.Pin10isamuteinput,andpin9providesastandbymode.Muteshouldalwaysoccurwhenselectingstandbymode.TheIChasinternalthermalprotection,whichcausesmutereductionat145C,andtheamplifierentersstandbyat150C.TheTDA7294integratedcircuitheatsinkisinternallyconnectedtothenegativepowerrail.Ifthemoduleisinstalledinagroundedmetalenclosure,thentheICmustbeinsulatedfromtheheatsink.Ifnot,thenegativepowerrailwillbeshortedtoground.IX.Two-channelPowerAmplifierTDA7294high-powerintegratedcircuitICisspeciallydesignedforassemblinghigh-performanceaudioamplifiers.TwoTDA7294piecescanbeusedtomakeapowerfuldual-channelhigh-fidelitypoweramplifier.ThecircuitprincipleisshowninFigure10.TheoverallcircuitiscomposedoftwoTDA7294corecomponents,andtheperipheryincludessomeresistorsandcapacitors.Thecircuitsofthetwochannelsarealmostidenticalindesign.TheyallusethestandardcircuitofficiallyreleasedbyTDA7294,connectedtoanon-invertingamplifiercircuit,withavoltagegainof30.5dB,anoutputpowerofupto70Wperchannel,andadualpowersupplysymmetricalpowersupplyvoltage35V.Amongthem,Cl5andCl6areinputcouplingcapacitors.0.47Fisusedintheoriginalcircuit.Here,ifyouincreaseitto1F,youcanimprovethelow-frequencyresponseofthecircuit.Itisrecommendedtousepolypropylenespecialaudiocapacitors,suchasWIMAsMKT4seriescapacitors,itcangreatlyimprovethesoundresolution.R3andR4areinputresistances,whichdeterminetheinputimpedanceofTDA7294inthein-phaseamplificationstate.Here,22kisrelativelymoderate.Toolargeavaluecanreducetheburdenonthefront-endsignalsource,butitmayaffectthestabilityofTDA7294andmaketheoutputmidpointvoltagedriftincreased,toosmallvaluewillaffecttheresponseabilitytolowfrequency.ThetheoreticalvalueofthefeedbackresistorsR7andR8shouldbeequaltotheinputresistorsR3andR4,whichcanensurethebiascurrentbalanceoftheTDA7294inputdifferentialcircuitandreducesignaldistortion.ThefeedbackgroundresistanceR5,R6cooperateswithR7,R8tosetthecircuitgain.Here,thefeedbackDCblockingcapacitorsCl3andCl4areusedtoformACnegativefeedback,inhibitDCvoltageoutput,andprotectthespeaker.Figure10Two-channelpoweramplifiercircuitdiagramTDA7294hasastartmutefunction,andcooperateswithanexternalcircuittoachieveanon-impactsoundeffectwhenthepoweristurnedonandoff.R9,R1O,R11,Rl2,Cl7,Cl8andVD5,VD6intheschematicdiagramformanexternalmutecontrolcircuit.Delaytheenergizationofpins9and10ofTDA7294toachievethefunctionofsoftstart.Thepowersupplyrectifierfiltercircuitisalsoverysimple.Thefullbridgerectifiercircuitiscomposedof4EuropeanspeedrectifierdiodesVD1-VD4.CapacitorsC1andC2arethemainfiltercapacitors.Large-capacityandhigh-currentaudiofiltercapacitorsarerequired,suchasELNAsFORAUDIOseriesorBHCAerovoxindustrialgradecapacitors.DesignPCBisgenerallyabottleneckinamateurproduction,sothatmanyexcellentschematicdiagramshavenotbeentransformedintofinishedPCBsthatcanbeactuallyassembled.Here,thepopularProtel99sedesignsoftwareisusedtodrawtheprintedcircuitboardagainsttheschematicdiagram10,asshowninFigure11.The2mmthickFR-4board-baseddouble-sidedPCBisused,andthecopperfoilisthickenedto70mm,whichissuitableforhighcurrentpoweramplifiers.ThewholePCBtraceadoptsone-pointgroundingmethod,whicheffectivelyeliminatesgroundwireinterferencenoise.Insomehigh-currenttraces,tinplatingisalsoadoptedtoincreasetheadditionalcurrentcarryingcapacity.Thepowerinputandpoweroutputstructureuseshigh-currentscrewterminalstoensuresufficientover-currentcapabilityanddurabilityofrepeatedwiring.Figure11PrintedcircuitboardX.100WPowerAmplifierCircuitFigure12100WpoweramplifiercircuitdiagramcomposedofTDA7294Figure12isa100WpoweramplifiercomposedofamonolithicaudiopoweramplifierintegratedcircuitTDA7294.TDA7294includespre-opamplifier,finalpoweramplifier,temperatureprotection,shortcircuitprotection,mutecontrolandothercircuits.ThefinalstageadoptsbipolarDMOSpowertransistor,whichhasthecharacteristicsofhighoutputpower,bandwidth,lowdistortion,andgoodversatility.Theintegratedcircuitalsohasperfectanti-overload,anti-shortcircuitandtemperatureprotectioncircuitfunctions.Whenthechiptemperatureistoohigh,itautomaticallycutsofftheaudiosignaltoprotectthechipfromburningThepoweramplifiercircuitcomposedofTDA7294hasthecharacteristicsofsimpleperipheralcircuitandeasyproduction.Thecircuitinputimpedanceis20k,theinputsensitivityis750mV,thevoltagegainis32dB,thepowersupplyvoltagerangeis(25~40)V,andthequiescentcurrentis50mA.Whentheloadimpedanceis8,theoutputpoweris100W;whentheloadimpedanceis4,theoutputpowercanreach180W.Inactualproduction,TDA7294shouldbeequippedwithenoughheatsinks.Thesupportingpowercircuitshouldhavesufficientcapacity.Ifyouneedtoincreasethecircuitvoltagegain,youcanappropriatelychangetheratioofR3toR2,voltagegainA=201g(R3/R2)(dB).However,itisnotadvisabletoone-sidedlypursuethevoltagegainofthisstage.Excessivevoltagegaincaneasilycausecircuitself-excitation.Thesolutionistoincreasethevoltagegainofthepre-stage.

STM32F405RGT6W-64-LQFP-STMicroelectronics

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STP10810-CSTBEJ0100-ST

CD4011isamemberoftheCD40xxCMOSICseries.CD4011isa2inputNANDgateIC.ItisaquadrableNANDgateintegratedcir

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Theaudiosourcecanbeanyfewmiliwattoutputfromanyaudiodevice.

STM32F301K6U7-32-UFQFN Exposed Pad-STMicroelectronics

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STM32F303RET7-64-LQFP-STMicroelectronics

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STM32F103VET6-100-LQFP-STMicroelectronics

S8550TransistorExplained/Description:LikeS8050.

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CD74HC4067

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AA2274

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